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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231043/transient-oxytocin-signaling-primes-the-development-and-function-of-excitatory-hippocampal-neurons
#1
Silvia Ripamonti, Mateusz C Ambrozkiewicz, Francesca Guzzi, Marta Gravati, Gerardo Biella, Ingo Bormuth, Matthieu Hammer, Liam P Tuffy, Albrecht Sigler, Hiroshi Kawabe, Katsuhiko Nishimori, Mauro Toselli, Nils Brose, Marco Parenti, JeongSeop Rhee
Beyond its role in parturition and lactation, oxytocin influences higher brain processes that control social behavior of mammals, and perturbed oxytocin signaling has been linked to the pathogenesis of several psychiatric disorders. However, it is still largely unknown how oxytocin exactly regulates neuronal function. We show that early, transient oxytocin exposure in vitro inhibits the development of hippocampal glutamatergic neurons, leading to reduced dendrite complexity, synapse density, and excitatory transmission, while sparing GABAergic neurons...
February 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097979/-this-diagnosis-can-be-extremely-scary
#2
Tamsin Newton-Snow
Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is a rare genetic disorder that occurs in an estimated one in 35,000 people. The condition is often life-limiting and involves tumours growing on the nervous system, typically on the hearing nerves, brain and spine. While the tumours are mainly benign, they can lead to hearing loss, deafness and problems with balance and mobility. Most patients will need surgery or other treatments for NF2-related brain or spinal cord tumours at some point in their lives.
January 18, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092659/rem-sleep-selectively-prunes-and-maintains-new-synapses-in-development-and-learning
#3
Wei Li, Lei Ma, Guang Yang, Wen-Biao Gan
The functions and underlying mechanisms of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep remain unclear. Here we show that REM sleep prunes newly formed postsynaptic dendritic spines of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in the mouse motor cortex during development and motor learning. This REM sleep-dependent elimination of new spines facilitates subsequent spine formation during development and when a new motor task is learned, indicating a role for REM sleep in pruning to balance the number of new spines formed over time. Moreover, REM sleep also strengthens and maintains newly formed spines, which are critical for neuronal circuit development and behavioral improvement after learning...
January 16, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922130/the-nmda-receptor-glun2c-subunit-controls-cortical-excitatory-inhibitory-balance-neuronal-oscillations-and-cognitive-function
#4
Subhash C Gupta, Aparna Ravikrishnan, Jinxu Liu, Zhihao Mao, Ratnamala Pavuluri, Brandon G Hillman, Pauravi J Gandhi, Dustin J Stairs, Ming Li, Rajesh R Ugale, Daniel T Monaghan, Shashank M Dravid
Despite strong evidence for NMDA receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction as an underlying factor for cognitive disorders, the precise roles of various NMDAR subtypes remains unknown. The GluN2C-containing NMDARs exhibit unique biophysical properties and expression pattern, and lower expression of GluN2C subunit has been reported in postmortem brains from schizophrenia patients. We found that loss of GluN2C subunit leads to a shift in cortical excitatory-inhibitory balance towards greater inhibition. Specifically, pyramidal neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of GluN2C knockout mice have reduced mEPSC frequency and dendritic spine density and a contrasting higher frequency of mIPSCs...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813685/physical-activity-and-intermittent-postconcussion-symptoms-after-a-period-of-symptom-limited-physical-and-cognitive-rest
#5
REVIEW
Quinton Sawyer, Brian Vesci, Tamara C Valovich McLeod
: Reference: Schneider KJ, Iverson GL, Emery CA, McCrory P, Herring SA, Meeuwisse WH. The effects of rest and treatment following sport-related concussion: a systematic review of the literature. Br J Sports Med. 2013;47(5):304-307. CLINICAL QUESTION: After concussion and a period of symptom-limited physical and cognitive rest, do athletes who experience intermittent symptoms return to asymptomatic condition more quickly with physical activity than with prolonged physical rest? DATA SOURCES: One investigator performed an individual search for each research question using the following databases: CINAHL, Cochrane Controlled Trials Registers, EMBASE, HealthSTAR, ProQuest, PsychInfo, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science...
