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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318285/reading-through-the-life-span-individual-differences-in-psycholinguistic-effects
#1
Rob A I Davies, Ruth Arnell, Julia M H Birchenough, Debbie Grimmond, Sam Houlson
The effects of psycholinguistic variables are critical to the evaluation of theories about the cognitive reading system. However, reading research has tended to focus on the impact of key variables on average performance. We report the first investigation examining variation in psycholinguistic effects across the life span, from childhood into old age. We analyzed the performance of a sample of 535 readers, aged 8-83 years in lexical decision and pronunciation tasks. Our findings show that the effects on reading of two key variables, frequency and AoA, decrease in size with increasing age over the life span...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316893/contrasting-determinants-for-the-introduction-and-establishment-success-of-exotic-birds-in-taiwan-using-decision-trees-models
#2
Shih-Hsiung Liang, Bruno Andreas Walther, Bao-Sen Shieh
BACKGROUND: Biological invasions have become a major threat to biodiversity, and identifying determinants underlying success at different stages of the invasion process is essential for both prevention management and testing ecological theories. To investigate variables associated with different stages of the invasion process in a local region such as Taiwan, potential problems using traditional parametric analyses include too many variables of different data types (nominal, ordinal, and interval) and a relatively small data set with too many missing values...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315113/-i-d-been-like-freaking-out-the-whole-night-exploring-emotion-regulation-based-on-junior-doctors-narratives
#3
Robert M Lundin, Kiran Bashir, Alison Bullock, Camille E Kostov, Karen L Mattick, Charlotte E Rees, Lynn V Monrouxe
The importance of emotions within medical practice is well documented. Research suggests that how clinicians deal with negative emotions can affect clinical decision-making, health service delivery, clinician well-being, attentiveness to patient care and patient satisfaction. Previous research has identified the transition from student to junior doctor (intern) as a particularly challenging time. While many studies have highlighted the presence of emotions during this transition, how junior doctors manage emotions has rarely been considered...
March 17, 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314131/indicators-role-how-do-they-influence-strategic-environmental-assessment-and-sustainable-planning-the-chinese-experience
#4
Jingjing Gao, Per Christensen, Lone Kørnøv
As an information carrier and communication medium, indicators provide useful decision-making assistance in setting process goals and effectively reaching the goals. The main focus of this article is to investigate indicators' role in influencing planning through Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) especially related to Chinese experiences. From the perspective of planning and decision-making theory, the influence on planning is studied as influence of planning structure and influence of planning actors...
March 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303095/an-explanation-for-the-role-of-the-amygdala-in-aesthetic-judgments
#5
Richard H A H Jacobs, Frans W Cornelissen
It has been proposed that the top-down guidance of feature-based attention is the basis for the involvement of the amygdala in various tasks requiring emotional decision-making (Jacobs et al., 2012a). Aesthetic judgments are correlated with particular visual features and can be considered emotional in nature (Jacobs et al., 2016). Moreover, we have previously shown that various aesthetic judgments result in observers preferentially attending to different visual features (Jacobs et al., 2010). Here, we argue that-together-this explains why the amygdalae become active during aesthetic judgments of visual materials...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301510/investigation-on-law-and-economics-of-listed-companies-financing-preference-based-on-complex-network-theory
#6
Jian Yang, Shuying Bai, Zhao Qu, Hui Chang
In this paper, complex network theory is used to make time-series analysis of key indicators of governance structure and financing data. We analyze scientific listed companies' governance data from 2010 to 2014 and divide them into groups in accordance with the similarity they share. Then we select sample companies to analyze their financing data and explore the influence of governance structure on financing decision and the financing preference they display. This paper reviews relevant laws and regulations of financing from the perspective of law and economics, then proposes reasonable suggestions to consummate the law for the purpose of regulating listed companies' financing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301191/assessing-future-care-preparation-in-late-life-two-short-measures
#7
Silvia Sörensen, Benjamin P Chapman, Paul R Duberstein, Martin Pinquart, Jeffrey M Lyness
The purpose of this article is to introduce 2 short forms of the previously published measure of preparation for future care (PFC). Community-dwelling older adults ages 65-94 who had completed the 29-item Preparation for Future Care Needs scale were randomly divided into scale development (n = 697) and scale validation (n = 690) samples. Fifteen items were selected using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on the scale development and scale validation samples, respectively. Consistent with PFC theory, the 5 subscales of the original long-form measure (Awareness, Gathering Information, Decision Making, Concrete Planning, Avoidance of Care Planning) were maintained...
