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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238222/the-burden-of-selected-cancers-in-the-us-health-behaviors-and-health-care-resource-utilization
#1
Laura Iadeluca, Jack Mardekian, Pratibha Chander, Markay Hopps, Geoffrey T Makinson
Objective: To characterize the disease burden among survivors of those cancers having the highest incidence in the US. Methods: Adult (≥18 years) survivors of the 11 most frequently diagnosed cancers were identified from publically available data sources, including the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results 9 1973-2012, National Health Interview Survey 2013, and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2011. Chi-square tests and one-way analyses of variance were utilized to assess differences between cancer survivors and non-cancer controls in behavioral characteristics, symptoms and functions, preventative screenings, and health care costs...
2017: Cancer Management and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238123/epidemiology-triggers-and-severity-of-childhood-asthma-in-ilesa-nigeria-implications-for-management-and-control
#2
Bankole Peter Kuti, Kehinde Oluyori Omole
Background: Knowledge about childhood asthma in a locality will assist clinicians to adequately manage the condition. This study set out to report the epidemiology, triggers of exacerbation, comorbid conditions, and severity of childhood asthma at a tertiary health facility in Nigeria and the implication of these, in management and symptoms control. Methods: Over a 15-month study period, children (aged <15 years) with physician-diagnosed asthma were consecutively recruited at the pediatric chest clinic of the hospital...
January 2017: Nigerian Medical Journal: Journal of the Nigeria Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229080/association-of-adiposity-with-pulmonary-function-in-older-chinese-guangzhou-biobank-cohort-study
#3
Jing Pan, Lin Xu, Tai Hing Lam, Chao Qiang Jiang, Wei Sen Zhang, Ya Li Jin, Feng Zhu, Tong Zhu, G Neil Thomas, Kar Keung Cheng, Peymane Adab
OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between different adiposity indices and pulmonary function in Chinese adults in the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (GBCS). METHODS: Participants with body mass index (BMI) < 18.5 (underweight) were excluded. Adiposity indices including BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist hip ratio, waist height ratio and body fat percentage were measured. Lung function was assessed by spirometry using a turbine flowmeter. We analyzed percent predicted for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1%), forced vital capacity (FVC %) and restrictive respiratory defect (FEV1/FVC ratio > low limits of normal and FVC % <0...
November 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226712/-risk-stratification-before-thoracic-surgery-perioperative-pulmonary-rehabilitation
#4
Attila Vágvölgyi, Zsolt Rozgonyi, Pál Vadász, János Tamás Varga
INTRODUCTION: Besides the oncology and operative surgical technics, functional aspects influence the operability of lung cancer. Preoperative risk stratification, evaluation of postoperative complications needs to be considered. AIM: To review international literature and experiences of our institute. METHOD: We focused the literature of risk stratification of thoracic surgery. Lung function, lung mechanics, chest kinematics, exercise physiology were considered...
December 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212543/gene-gravity-like-algorithm-for-disease-gene-prediction-based-on-phenotype-specific-network
#5
Limei Lin, Tinghong Yang, Ling Fang, Jian Yang, Fan Yang, Jing Zhao
BACKGROUND: Polygenic diseases are usually caused by the dysfunction of multiple genes. Unravelling such disease genes is crucial to fully understand the genetic landscape of diseases on molecular level. With the advent of 'omic' data era, network-based methods have prominently boosted disease gene discovery. However, how to make better use of different types of data for the prediction of disease genes remains a challenge. RESULTS: In this study, we improved the performance of disease gene prediction by integrating the similarity of disease phenotype, biological function and network topology...
December 6, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212496/pulmonary-function-exhaled-nitric-oxide-and-symptoms-in-asthma-patients-with-obesity-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Marise J Kasteleyn, Tobias N Bonten, Renée de Mutsert, Willemien Thijs, Pieter S Hiemstra, Saskia le Cessie, Frits R Rosendaal, Niels H Chavannes, Christian Taube
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for the development of asthma. In patients with obesity the diagnosis of asthma is often based on symptoms, but without objective measurements. Nevertheless, obesity-associated asthma is recognized as a distinct asthma phenotype. Therefore, this study explores lung function and symptoms in asthma patients with and without obesity. METHODS: The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study is a population-based cohort study with 6671 participants (aged 45-65 years) of whom 472 had asthma...
December 7, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210599/obesity-in-copd-revealed-and-unrevealed-issues
#7
S Zewari, P Vos, F van den Elshout, R Dekhuijzen, Y Heijdra
The interactions between obesity and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are being increasingly explored. In part, this is due to the globally increasing prevalence rates of obesity. The prevalence of obesity in COPD patients is variable, and it seems that obesity is more common in COPD patients compared with subjects who do not have COPD. However, further studies are encouraged in this area due to observed inconsistencies in the current data. In this review, we focus on the knowledge of the effects of obesity on dyspnea, pulmonary function, exercise capacity and exacerbation risk...