September 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807169/p39-is-responsible-for-increasing-cdk5-activity-during-postnatal-neuron-differentiation-and-governs-neuronal-network-formation-and-epileptic-responses
#6
Wenqi Li, Megan E Allen, Yanfang Rui, Li Ku, Guanglu Liu, Andrew N Bankston, James Q Zheng, Yue Feng
: Two distinct protein cofactors, p35 and p39, independently activate Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), which plays diverse roles in normal brain function and the pathogenesis of many neurological diseases. The initial discovery that loss of p35 impairs neuronal migration in the embryonic brain prompted intensive research exploring the function of p35-dependent Cdk5 activity. In contrast, p39 expression is restricted to the postnatal brain and its function remains poorly understood. Despite the robustly increased Cdk5 activity during neuronal differentiation, which activator is responsible for enhancing Cdk5 activation and how the two distinct activators direct Cdk5 signaling to govern neuronal network formation and function still remains elusive...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641664/dysregulation-of-neuronal-calcium-homeostasis-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-therapeutic-opportunity
#7
REVIEW
Elena Popugaeva, Ekaterina Pchitskaya, Ilya Bezprozvanny
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the disease of lost memories. Synaptic loss is a major reason for memory defects in AD. Signaling pathways involved in memory loss in AD are under intense investigation. The role of deranged neuronal calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling in synaptic loss in AD is described in this review. Familial AD (FAD) mutations in presenilins are linked directly with synaptic Ca(2+) signaling abnormalities, most likely by affecting endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) leak function of presenilins. Excessive ER Ca(2+) release via type 2 ryanodine receptors (RyanR2) is observed in AD spines due to increase in expression and function of RyanR2...
February 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550730/a-first-in-class-small-molecule-that-acts-as-a-dual-inhibitor-of-hdac-and-pde5-and-that-rescues-hippocampal-synaptic-impairment-in-alzheimer-s-disease-mice
#8
Mar Cuadrado-Tejedor, Carolina Garcia-Barroso, Juan A Sánchez-Arias, Obdulia Rabal, Marta Pérez-González, Sara Mederos, Ana Ugarte, Rafael Franco, Victor Segura, Gertrudis Perea, Julen Oyarzabal, Ana Garcia-Osta
The targeting of two independent but synergistic enzymatic activities, histone deacetylases (HDACs, class I and HDAC6) and phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5), has recently been validated as a potentially novel therapeutic approach for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we report the discovery of a new first-in-class small-molecule (CM-414) that acts as a dual inhibitor of PDE5 and HDACs. We have used this compound as a chemical probe to validate this systems therapeutics strategy, where an increase in the activation of cAMP/cGMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) induced by PDE5 inhibition, combined with moderate HDAC class I inhibition, leads to efficient histone acetylation...
January 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27373833/persistent-structural-plasticity-optimizes-sensory-information-processing-in-the-olfactory-bulb
#9
Kurt A Sailor, Matthew T Valley, Martin T Wiechert, Hermann Riecke, Gerald J Sun, Wayne Adams, James C Dennis, Shirin Sharafi, Guo-Li Ming, Hongjun Song, Pierre-Marie Lledo
In the mammalian brain, the anatomical structure of neural circuits changes little during adulthood. As a result, adult learning and memory are thought to result from specific changes in synaptic strength. A possible exception is the olfactory bulb (OB), where activity guides interneuron turnover throughout adulthood. These adult-born granule cell (GC) interneurons form new GABAergic synapses that have little synaptic strength plasticity. In the face of persistent neuronal and synaptic turnover, how does the OB balance flexibility, as is required for adapting to changing sensory environments, with perceptual stability? Here we show that high dendritic spine turnover is a universal feature of GCs, regardless of their developmental origin and age...
