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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728934/beyond-body-mass-index-obesity-and-lung-disease
#1
REVIEW
Ubong Peters, Benjamin T Suratt, Jason H T Bates, Anne E Dixon
The worldwide prevalence of obesity has increased rapidly in the last three decades, and this has led to important changes in the pathogenesis and clinical presentation of many common diseases. This review article examines the relationship between obesity and lung disease, highlighting some of the major findings that have advanced our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to this relationship. Changes in pulmonary function related to fat mass are important, but obesity is much more than simply a state of mass loading, and body mass index is only a very indirect measure of metabolic health...
July 17, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724854/improvement-of-pulmonary-function-after-comprehensive-obesity-rehabilitation-program-in-obese-patients
#2
Tamao Takahashi, Satoru Ebihara, Masahiro Kohzuki
Obesity is a major risk factor of cardiovascular, osteoarthritis, metabolic and pulmonary disorders, and exercise is an efficient method for treating obesity. However, obese patients often complain of dyspnea on exertion, which makes it difficult to continue exercise program. Obesity is also known to have an adverse effect on pulmonary function. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a comprehensive obesity rehabilitation (COR) program on pulmonary function in Japanese patients with morbid obesity...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718833/coconut-oil-aggravates-pressure-overload-induced-cardiomyopathy-without-inducing-obesity-systemic-insulin-resistance-or-cardiac-steatosis
#3
Ilayaraja Muthuramu, Ruhul Amin, Andrey Postnov, Mudit Mishra, Frank Jacobs, Olivier Gheysens, Paul P Van Veldhoven, Bart De Geest
Studies evaluating the effects of high-saturated fat diets on cardiac function are most often confounded by diet-induced obesity and by systemic insulin resistance. We evaluated whether coconut oil, containing C12:0 and C14:0 as main fatty acids, aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in C57BL/6 mice. Mortality rate after TAC was higher (p < 0.05) in 0.2% cholesterol 10% coconut oil diet-fed mice than in standard chow-fed mice (hazard ratio 2.32, 95% confidence interval 1...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714791/influence-of-body-composition-on-functional-movement-screen%C3%A2-scores-in-collegiate-football-players
#4
Constantine P Nicolozakes, Daniel K Schneider, Ben Rower, James Borchers, Timothy E Hewett
CONTEXT: The Functional Movement Screen (FMS™) is used to identify movement asymmetries and deficiencies. While obesity has been reported to impede movement, the correlation between body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%), and FMS™ in athletes is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine if there is a relationship between BMI, BF%, and FMS™ scores in a sample of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I football athletes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704544/effect-of-acute-ozone-exposure-on-the-lung-metabolomes-of-obese-and-lean-mice
#5
Joel Andrew Mathews, David Itiro Kasahara, Youngji Cho, Lauren Nicole Bell, Philip Ross Gunst, Edward D Karoly, Stephanie Ann Shore
Pulmonary responses to the air pollutant, ozone, are increased in obesity. Both obesity and ozone cause changes in systemic metabolism. Consequently, we examined the impact of ozone on the lung metabolomes of obese and lean mice. Lean wildtype and obese db/db mice were exposed to acute ozone (2 ppm for 3 h) or air. 24 hours later, the lungs were excised, flushed with PBS to remove blood and analyzed via liquid-chromatography or gas-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry for metabolites. Both obesity and ozone caused changes in the lung metabolome...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690853/significantly-enhanced-lung-metastasis-and-reduced-organ-nk-cell-functions-in-diet-induced-obese-rats
#6
J Spielmann, J Hanke, D Knauf, S Ben-Eliyahu, R Jacobs, G I Stangl, I Bähr, H Kielstein
BACKGROUND: Obesity was identified as a major risk factor for malignant diseases, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Natural killer (NK) cells, a pivotal aspect of innate immunity, are capable of identifying and killing virally infected and tumor cells. Previous studies have shown altered NK cell functions in obesity, and the current study aimed to investigate the relationship between altered NK cell functions and increased cancer risk in obesity. METHODS: To induce obesity male F344-rats received a high-fat diet (34% fat) or a control diet (4% fat)...