December 2017: COPD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178573/macrophages-common-culprit-in-obesity-and-asthma
#8
REVIEW
Nikunj Sharma, Mustafa Akkoyunlu, Ronald L Rabin
Macrophages are essential innate immune cells that also regulate local metabolism. Endogenous or exogenous stimuli may polarize macrophages towards phenotypes that serve distinct innate immunological metabolic functions. IFNγ or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) polarizes macrophages towards the M1, or "classically activated" phenotype that participates in defense against intracellular pathogens. IL-4, IL-13, or chitin polarizes macrophages towards the M2, or "alternatively activated" phenotype, which defends against multicellular nematodes and fungi...
November 27, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177962/air-pollution-and-children-s-health-in-chinese
#9
Wei-Wei Lin, Zan-Xiong Chen, Min-Li Kong, Yan-Qi Xie, Xiao-Wen Zeng
Children can be considered as a high-risk population to environmental stress since some of the organ systems including the immune system and respiratory system are still in development during childhood. During childhood, the impact of environmental pollutants exposure may program child growth and development that have long-term consequences on later health and disease risk. Considering the rapid economic growth in recent decades in China, the impact of ambient air pollution on children health causes concerns...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167745/the-use-of-smartphones-to-influence-lifestyle-changes-in-overweight-and-obese-youth-with-congenital-heart-disease-a-single-arm-study-pilot-and-feasibility-study-protocol-smart-heart-trial
#10
Meghan Rombeek, Stefanie De Jesus, Luis Altamirano-Diaz, Eva Welisch, Harry Prapavessis, Jamie A Seabrook, Kambiz Norozi
Background: Both obesity and congenital heart disease (CHD) are risk factors for the long-term cardiovascular health of children and adolescents. The addition of smart mobile technology to conventional lifestyle counseling for weight management offers great potential to appeal to technologically literate youth and can address a large geographical area with minimal burden to participants. This pilot study seeks to examine the influence of a 1-year lifestyle intervention on nutrition and physical activity-related health outcomes in overweight or obese children and adolescents with CHD...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161088/mechanistic-basis-for-obesity-related-increases-in-ozone-induced-airway-hyperresponsiveness-in-mice
#11
Stephanie A Shore
Obesity is a risk factor for asthma, especially nonallergic asthma. Ozone, a common air pollutant, is a nonallergic asthma trigger. Importantly, ozone-induced decrements in lung function are greater in obese and overweight human subjects than in lean individuals. Obese mice also exhibit exaggerated pulmonary responses to ozone. Ozone causes greater increases in pulmonary resistance, in bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophils, and in airway hyperresponsiveness in obese than in lean mice. Our data indicate that IL-33 plays a role in mediating these events...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161081/diet-obesity-and-asthma
#12
Lisa G Wood
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many developed countries as Western dietary patterns have been widely adopted. These diets are characterized by excess energy intake as well as regular consumption of processed or "fast" foods and limited consumption of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains. The result is a high intake of saturated fat, refined carbohydrates, and sodium; and a low intake of fiber, vitamins, and other phytochemicals. This type of poor-quality diet has been associated with increased risk of chronic inflammatory diseases, including asthma...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127758/-physical-activity-the-holy-grail-of-modern-medicine
#13
Vladimír Tuka, Martina Daňková, Karel Riegel, Martin Matoulek
Movement is the basic attribute of life. It is not surprising that the return to regular physical activity is a very effective and cheap means of preventing and treating most non-cummunicable diseases. Therefore, every physician should be able to prescribe a suitable physical activity. The minimum amount of physical activity with proven effects in primary prevention of chronic diseases is relatively low: 150 minutes of moderate physical activity or 75 minutes of high intensity exercise per week or a combination of the two...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104545/the-adenosine-hypothesis-revisited-modulation-of-coupling-between-myocardial-perfusion-and-arterial-compliance
#14
Geoffrey P Dobson, Aryadi Arsyad, Hayley L Letson
For over four decades the thoracic aortic ring model has become one of the most widely used methods to study vascular reactivity and electromechanical coupling. A question that is rarely asked, however, is what function does a drug-mediated relaxation (or contraction) in this model serve in the intact system? The physiological significance of adenosine relaxation in rings isolated from large elastic conduit arteries from a wide range of species remains largely unknown. We propose that adenosine relaxation increases aortic compliance in acute stress states and facilitates ventricular-arterial (VA) coupling, and thereby links compliance and coronary artery perfusion to myocardial energy metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083949/lipid-mediators-in-the-regulation-of-endothelial-barriers
#15
Pratap Karki, Konstantin G Birukov
Lipid mediators play a critical role in the development and resolution of vascular endothelial barrier dysfunction caused by various pathologic interventions. The accumulation of excess lipids directly impairs endothelial cell (EC) barrier function that is known to contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes as well as chronic inflammation in the vascular endothelium. Certain products of phospholipid oxidation (OxPL) such as fragmented phospholipids generated during oxidative and nitrosative stress show pro-inflammatory potential and cause endothelial barrier dysfunction...
