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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931011/individual-versus-group-decision-making-jurors-reliance-on-central-and-peripheral-information-to-evaluate-expert-testimony
#1
Jessica M Salerno, Bette L Bottoms, Liana C Peter-Hagene
To investigate dual-process persuasion theories in the context of group decision making, we studied low and high need-for-cognition (NFC) participants within a mock trial study. Participants considered plaintiff and defense expert scientific testimony that varied in argument strength. All participants heard a cross-examination of the experts focusing on peripheral information (e.g., credentials) about the expert, but half were randomly assigned to also hear central information highlighting flaws in the expert's message (e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929939/the-development-of-the-professional-values-model-in-nursing
#2
Ayla Kaya, İlkay Boz
One of the most important criteria for professionalism is accumulation of knowledge that is usable in professional practice. Nursing models and theories are important elements of accumulating nursing knowledge and have a chance to guarantee the ethical professional practice. In recent years, there has been an increase in the use of models in nursing research and newly created terminology has started to be used in nursing. In this study, a new model, termed as the Professional Values Model, developed by the authors was described...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926027/using-institutional-and-behavioural-economics-to-examine-animal-health-systems
#3
C A Wolf
Economics provides a framework for understanding management decisions and their policy implications for the animal health system. While the neoclassical economic model is useful for framing animal health decisions on the farm, some of its assumptions and prescriptive results may be unrealistic. Institutional and behavioural economics address some of these potential shortcomings by considering the role of information, psychology and social factors in decisions. Framing such decisions under contract theory allows us to consider asymmetric information between policy-makers and farmers...
April 2017: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924946/listeners-are-maximally-flexible-in-updating-phonetic-beliefs-over-time
#4
David Saltzman, Emily Myers
Perceptual learning serves as a mechanism for listenexrs to adapt to novel phonetic information. Distributional tracking theories posit that this adaptation occurs as a result of listeners accumulating talker-specific distributional information about the phonetic category in question (Kleinschmidt & Jaeger, 2015, Psychological Review, 122). What is not known is how listeners build these talker-specific distributions; that is, if they aggregate all information received over a certain time period, or if they rely more heavily upon the most recent information received and down-weight older, consolidated information...
September 18, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922998/risk-preferences-in-surrogate-decision-making
#5
Eleonore Batteux, Eamonn Ferguson, Richard J Tunney
There is growing evidence that decisions made on behalf of other people differ from the decisions we make for ourselves because we are less affected by the subjective experience of their outcome. As a result, the decisions we make for other people can be more optimal. This experiment investigated surrogate decision making using a probability discounting task where participants made choices between risky and sure options. Psychological distance between the decision maker and the recipient was manipulated by having participants make decisions for themselves, their friend, and another unknown participant...
July 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922988/erognomic-education-on-housework-for-women-with-upper-limb-repetitive-strain-injury-rsi-a-conceptual-representation-of-therapists-clinical-reasoning
#6
Therma W C Cheung, Lindy Clemson, Kate O' Loughlin, Russell Shuttleworth
BACKGROUND: Ergonomic education in housework that aims to facilitate behavior change is important for women with upper limb repetitive strain injury. Therapists usually conduct such programs based on implicit reasoning. Making this reasoning explicit is important in contributing to the profession's knowledge. AIM: To construct a conceptual representation of how occupational therapists make clinical decisions for such program. METHOD: Based on a constructivist-grounded theory methodology, data were collected through in-depth interviewing with 14 occupational therapists from a major hospital in Singapore...
September 18, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922387/epistemic-beliefs-role-in-promoting-misperceptions-and-conspiracist-ideation
#7
R Kelly Garrett, Brian E Weeks
Widespread misperceptions undermine citizens' decision-making ability. Conclusions based on falsehoods and conspiracy theories are by definition flawed. This article demonstrates that individuals' epistemic beliefs-beliefs about the nature of knowledge and how one comes to know-have important implications for perception accuracy. The present study uses a series of large, nationally representative surveys of the U.S. population to produce valid and reliable measures of three aspects of epistemic beliefs: reliance on intuition for factual beliefs (Faith in Intuition for facts), importance of consistency between empirical evidence and beliefs (Need for evidence), and conviction that "facts" are politically constructed (Truth is political)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919222/understanding-active-sampling-strategies-empirical-approaches-and-implications-for-attention-and-decision-research
#8
REVIEW
Jacqueline Gottlieb
In natural behavior we actively gather information using attention and active sensing behaviors (such as shifts of gaze) to sample relevant cues. However, while attention and decision making are naturally coordinated, in the laboratory they have been dissociated. Attention is studied independently of the actions it serves. Conversely, decision theories make the simplifying assumption that the relevant information is given, and do not attempt to describe how the decision maker may learn and implement active sampling policies...
