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Brain, spine, balance

Elena Popugaeva, Ekaterina Pchitskaya, Ilya Bezprozvanny
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the disease of lost memories. Synaptic loss is a major reason for memory defects in AD. Signaling pathways involved in memory loss in AD are under intense investigation. The role of deranged neuronal calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling in synaptic loss in AD is described in this review. Familial AD (FAD) mutations in presenilins are linked directly with synaptic Ca(2+) signaling abnormalities, most likely by affecting endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) leak function of presenilins. Excessive ER Ca(2+) release via type 2 ryanodine receptors (RyanR2) is observed in AD spines due to increase in expression and function of RyanR2...
September 15, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Mar Cuadrado-Tejedor, Carolina Garcia-Barroso, Juan A Sánchez-Arias, Obdulia Rabal, Marta Pérez-González, Sara Mederos, Ana Ugarte, Rafael Franco, Victor Segura, Gertrudis Perea, Julen Oyarzabal, Ana Garcia-Osta
The targeting of two independent but synergistic enzymatic activities, histone deacetylases (HDACs, class I and HDAC6) and phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5), has recently been validated as a potentially novel therapeutic approach for Alzheimerś disease (AD). Here we report the discovery of a new first-in-class small-molecule (CM-414) that acts as a dual inhibitor of PDE5 and HDACs. We have used this compound as a chemical probe to validate this systems therapeutics strategy, where an increase in the activation of cAMP/cGMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) induced by PDE5 inhibition, combined with moderate HDAC class I inhibition, leads to efficient histone acetylation...
August 23, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Kurt A Sailor, Matthew T Valley, Martin T Wiechert, Hermann Riecke, Gerald J Sun, Wayne Adams, James C Dennis, Shirin Sharafi, Guo-Li Ming, Hongjun Song, Pierre-Marie Lledo
In the mammalian brain, the anatomical structure of neural circuits changes little during adulthood. As a result, adult learning and memory are thought to result from specific changes in synaptic strength. A possible exception is the olfactory bulb (OB), where activity guides interneuron turnover throughout adulthood. These adult-born granule cell (GC) interneurons form new GABAergic synapses that have little synaptic strength plasticity. In the face of persistent neuronal and synaptic turnover, how does the OB balance flexibility, as is required for adapting to changing sensory environments, with perceptual stability? Here we show that high dendritic spine turnover is a universal feature of GCs, regardless of their developmental origin and age...
July 20, 2016: Neuron
Giovanni Morelli, Ariel Avila, Stylianos Ravanidis, Najat Aourz, Rachael L Neve, Ilse Smolders, Robert J Harvey, Jean-Michel Rigo, Laurent Nguyen, Bert Brône
The development of the cerebral cortex is a complex process that requires the generation, migration, and differentiation of neurons. Interfering with any of these steps can impair the establishment of connectivity and, hence, function of the adult brain. Neurotransmitter receptors have emerged as critical players to regulate these biological steps during brain maturation. Among them, α2 subunit-containing glycine receptors (GlyRs) regulate cortical neurogenesis and the present work demonstrates the long-term consequences of their genetic disruption on neuronal connectivity in the postnatal cerebral cortex...
February 17, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Han-Ying Wang, Pei-Fen Hsieh, De-Fong Huang, Pey-Shyuan Chin, Chih-Hsuan Chou, Chun-Che Tung, Shin-Yuan Chen, Li-Jen Lee, Susan Shur-Fen Gau, Hsien-Sung Huang
RBFOX3 mutations are linked to epilepsy and cognitive impairments, but the underlying pathophysiology of these disorders is poorly understood. Here we report replication of human symptoms in a mouse model with disrupted Rbfox3. Rbfox3 knockout mice displayed increased seizure susceptibility and decreased anxiety-related behaviors. Focusing on hippocampal phenotypes, we found Rbfox3 knockout mice showed increased expression of plasticity genes Egr4 and Arc, and the synaptic transmission and plasticity were defective in the mutant perforant pathway...
2015: Scientific Reports
Craig S Atwood, Richard L Bowen
This article is part of a Special Issue "SBN 2014". Sex hormones are physiological factors that promote neurogenesis during embryonic and fetal development. During childhood and adulthood these hormones support the maintenance of brain structure and function via neurogenesis and the formation of dendritic spines, axons and synapses required for the capture, processing and retrieval of information (memories). Not surprisingly, changes in these reproductive hormones that occur with menopause and during andropause are strongly correlated with neurodegeneration and cognitive decline...