October 2, 2017: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079731/involvement-of-er-stress-pi3k-akt-activation-and-lung-fibroblast-proliferation-in-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis
#16
Han-Shui Hsu, Chen-Chi Liu, Jiun-Han Lin, Tien-Wei Hsu, Jyuan-Wei Hsu, Kelly Su, Shih-Chieh Hung
Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix remodelling, leading to respiratory insufficiency. The mechanisms underlying this progressive and devastating disease remain unclear. Conditions that can impair the function of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) cause accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins, resulting in ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). ER stress has been implicated in many conditions including cancer, diabetes, obesity, and inflammation...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071083/higher-bmi-is-associated-with-higher-expiratory-airflow-normalised-for-lung-volume-fef25-75-fvc-in-copd
#17
Eric Abston, Alejandro Comellas, Robert Michael Reed, Victor Kim, Robert A Wise, Roy Brower, Spyridon Fortis, Reinhard Beichel, Surya Bhatt, Joseph Zabner, John Newell, Eric A Hoffman, Michael Eberlein
INTRODUCTION: The obesity paradox in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), whereby patients with higher body mass index (BMI) fare better, is poorly understood. Higher BMIs are associated with lower lung volumes and greater lung elastic recoil, a key determinant of expiratory airflow. The forced expiratory flow (25-75) (FEF25-75)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio reflects effort-independent expiratory airflow in the context of lung volume and could be modulated by BMI. METHODS: We analysed data from the COPDGene study, an observational study of 10 192 subjects, with at least a 10 pack-year smoking history...
2017: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064265/pregnancy-complications-and-wheezing-and-asthma-in-childhood
#18
Franca Rusconi, Luigi Gagliardi
This review focuses on recent advances in the field of several frequent maternal complications in pregnancy and asthma and wheezing in childhood, for which large birth cohort studies have recently provided clues. Within the framework of epidemiologic studies, we discuss potential mechanisms, mediators and confounders involved in associations, in an attempt to discern causal pathways. Preeclampsia, a pregnancy-specific multiorgan disease that affects 2-4% of women in developed countries, is characterized by placental dysfunction and is associated with preterm delivery, fetal growth restriction and vascular and lung effects in the fetus...
October 24, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967546/overweight-obesity-and-lung-function-in-children-and-adults-a-meta-analysis
#19
Erick Forno, Yueh-Ying Han, James Mullen, Juan C Celedón
BACKGROUND: There is conflicting evidence on the effect of obesity on lung function in adults and children with and without asthma. We aimed to evaluate the relation between overweight or obesity and lung function, and whether such relationship varies by age, sex, or asthma status. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, Cochrane, and EMBASE for all studies (in English) reporting on obesity status (by body mass index) and lung function, from 2005 to 2017. Main outcomes were forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC, forced expiratory flow between 25th and 75th percentile of the forced vital capacity (FEF25-75), total lung capacity (TLC), residual volume (RV), and functional residual capacity (FRC)...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963087/metformin-influences-on-respiratory-system-in-obese-mice-induced-by-postnatal-overnutrition
#20
Maycon Daniel Dias, Melissa Goulart, Cecilia Dalécio, Silvia Enes-Marques, Évila da Silva Lopes Salles, Marina Venâncio, Elisângela Monteiro Pereira, Valdemar Antonio Paffaro, Erika Kristina Incerpi, Roseli Soncini
Many studies have confirmed the merits of metformin to treat type 2 diabetes, but few studies have addressed its effect on the respiratory system. Moreover, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is critical to many lung functions. In this way, we evaluated the metformin impact on the lung in treated obese Swiss mice, induced by postnatal overnutrition. Glucose and insulin were detected and the insulin resistance index (HOMA) was calculated; inflammatory cells and nitrite/nitrate concentration (NOx) was quantified from bronchoalveolar lavage, collagen and lung VEGF-a was analysed in the lung tissue and lung mechanics were evaluated by methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction...
September 28, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
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