August 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918418/new-aspects-in-the-pathomechanism-of-diseases-of-civilization-particularly-psychosomatic-disorders-part-1-theoretical-background-of-a-hypothesis
#9
Andras Sikter, Zoltan Rihmer, Roberto de Guevara
The stress defence-cascade is mostly not biphasic as Cannon thought, the sympathicotonic stress response is preceded by a vagotonic phase called freeze response. Alteration of the carbon dioxide level plays an important role during defence-cascade as its changes interfere with stress hormones, e.g. with catecholamines, thus affecting the degree of arousal. In case of humans, learned behaviour dominates instead of instinctive, so the fight-or-flight often lags; the consequence can be persistent hypocapnia or hypercapnia...
June 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917139/a-good-abortion-experience-a-qualitative-exploration-of-women-s-needs-and-preferences-in-clinical-care
#10
Anna L Altshuler, Alison Ojanen-Goldsmith, Paul D Blumenthal, Lori R Freedman
What do women ending their pregnancies want and need to have a good clinical abortion experience? Since birth experiences are better studied, birth stories are more readily shared and many women who have had an abortion have also given birth, we sought to compare women's needs and preferences in abortion to those in birth. We conducted semi-structured intensive interviews with women who had both experiences in the United States and analyzed their intrapartum and abortion care narratives using grounded theory, identifying needs and preferences in abortion that were distinct from birth...
September 8, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915897/development-of-a-complex-intervention-to-promote-appropriate-prescribing-and-medication-intensification-in-poorly-controlled-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-irish-general-practice
#11
Mark E Murphy, Molly Byrne, Atieh Zarabzadeh, Derek Corrigan, Tom Fahey, Susan M Smith
BACKGROUND: Poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can be seen as failure to meet recommended targets for management of key risk factors including glycaemic control, blood pressure and lipids. Poor control of risk factors is associated with significant morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. Failure to intensify medications for patients with poor control of T2DM when indicated is called clinical inertia and is one contributory factor to poor control of T2DM. We aimed to develop a theory and evidence-based complex intervention to improve appropriate prescribing and medication intensification in poorly controlled T2DM in Irish general practice...
September 16, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915387/can-circular-inference-relate-the-neuropathological-and-behavioral-aspects-of-schizophrenia
#12
REVIEW
Pantelis Leptourgos, Sophie Denève, Renaud Jardri
Schizophrenia is a complex and heterogeneous mental disorder, and researchers have only recently begun to understand its neuropathology. However, since the time of Kraepelin and Bleuler, much information has been accumulated regarding the behavioral abnormalities usually encountered in patients suffering from schizophrenia. Despite recent progress, how the latter are caused by the former is still debated. Here, we argue that circular inference, a computational framework proposed as a potential explanation for various schizophrenia symptoms, could help end this debate...
September 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913835/retributive-justifications-for-jail-diversion-of-individuals-with-mental-disorder
#13
E Lea Johnston
Jail diversion programs have proliferated across the United States as a means to decrease the incarceration of individuals with mental illnesses. These programs include pre-adjudication initiatives, such as crisis intervention teams, as well as post-adjudication programs, such as mental health courts and specialized probationary services. Post-adjudication programs often operate at the point of sentencing, so their comportment with criminal justice norms is crucial. This article investigates whether and under what circumstances post-adjudication diversion for offenders with serious mental illnesses may cohere with principles of retributive justice...