November 2015: Hormones and Behavior
A F Choudhri, M Castillo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The growing number of subspecialties within neuroradiology compete for pages in neuroradiology journals. We performed a bibliometric analysis of the American Journal of Neuroradiology to identify the virtual Impact Factor of different journal subsections and article topics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Original Research and Review Articles published in American Journal of Neuroradiology during 2010-2012 were evaluated. The journal section for each article was recorded, and the number of citations was evaluated by using the Web of Science database...
October 2015: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Joshua A Jones, Charles B Simone
Radiotherapy can provide safe, cost-effective, efficient palliation of various symptoms of advanced cancer with minimal side effects. Radiotherapy can palliate pain related to bone metastases and growing visceral metastases or primary cancers, neurologic symptoms related to brain and spine metastases, other symptoms including cough and dyspnea from advanced cancers in the lung, bleeding from various internal and external tumors, and obstructive symptoms. Palliative radiotherapy should be offered in the context of a multidisciplinary oncology team including medical oncologists, palliative care clinicians and various surgical and interventional subspecialists...
July 2014: Annals of Palliative Medicine
Andrew James Berg, Cyrus Dokhanian Jensen, Richard Paul Jeavons, Guru Raj Reddy, Tai Freisem
BACKGROUND: Vertebrobasilar stroke associated with the anterior approach to the cervical spine is rare and has not been reported in cervical disc arthroplasty surgery. We report the case of a 60-year-old patient who underwent cervical disc arthroplasty at C4-5, C5-6 and C6-7. Postoperatively, due to symptoms and signs of a cerebellar stroke, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was obtained confirming this diagnosis. Despite thorough investigation no specific identifiable cause for the stroke has been identified...
2015: International Journal of Spine Surgery
Jintana Damkliang, Julie Considine, Bridie Kent, Maryann Street
BACKGROUND: Thai emergency nurses play a vital role in caring for patients with severe TBI, and are an important part of the healthcare team throughout the resuscitation phase. They are also responsible for continuous physiological monitoring, and detecting deterioration associated with increased intracranial pressure and preventing secondary brain injury. However, there is known variation in Thai nurses' knowledge and care practices for patients with severe TBI. In addition, there are no specific evidence-based practice guidelines available for emergency nursing management of patients with severe TBI...
November 2014: Australasian Emergency Nursing Journal: AENJ
Sarah Atwi, Dallan McMahon, Helen Scharfman, Neil J MacLusky
Androgens have profound effects on hippocampal structure and function, including induction of spines and spine synapses on the dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons, as well as alterations in long-term synaptic plasticity (LTP) and hippocampally dependent cognitive behaviors. How these effects occur remains largely unknown. Emerging evidence, however, suggests that one of the key elements in the response mechanism may be modulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the mossy fiber (MF) system. In male rats, orchidectomy increases synaptic transmission and excitability in the MF pathway...
February 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
Jin Suk Seo, Seung Won Park, Young Seok Lee, Chan Chung, Young Baeg Kim
OBJECTIVE: Postoperative delirium is a common complication in the elderly after surgery but few papers have reported after spinal surgery. We analyzed various risk factors for postoperative delirium after spine surgery. METHODS: Between May 2012 and September 2013, 70 patients over 60 years of age were examined. The patients were divided into two groups : Group A with delirium and Group B without delirium. Cognitive function was examined with the Mini-Mental State Examination-Korea (MMSE-K), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) and Global Deterioration Scale (GDS)...
July 2014: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
Zheng Li, Xin Yu, Jianxiong Shen, Jinqian Liang
BACKGROUND: Wilson's disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism, which leads to the accumulation of this metal in liver, brain, cornea and kidney. Little is reported about spinal deformity associated with this syndrome. This study is to present a case of thoracic kyphosis occurring in the setting of Wilson'disease and explore the possible association between the two diseases. CASE PRESENTATION: Case report and literature review. A previously unreported thoracic kyphosis in Wislon's disease is decribed...
2014: BMC Surgery
Luca Collebrusco, Rita Lombardini
A chronic continuous or intermittent gastrointestinal tract dysfunction, the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), appears to be due to dysregulation of brain-gut-microbiota communication. Furthermore, the "microbiota" greatly impacts the bi-directional brain-gut axis communication. This article describes IBS in relation to similar diseases, presents the background to osteopathy, and proposes osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) to manage IBS. In IBS, OMT focuses on the nervous and circulatory systems, spine, viscera, and thoracic and pelvic diaphragms in order to restore homeostatic balance, normalize autonomic activity in the intestine, promote lymphatic flow, and address somatic dysfunction...