March 16, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296626/multiple-levels-of-social-influence-on-adolescent-sexual-and-reproductive-health-decision-making-and-behaviors-in-ghana
#8
Sneha Challa, Abubakar Manu, Emmanuel Morhe, Vanessa K Dalton, Dana Loll, Jessica Dozier, Melissa K Zochowski, Andrew Boakye, Richard Adanu, Kelli Stidham Hall
Little is known about the multi-level social determinants of adolescent sexual and reproductive health (SRH) that shape the use of family planning (FP) among young women in Africa. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured, qualitative interviews with 63 women aged 15-24 years in Accra and Kumasi, Ghana. We used purposive, stratified sampling to recruit women from community-based sites. Interviews were conducted in English or local languages, recorded, and transcribed verbatim. Grounded theory-guided thematic analysis identified salient themes...
March 15, 2017: Women & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295187/working-memory-moderates-the-effect-of-the-integrative-process-of-implicit-and-explicit-autonomous-motivation-on-academic-achievement
#9
Alexandre Gareau, Patrick Gaudreau
In previous research, autonomous motivation (AM) has been found to be associated with school achievement, but the relation has been largely heterogeneous across studies. AM has typically been assessed with explicit measures such as self-report questionnaires. Recent self-determination theory (SDT) research has suggested that converging implicit and explicit measures can be taken to characterize the integrative process in SDT. Drawing from dual-process theories, we contended that explicit AM is likely to promote school achievement when it is part of an integrated cognitive system that combines easily accessible mental representations (i...
March 10, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294712/frequency-and-chunking-in-derived-words-a-parametric-fmri-study
#10
Alice Blumenthal-Dramé, Volkmar Glauche, Tobias Bormann, Cornelius Weiller, Mariacristina Musso, Bernd Kortmann
In usage-based linguistic theories, the assumption that high-frequency language strings are mentally represented as unitary chunks has been invoked to account for a wide range of phenomena. However, neurocognitive evidence in support of this assumption is still lacking. In line with Gestalt psychological assumptions, we propose that a language string qualifies as a chunk if the following two conditions are simultaneously satisfied: The perception of the whole string does not involve strong activation of its individual component parts, but the component parts in isolation strongly evoke the whole...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294449/exploring-experiences-of-personal-support-worker-education-in-ontario-canada
#11
Christine Kelly
There is growing attention to the training and education of Personal Support Workers, or PSWs, who work in community, home and long-term care settings supporting older people and people with disabilities. In Ontario, Canada, amid a volatile policy landscape, the provincial government launched an effort to standardise PSW education. Using qualitative methods, this study considered the question: What are the central educational issues reflected by students, working PSWs and key informants, and are they addressed by the PSW programme and training standards? Phase one was a public domain analysis completed between January and March 2014 and updated for major developments after that period...
March 12, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291277/diagnostiska-fel-och-misstag-%C3%A3-r-vanliga-och-sv%C3%A3-ra-att-m%C3%A3-ta
#12
Anders von Heijne
Diagnostic errors are prevalent and hard to measure Diagnostic errors are prevalent in all aspects of healthcare and a common cause of adverse events. They are often the result of multifactorial events, where there is a complex interplay between cognitive factors, system factors and lack of adequate knowledge. The generic, iterative diagnostic process, with abductive, deductive and inductive components supported by tests and the physical exam, leads to a correct diagnosis for the great majority of patients, but can be derailed by suboptimal thinking, lack of adequate information and external factors such as stress and work overload...