September 14, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912706/dynamic-neural-fields-with-intrinsic-plasticity
#14
Claudius Strub, Gregor Schöner, Florentin Wörgötter, Yulia Sandamirskaya
Dynamic neural fields (DNFs) are dynamical systems models that approximate the activity of large, homogeneous, and recurrently connected neural networks based on a mean field approach. Within dynamic field theory, the DNFs have been used as building blocks in architectures to model sensorimotor embedding of cognitive processes. Typically, the parameters of a DNF in an architecture are manually tuned in order to achieve a specific dynamic behavior (e.g., decision making, selection, or working memory) for a given input pattern...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911325/how-does-decentralisation-affect-health-sector-planning-and-financial-management-a-case-study-of-early-effects-of-devolution-in-kilifi-county-kenya
#15
Benjamin Tsofa, Sassy Molyneux, Lucy Gilson, Catherine Goodman
BACKGROUND: A common challenge for health sector planning and budgeting has been the misalignment between policies, technical planning and budgetary allocation; and inadequate community involvement in priority setting. Health system decentralisation has often been promoted to address health sector planning and budgeting challenges through promoting community participation, accountability, and technical efficiency in resource management. In 2010, Kenya passed a new constitution that introduced 47 semi-autonomous devolved county governments, and a substantial transfer of responsibility for healthcare from the central government to these counties...
September 15, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904133/comparing-physical-and-social-cognitive-skills-in-macaque-species-with-different-degrees-of-social-tolerance
#16
Marine Joly, Jérôme Micheletta, Arianna De Marco, Jan A Langermans, Elisabeth H M Sterck, Bridget M Waller
Contemporary evolutionary theories propose that living in groups drives the selection of enhanced cognitive skills to face competition and facilitate cooperation between individuals. Being able to coordinate both in space and time with others and make strategic decisions are essential skills for cooperating within groups. Social tolerance and an egalitarian social structure have been proposed as one specific driver of cooperation. Therefore, social tolerance is predicted to be associated with enhanced cognitive skills that underpin communication and coordination...
September 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902699/experiences-of-and-support-for-nurses-as-second-victims-of-adverse-nursing-errors-a-qualitative-systematic-review
#17
C J Cabilan, Kathryn Kynoch
BACKGROUND: Second victims are clinicians who have made adverse errors and feel traumatized by the experience. The current published literature on second victims is mainly representative of doctors, hence nurses' experiences are not fully depicted. This systematic review was necessary to understand the second victim experience for nurses, explore the support provided, and recommend appropriate support systems for nurses. OBJECTIVES: To synthesize the best available evidence on nurses' experiences as second victims, and explore their experiences of the support they receive and the support they need...
September 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901967/intervention-mapping-approach-in-the-design-of-an-interactive-mobile-health-application-to-improve-self-care-in-heart-failure
#18
Ponrathi Athilingam, John M Clochesy, Miguel A Labrador
Heart failure is a complex syndrome among older adults who may experience and interpret symptoms differently. These differences in symptom interpretation may influence decision-making in symptom management. A well-informed and motivated person may develop the knowledge and skills needed to successfully manage symptoms. Therefore, the patient-centered mobile health application HeartMapp was designed to engage patients with heart failure in self-care management by offering tailored alerts and feedback using mobile phones...
September 8, 2017: Computers, Informatics, Nursing: CIN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901676/neural-mechanisms-of-motion-perceptual-learning-in-noise
#19
Nihong Chen, Junshi Lu, Hanyu Shao, Xuchu Weng, Fang Fang
Practice improves our perceptual ability. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this experience-dependent plasticity in adult brain remain unclear. Here, we studied the long-term neural correlates of motion perceptual learning. Subjects' behavioral performance and BOLD signals were tracked before, immediately after, and 2 weeks after practicing a motion direction discrimination task in noise over six daily sessions. Parallel to the specificity and persistency of the behavioral learning effect, we found that training sharpened the cortical tuning in MT, and enhanced the connectivity strength from MT to the intraparietal sulcus (IPS, a motion decision-making area)...
September 12, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901568/shared-decision-making-in-the-paediatric-field-a-literature-review-and-concept-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Eun Sook Park, In Young Cho
AIM: The concept of shared decision-making is poorly defined and often used interchangeably with related terms. The aim of this study was to delineate and clarify the concept of shared decision-making in the paediatric field. METHOD: Rodgers and Knafl's evolutionary concept analysis was used to delineate and clarify the concept. Following a search of the CINAHL, PubMed and MEDLINE databases and online journals between 1995 and 2016, we included a total of 42 articles that referred to shared decision-making in the paediatric field...
September 13, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
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