2017: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684597/dynamic-hyperinflation-and-exercise-limitations-in-obese-asthmatic-women
#7
Palmira Gabriele Ferreira, Patricia Duarte Freitas, Aline Grandi Silva, Desiderio Cano Porras, Rafael Stelmach, Alberto Cukier, Frederico Leon Arrabal Fernandes, Mílton A Martins, Celso R F Carvalho
Obese individuals and patients with asthma can develop dynamic hyperinflation (DH) during exercise; however, no previous study has investigated DH as a factor associated with reduced exercise capacity in obese asthmatic women. The aim of the present study was to examine the occurrence of DH and exercise limitations in obese asthmatics. Obese grade II (obese group (Ob-G); BMI 35-39.9 kg/m2; n=36) and non-obese (non-obese group (NOb-G); BMI 18.5-29.9 kg/m2; n=18) asthmatic patients performed a cardiopulmonary test to quantify peak VO2 and a submaximal exercise test to assess DH...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624884/age-at-menarche-and-lung-function-a-mendelian-randomization-study
#8
Dipender Gill, Nuala A Sheehan, Matthias Wielscher, Nick Shrine, Andre F S Amaral, John R Thompson, Raquel Granell, Bénédicte Leynaert, Francisco Gómez Real, Ian P Hall, Martin D Tobin, Juha Auvinen, Susan M Ring, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, Louise V Wain, John Henderson, Deborah Jarvis, Cosetta Minelli
A trend towards earlier menarche in women has been associated with childhood factors (e.g. obesity) and hypothesised environmental exposures (e.g. endocrine disruptors present in household products). Observational evidence has shown detrimental effects of early menarche on various health outcomes including adult lung function, but these might represent spurious associations due to confounding. To address this we used Mendelian randomization where genetic variants are used as proxies for age at menarche, since genetic associations are not affected by classical confounding...
June 17, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624607/obese-asthmatics-have-decreased-surfactant-protein-a-levels-mechanisms-and-implications
#9
Njira Lugogo, Dave Francisco, Kenneth J Addison, Akarsh Manne, William Pederson, Jennifer L Ingram, Cynthia L Green, Benjamin T Suratt, James J Lee, Mary E Sunday, Monica Kraft, Julie G Ledford
BACKGROUND: Eosinophils are prominent in some individuals with asthma and are elevated in the submucosa in a subgroup of obese asthmatics. Surfactant protein-A (SP-A) modulates host responses to infectious and environmental insults. OBJECTIVE: To determine if SP-A levels are altered in obese asthma patients compared to a control group and to determine the implications of these alterations in SP-A levels in asthma. METHODS: Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from 23 lean, 12 overweight and 20 obese subjects were examined for SP-A...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574698/ozone-exposure-cardiopulmonary-health-and-obesity-a-substantive-review
#10
Patricia D Koman, Peter Mancuso
From 1999-2014, obesity prevalence increased among adults and youth. Obese individuals may be uniquely susceptible to the proinflammatory effects of ozone because obese humans and animals have been shown to experience a greater decline in lung function than normal-weight subjects. Obesity is independently associated with limitations in lung mechanics with increased ozone dose. However, few epidemiologic studies have examined the interaction between excess weight and ozone exposure among adults. Using PubMed keyword searches and reference lists, we reviewed epidemiologic evidence to identify potential response-modifying factors and determine if obese or overweight adults are at increased risk of ozone-related health effects...
June 15, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571133/influence-of-central-obesity-assessed-by-conicity-index-on-lung-age-in-young-adults
#11
Usha Shenoy, Jagadamba
INTRODUCTION: Central obesity is an emerging public health problem in young adults which compromises lung mechanics. Conicity Index (CI) is a simple anthropometric measure to assess central adiposity. The concept of lung age relates to a person's current lung function at which his/her lung function would be considered abnormal in relation to the present actual age. AIM: To determine the effect of central obesity by CI on lung age in young adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 319 young adults in the age group 18-25 years were recruited for this cross-sectional observational study...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570148/an-official-american-thoracic-society-workshop-report-obesity-and-metabolism-an-emerging-frontier-in-lung-health-and-disease
#12
Benjamin T Suratt, Niki D J Ubags, Deepa Rastogi, Kelan G Tantisira, Benjamin J Marsland, Irina Petrache, Janice B Allen, Jason H T Bates, Fernando Holguin, Meredith C McCormack, Evangelos D Michelakis, Stephen M Black, Manu Jain, Ana L Mora, Viswanathan Natarajan, Yury I Miller, Michael B Fessler, Konstantin G Birukov, Ross S Summer, Stephanie A Shore, Anne E Dixon
The world is in the midst of an unprecedented epidemic of obesity. This epidemic has changed the presentation and etiology of common diseases. For example, steatohepatitis, directly attributable to obesity, is now the most common cause of cirrhosis in the United States. Type 2 diabetes is increasingly being diagnosed in children. Pulmonary researchers and clinicians are just beginning to appreciate the impact of obesity and altered metabolism on common pulmonary diseases. Obesity has recently been identified as a major risk factor for the development of asthma and for acute respiratory distress syndrome...
June 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543872/pai-1-gain-of-function-genotype-factors-increasing-pai-1-levels-and-airway-obstruction-the-gala-ii-cohort
#13
Michael G Sherenian, Seong H Cho, Albert Levin, Jin-Young Min, Sam S Oh, Donglei Hu, Joshua Galanter, Saunak Sen, Scott Huntsman, Celeste Eng, Jose R Rodriguez-Santana, Denise Serebrisky, Pedro C Avila, Ravi Kalhan, Lewis J Smith, Luisa N Borrell, Max A Seibold, L Keoki Williams, Esteban G Burchard, Rajesh Kumar
BACKGROUND: PAI-1 gain of function variants promote airway fibrosis, and are associated with asthma and with worse lung function in subjects with asthma. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine if the association of a gain-of-function polymorphism in Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor -1 (PAI-1) with airway obstruction is modified by asthma status, and whether any genotype effect persists after accounting for common exposures that increase PAI-1 level. METHODS: We studied 2070 Latino children (8-21y) with genotypic and pulmonary function data from the GALA II cohort...