July 20, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26891984/cerebral-cortical-circuitry-formation-requires-functional-glycine-receptors
#10
Giovanni Morelli, Ariel Avila, Stylianos Ravanidis, Najat Aourz, Rachael L Neve, Ilse Smolders, Robert J Harvey, Jean-Michel Rigo, Laurent Nguyen, Bert Brône
The development of the cerebral cortex is a complex process that requires the generation, migration, and differentiation of neurons. Interfering with any of these steps can impair the establishment of connectivity and, hence, function of the adult brain. Neurotransmitter receptors have emerged as critical players to regulate these biological steps during brain maturation. Among them, α2 subunit-containing glycine receptors (GlyRs) regulate cortical neurogenesis and the present work demonstrates the long-term consequences of their genetic disruption on neuronal connectivity in the postnatal cerebral cortex...
February 17, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26619789/rbfox3-neun-is-required-for-hippocampal-circuit-balance-and-function
#11
Han-Ying Wang, Pei-Fen Hsieh, De-Fong Huang, Pey-Shyuan Chin, Chih-Hsuan Chou, Chun-Che Tung, Shin-Yuan Chen, Li-Jen Lee, Susan Shur-Fen Gau, Hsien-Sung Huang
RBFOX3 mutations are linked to epilepsy and cognitive impairments, but the underlying pathophysiology of these disorders is poorly understood. Here we report replication of human symptoms in a mouse model with disrupted Rbfox3. Rbfox3 knockout mice displayed increased seizure susceptibility and decreased anxiety-related behaviors. Focusing on hippocampal phenotypes, we found Rbfox3 knockout mice showed increased expression of plasticity genes Egr4 and Arc, and the synaptic transmission and plasticity were defective in the mutant perforant pathway...
2015: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26188949/the-endocrine-dyscrasia-that-accompanies-menopause-and-andropause-induces-aberrant-cell-cycle-signaling-that-triggers-re-entry-of-post-mitotic-neurons-into-the-cell-cycle-neurodysfunction-neurodegeneration-and-cognitive-disease
#12
REVIEW
Craig S Atwood, Richard L Bowen
This article is part of a Special Issue "SBN 2014". Sex hormones are physiological factors that promote neurogenesis during embryonic and fetal development. During childhood and adulthood these hormones support the maintenance of brain structure and function via neurogenesis and the formation of dendritic spines, axons and synapses required for the capture, processing and retrieval of information (memories). Not surprisingly, changes in these reproductive hormones that occur with menopause and during andropause are strongly correlated with neurodegeneration and cognitive decline...
November 2015: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26159517/subspecialty-virtual-impact-factors-within-a-dedicated-neuroimaging-journal
#13
EDITORIAL
A F Choudhri, M Castillo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The growing number of subspecialties within neuroradiology compete for pages in neuroradiology journals. We performed a bibliometric analysis of the American Journal of Neuroradiology to identify the virtual Impact Factor of different journal subsections and article topics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Original Research and Review Articles published in American Journal of Neuroradiology during 2010-2012 were evaluated. The journal section for each article was recorded, and the number of citations was evaluated by using the Web of Science database...
October 2015: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25841695/palliative-radiotherapy-for-advanced-malignancies-in-a-changing-oncologic-landscape-guiding-principles-and-practice-implementation
#14
Joshua A Jones, Charles B Simone
Radiotherapy can provide safe, cost-effective, efficient palliation of various symptoms of advanced cancer with minimal side effects. Radiotherapy can palliate pain related to bone metastases and growing visceral metastases or primary cancers, neurologic symptoms related to brain and spine metastases, other symptoms including cough and dyspnea from advanced cancers in the lung, bleeding from various internal and external tumors, and obstructive symptoms. Palliative radiotherapy should be offered in the context of a multidisciplinary oncology team including medical oncologists, palliative care clinicians and various surgical and interventional subspecialists...