September 2014: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
Galina P Demyanenko, Vishwa Mohan, Xuying Zhang, Leann H Brennaman, Katherine E S Dharbal, Tracy S Tran, Paul B Manis, Patricia F Maness
Neuron-glial related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM) is a regulator of axon growth and repellent guidance, and has been implicated in autism spectrum disorders. Here a novel postsynaptic role for NrCAM in Semaphorin3F (Sema3F)-induced dendritic spine remodeling was identified in pyramidal neurons of the primary visual cortex (V1). NrCAM localized to dendritic spines of star pyramidal cells in postnatal V1, where it was coexpressed with Sema3F. NrCAM deletion in mice resulted in elevated spine densities on apical dendrites of star pyramidal cells at both postnatal and adult stages, and electron microscopy revealed increased numbers of asymmetric synapses in layer 4 of V1...
August 20, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Amit Agarwal, Mingyue Zhang, Irina Trembak-Duff, Tilmann Unterbarnscheidt, Konstantin Radyushkin, Payam Dibaj, Daniel Martins de Souza, Susann Boretius, Magdalena M Brzózka, Heinz Steffens, Sebastian Berning, Zenghui Teng, Maike N Gummert, Martesa Tantra, Peter C Guest, Katrin I Willig, Jens Frahm, Stefan W Hell, Sabine Bahn, Moritz J Rossner, Klaus-Armin Nave, Hannelore Ehrenreich, Weiqi Zhang, Markus H Schwab
Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) gene variants are associated with increased genetic risk for schizophrenia. It is unclear whether risk haplotypes cause elevated or decreased expression of NRG1 in the brains of schizophrenia patients, given that both findings have been reported from autopsy studies. To study NRG1 functions in vivo, we generated mouse mutants with reduced and elevated NRG1 levels and analyzed the impact on cortical functions. Loss of NRG1 from cortical projection neurons resulted in increased inhibitory neurotransmission, reduced synaptic plasticity, and hypoactivity...
August 21, 2014: Cell Reports
P De Bartolo, F Florenzano, L Burello, F Gelfo, L Petrosini
The environmental enrichment (EE) paradigm is widely used to study experience-dependent brain plasticity. In spite of a long history of research, the EE influence on neuronal morphology has not yet been described in relation to the different regions of the cerebellum. Thus, aim of the present study was to characterize the EE effects on density and size of dendritic spines of Purkinje cell proximal and distal compartments in cerebellar vermian and hemispherical regions. Male Wistar rats were housed in an enriched or standard environment for 3...
September 2015: Brain Structure & Function
Laura A Kehoe, Camilla Bellone, Mathias De Roo, Aitor Zandueta, Partha Narayan Dey, Isabel Pérez-Otaño, Dominique Muller
Synaptic rearrangements during critical periods of postnatal brain development rely on the correct formation, strengthening, and elimination of synapses and associated dendritic spines to form functional networks. The correct balance of these processes is thought to be regulated by synapse-specific changes in the subunit composition of NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs). Among these, the nonconventional NMDAR subunit GluN3A has been suggested to play a role as a molecular brake in synaptic maturation. We tested here this hypothesis using confocal time-lapse imaging in rat hippocampal organotypic slices and assessed the role of GluN3A-containing NMDARs on spine dynamics...
July 9, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Chang-jun Li, Yun Lu, Mei Zhou, Xian-gang Zong, Cai Li, Xu-lin Xu, Lian-jun Guo, Qing Lu
Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic-nucleotide-gated cation nonselective (HCN) channels are involved in the pathology of nervous system diseases. HCN channels and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors can mutually co-regulate the function of neurons in many brain areas. However, little is known about the co-regulation of HCN channels and GABA receptors in the chronic ischemic rats with possible features of vascular dementia. Protein kinase A (PKA) and TPR containing Rab8b interacting protein (TRIP8b) can modulate GABAB receptors cell surface stability and HCN channel trafficking, respectively, and adaptor-associated kinase 1 (AAK1) inhibits the function of the major TRIP8b-interacting protein adaptor protein 2 (AP2) via phosphorylating the AP2 μ2 subunit...
October 2014: Molecular Neurobiology
Julian Legg, Evan Davies, Annie L Raich, Joseph R Dettori, Ned Sherry
STUDY RATIONALE: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of nonprogressive syndromes of posture and motor impairment associated with lesions of the immature brain. Spastic quadriplegia is the most severe form with a high incidence of scoliosis, back pain, respiratory compromise, pelvic obliquity, and poor sitting balance. Surgical stabilization of the spine is an effective technique for correcting deformity and restoring sitting posture. The decision to operate in this group of patients is challenging...
April 2014: Evidence-based Spine-care Journal
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