March 13, 2017: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290742/patients-beliefs-about-the-causes-of-myomas-a-pilot-study-from-a-large-european-city
#13
Matthias David, Miriam Alpheus, Heribert Kentenich
INTRODUCTION: Patients usually develop subjective concepts about their illness, which then influences their further health behaviors and treatment decisions. This study aimed to evaluate several possible patient beliefs about the causal factors of illness, in a large sample of women seeking treatment for myomas. METHODS: From November 2011 to October 2013, all patients at a specialized myoma clinic in a large European city were surveyed about their beliefs about the causes of myomas...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289854/seekers-finders-settlers-and-stumblers-identifying-the-career-paths-of-males-in-the-genetic-counseling-profession
#14
Anthony Chen, Pat McCarthy Veach, Cheri Schoonveld, Heather Zierhut
Genetic counseling is a female-dominated profession, with 96% of counselors self-identifying as female. Research suggests gender diversification benefits healthcare professionals and the populations they serve. Therefore, this study explored how men choose a genetic counseling career, associations between career satisfaction and their career entry dynamics and experience levels, and differences due to experience level in how they decide on this profession. Twenty-five novice, experienced, or seasoned male counselors and 8 male genetic counseling students participated in semi-structured phone interviews...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288522/job-satisfaction-of-people-with-intellectual-disabilities-the-role-of-basic-psychological-need-fulfillment-and-workplace-participation
#15
Alma Akkerman, Sabina Kef, Herman P Meininger
PURPOSE: Knowledge on what contributes to job satisfaction of people with intellectual disabilities is limited. Using self-determination theory, we investigated whether fulfillment of basic psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, relatedness, competence) affected job satisfaction, and explored associations between workplace participation, need fulfillment and job satisfaction. METHOD: A total of 117 persons with intellectual disabilities, recruited from a Dutch care organization, were interviewed on need fulfillment at work and job satisfaction...
March 13, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287315/near-infrared-spectroscopy-and-geostatistical-analysis-for-modeling-spatial-distribution-of-analytical-constituents-in-bulk-animal-by-product-protein-meals
#16
José A Adame-Siles, Tom Fearn, José E Guerrero-Ginel, Ana Garrido-Varo, Francisco Maroto-Molina, Dolores Pérez-Marín
Control and inspection operations within the context of safety and quality assessment of bulk foods and feeds are not only of particular importance, they are also demanding challenges, given the complexity of food/feed production systems and the variability of product properties. Existing methodologies have a variety of limitations, such as high costs of implementation per sample or shortcomings in early detection of potential threats for human/animal health or quality deviations. Therefore, new proposals are required for the analysis of raw materials in situ in a more efficient and cost-effective manner...
March 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286136/is-a-positive-developmental-behavioral-screening-score-sufficient-to-justify-referral-a-review-of-evidence-and-theory
#17
R Christopher Sheldrick, Daryl Garfinkel
In their recommendations on screening for autism and developmental disabilities, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends referral subsequent to a positive screening result. In this paper, we argue that positive screening results are not always sufficient to justify a referral. We demonstrate that while positive predictive values are often low, they actually overstate the probability of having a disorder for many children who screen positive. Moreover, recommended screening thresholds are seldom set to ensure that the benefits of referral will equal or exceed the costs and risk of harm, which is a necessary condition for an optimal threshold in the field of decision analysis...
March 7, 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285232/influencing-health-policy-through-public-deliberation-lessons-learned-from-two-decades-of-citizens-community-juries
#18
Chris Degeling, Lucie Rychetnik, Jackie Street, Rae Thomas, Stacy M Carter
Citizens'/community juries [CJs] engage members of the public in policy decision-making processes. CJs can be employed to develop policy responses to health problems that require the consideration of both community values and scientific evidence. Based on the principles of deliberative democracy, recent reviews indicate that findings from CJs have successfully been used to influence health policy decision-making. Despite this evidence of success, there appears to be a gap between the goals of health researchers who organize CJs and the needs of policy actors and decision makers...
March 2, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284011/applying-occupational-and-organizational-psychology-theory-to-entrustment-decision-making-about-trainees-in-health-care-a%C3%A2-conceptual-model
#19
Ylva Holzhausen, Asja Maaz, Anna T Cianciolo, Olle Ten Cate, Harm Peters
In medical contexts around the world, supervising physicians continuously decide what degree of supervision to apply as trainees carry out professional activities. Although the implications for patients can be far-reaching, little is known about how these entrustment decisions are formed. The concept of 'Entrustable Professional Activities' has initiated interest and valuable research on factors that may influence the entrustment decision process.The aim of the current article is to link models of entrustment developed in the fields of occupational and organizational psychology and military psychology to medical education studies that have explored the factors influencing physicians' entrustment decisions...
March 10, 2017: Perspectives on Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283491/factors-influencing-young-men-s-decision-to-undergo-health-screening-in-malaysia-a-qualitative-study
#20
Chin Hai Teo, Chirk Jenn Ng, Alan White
OBJECTIVES: Uptake of health screening is low in men, particularly among those aged <40 years. This study aimed to explore factors that influence health screening behaviour in younger men. DESIGN: This qualitative study employed an interpretive descriptive approach. Two trained researchers conducted in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) using a semi-structured topic guide, which was developed based on literature review and behavioural theories...
March 10, 2017: BMJ Open
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