May 24, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530087/-the-association-between-obesity-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd
#14
Shahar Geva, Moria Yaakoby, Or Kalchiem-Dekel, Aya Talmor-Gozlan, Roi Westreich, Nimrod Maimon
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a preventable and treatable disease, with major respiratory and systemic expressions. Obesity is defined as a BMI>30 kg/ m2 and its prevalence has doubled in recent decades. The possible relationship of obesity to COPD, and its influence on respiratory pathophysiology, is considered a mystery. Studies show obesity to be a survival advantage among COPD patients, unlike in the general population, in which obesity correlates to decreased life expectancy...
September 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526439/-over-diagnosis-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-primary-care-prevalence-and-determining-factors
#15
R Golpe, M Díaz-Fernández, N Mengual-Macenlle, P Sanjuán-López, I Martín-Robles, E Cano-Jiménez
INTRODUCTION: COPD under-diagnosis is common in Primary Health Care medicine, due to the low use of spirometry, but there is less information about over-diagnosis of the disease in patients that have a clinical diagnosis of COPD. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of the study was to investigate the prevalence of COPD over-diagnosis in Primary Care medicine. Secondary objectives were to determine the factors associated with an incorrect clinical diagnosis of COPD and to analyse whether the pharmacological treatment is different for patients with correct or incorrect diagnosis...
May 17, 2017: Semergen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497325/the-effect-of-pressure-controlled-inverse-ratio-ventilation-on-lung-protection-in-obese-patients-undergoing-gynecological-laparoscopic-surgery
#16
Lili Xu, Jianjun Shen, Min Yan
SPECIFIC AIM: To examine the effects of pressure-controlled inverse ratio ventilation (PCIRV) and volume-control ventilation (VCV) on arterial oxygenation, pulmonary function, hemodynamics, levels of surfactant protein A (SP-A), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in obese patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopic surgery. METHODS: Sixty patients, body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m(2), scheduled for elective gynecological laparoscopic surgery were enrolled in the study...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489959/mood-disorders-in-adult-asthma-phenotypes
#17
Marina Labor, Slavica Labor, Iva Jurić, Vladimir Fijačko, Sanja Popović Grle, Davor Plavec
OBJECTIVE: Studies show high comorbidity of mood disorders in asthma. As asthma is a highly heterogeneous disease with different phenotypes it can be expected that there is a difference in this association with different asthma phenotypes. The aim of our cross-sectional study was to assess the association of specific asthma phenotypes with anxiety and/or depression and their impact on asthma control. METHODS: A cross-sectional study in 201 consecutive adult outpatients with asthma (≥18 years of age) was conducted...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482650/obesity-and-perioperative-noninvasive-ventilation-in-bariatric-surgery
#18
Michele Carron, Francesco Zarantonello, Giovanna Ieppariello, Carlo Ori
The incidence and prevalence of obesity continues to increase globally. Physicians will therefore provide care for an increasing number of obese patients in their clinical practice. Optimal management of these patients is required to minimize the risk of perioperative complications that increase morbidity and mortality. Obesity affects the respiratory function. It is generally associated with reduced lung volume with increased atelectasis, decreased lung and chest wall compliance, increased airway resistance, and moderate to severe hypoxemia...
June 2017: Minerva Chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482008/the-microcirculation-a-key-player-in-obesity-associated-cardiovascular-disease
#19
Oana Sorop, T Dylan Olver, Jens van de Wouw, Ilkka Heinonen, Richard W van Duin, Dirk J Duncker, Daphne Merkus
It is increasingly recognized that obesity is a risk factor for microvascular disease, i.e. results in structural and functional changes in the microvasculature. This review aims to describe how obesity impacts the microvasculature of visceral adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, heart, brain, kidneys and lungs. These changes involve endothelial dysfunction, which in turn impacts control of vascular tone, contributes to development of microvascular insulin resistance, alters secretion of paracrine factors like nitric oxide and endothelin, but also influences vascular structure and perivascular inflammation...
May 8, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465382/pulmonary-function-and-respiratory-health-of-military-personnel-before-southwest-asia-deployment
#20
Andrew J Skabelund, Frederic A Rawlins, Edward T McCann, Joshua A Lospinoso, Lorraine Burroughs, Roger A Gallup, Michael J Morris
BACKGROUND: Significant concern exists regarding the respiratory health of military personnel deployed to Southwest Asia, given their exposures to numerous environmental hazards. Although the deployed military force is generally assumed to be fit, the pre-deployment respiratory health of these individuals is largely unknown. METHODS: Soldiers deploying to Southwest Asia were recruited from the pre-deployment processing center at Fort Hood, Texas. Participants completed a general and respiratory health questionnaire and performed baseline spirometry...
May 2, 2017: Respiratory Care
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