July 2014: Annals of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25713773/unexplained-perioperative-vertebrobasilar-stroke-in-a-patient-undergoing-anterior-cervical-decompression-and-disc-arthroplasty
#15
Andrew James Berg, Cyrus Dokhanian Jensen, Richard Paul Jeavons, Guru Raj Reddy, Tai Freisem
BACKGROUND: Vertebrobasilar stroke associated with the anterior approach to the cervical spine is rare and has not been reported in cervical disc arthroplasty surgery. We report the case of a 60-year-old patient who underwent cervical disc arthroplasty at C4-5, C5-6 and C6-7. Postoperatively, due to symptoms and signs of a cerebellar stroke, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was obtained confirming this diagnosis. Despite thorough investigation no specific identifiable cause for the stroke has been identified...
2015: International Journal of Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25443429/initial-emergency-nursing-management-of-patients-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-development-of-an-evidence-based-care-bundle-for-the-thai-emergency-department-context
#16
Jintana Damkliang, Julie Considine, Bridie Kent, Maryann Street
BACKGROUND: Thai emergency nurses play a vital role in caring for patients with severe TBI, and are an important part of the healthcare team throughout the resuscitation phase. They are also responsible for continuous physiological monitoring, and detecting deterioration associated with increased intracranial pressure and preventing secondary brain injury. However, there is known variation in Thai nurses' knowledge and care practices for patients with severe TBI. In addition, there are no specific evidence-based practice guidelines available for emergency nursing management of patients with severe TBI...
November 2014: Australasian Emergency Nursing Journal: AENJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25416742/androgen-modulation-of-hippocampal-structure-and-function
#17
REVIEW
Sarah Atwi, Dallan McMahon, Helen Scharfman, Neil J MacLusky
Androgens have profound effects on hippocampal structure and function, including induction of spines and spine synapses on the dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons, as well as alterations in long-term synaptic plasticity (LTP) and hippocampally dependent cognitive behaviors. How these effects occur remains largely unknown. Emerging evidence, however, suggests that one of the key elements in the response mechanism may be modulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the mossy fiber (MF) system. In male rats, orchidectomy increases synaptic transmission and excitability in the MF pathway...
February 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25289122/risk-factors-for-delirium-after-spine-surgery-in-elderly-patients
#18
Jin Suk Seo, Seung Won Park, Young Seok Lee, Chan Chung, Young Baeg Kim
OBJECTIVE: Postoperative delirium is a common complication in the elderly after surgery but few papers have reported after spinal surgery. We analyzed various risk factors for postoperative delirium after spine surgery. METHODS: Between May 2012 and September 2013, 70 patients over 60 years of age were examined. The patients were divided into two groups : Group A with delirium and Group B without delirium. Cognitive function was examined with the Mini-Mental State Examination-Korea (MMSE-K), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) and Global Deterioration Scale (GDS)...
July 2014: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25252715/congential-scoliosis-in-wilson-s-disease-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
REVIEW
Zheng Li, Xin Yu, Jianxiong Shen, Jinqian Liang
BACKGROUND: Wilson's disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism, which leads to the accumulation of this metal in liver, brain, cornea and kidney. Little is reported about spinal deformity associated with this syndrome. This study is to present a case of thoracic kyphosis occurring in the setting of Wilson'disease and explore the possible association between the two diseases. CASE PRESENTATION: Case report and literature review. A previously unreported thoracic kyphosis in Wislon's disease is decribed...
2014: BMC Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25224307/what-about-omt-and-nutrition-for-managing-the-irritable-bowel-syndrome-an-overview-and-treatment-plan
#20
Luca Collebrusco, Rita Lombardini
A chronic continuous or intermittent gastrointestinal tract dysfunction, the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), appears to be due to dysregulation of brain-gut-microbiota communication. Furthermore, the "microbiota" greatly impacts the bi-directional brain-gut axis communication. This article describes IBS in relation to similar diseases, presents the background to osteopathy, and proposes osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) to manage IBS. In IBS, OMT focuses on the nervous and circulatory systems, spine, viscera, and thoracic and pelvic diaphragms in order to restore homeostatic balance, normalize autonomic activity in the intestine, promote lymphatic flow, and address somatic dysfunction...
September 2014: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
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