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Decision theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338893/the-desired-role-of-health-care-providers-in-guiding-older-patients-with-distal-radius-fractures-a-qualitative-analysis
#1
Helen E Huetteman, Melissa J Shauver, Jacob S Nasser, Kevin C Chung
PURPOSE: Understanding patient preferences for shared decision making is valuable for surgeons to advance patient-centered care, particularly in cases where there is not a clearly superior treatment option, like distal radius fracture. The existing evidence presents conflicting views on the desired role of the provider among older patients when making medical decisions. We aimed to investigate the perceived versus desired role of the provider in older adult patients with distal radius fracture...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338699/assessing-predictors-of-intention-to-prescribe-sick-leave-among-primary-care-physicians-using-the-theory-of-planned-behaviour
#2
Yogarabindranath Swarna Nantha, Lei Hum Wee, Caryn Mei-Hsien Chan
BACKGROUND: Providing sickness certification is a decision that primary care physicians make on a daily basis. The majority of sickness certification studies in the literature involve a general assessment of physician or patient behaviour without the use of a robust psychological framework to guide research accuracy. To address this deficiency, this study utilized the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to specifically gauge the intention and other salient predictors related to sickness certification prescribing behaviour amongst primary care physicians...
January 16, 2018: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337585/narrative-theory-ii-self-generated-and-experimenter-provided-negative-income-shock-narratives-increase-delay-discounting
#3
Alexandra M Mellis, Sarah E Snider, Warren K Bickel
Reading experimenter-provided narratives of negative income shock has been previously demonstrated to increase impulsivity, as measured by discounting of delayed rewards. We hypothesized that writing these narratives would potentiate their effects of negative income shock on decision-making more than simply reading them. In the current study, 193 cigarette-smoking individuals from Amazon Mechanical Turk were assigned to either read an experimenter-provided narrative or self-generate a narrative describing either the negative income shock of job loss or a neutral condition of job transfer...
January 15, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336687/reasons-why-undergraduate-women-comply-with-unwanted-non-coercive-sexual-advances-a-serial-indirect-effect-model-integrating-sexual-script-theory-and-sexual-self-control-perspectives
#4
Christopher Quinn-Nilas, Deborah J Kennett
This study explored the predictors of young women's compliance with unwanted sexual activities integrating the social with the cognitive and behavioural correlates of sexual compliance. In total, 222 young heterosexual women completed measures examining the Sexual Self-Control model including reasons for consenting, sexual resourcefulness, and compliance with unwanted sex, as well as gender role measures pertaining to sexual script theory including the sexual double standard, gender role stress, and virginity scripts...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336255/fast-screening-technology-for-drug-emergency-management-predicting-suspicious-snps-for-adr-with-information-theory-based-models
#5
Zhaohui Liang, Jun Liu, Jimmy Xiangji Huang, Xing Zeng
OBJECTIVE: The genetic polymorphism of Cytochrome P450 (CYP 450) is considered as one of the main causes for adverse drug reactions (ADRs). In order to explore the latent correlations between ADRs and potentially corresponding single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in CYP450, three algorithms based on information theory are used as the main method to predict the possible relation. METHODS: The study uses a retrospective case-control study to explore the potential relation of ADRs to specific genomic locations and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)...
January 14, 2018: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334324/the-rite-of-passage-of-becoming-a-humanitarian-health-worker-experiences-of-retention-in-sweden
#6
Sara Albuquerque, Anneli Eriksson, Helle M Alvesson
BACKGROUND: Low retention of humanitarian workers poses constraints on humanitarian organisations' capacity to respond effectively to disasters. Research has focused on reasons for humanitarian workers leaving the sector, but little is known about the factors that can elucidate long-term commitment. OBJECTIVE: To understand what motivates and supports experienced humanitarian health workers to remain in the sector. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 experienced nurses who had been on at least three field missions with Médecins Sans Frontières Sweden...
2018: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332647/social-support-a-key-factor-for-adherence-to-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-treatment
#7
R D Deshmukh, D J Dhande, K S Sachdeva, A N Sreenivas, A M V Kumar, M Parmar
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is emerging as a major public health problem globally. Treatment success rates in MDR-TB across the globe are not encouraging as completing MDR-TB treatment successfully is challenging due to high proportion of lost to follow up. METHODS: Using qualitative methods and grounded theory approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with MDR-TB patients and treatment providers. The social cognitive framework was explored as a way to guide understanding of the factors affecting treatment adherence among MDR-TB patients...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332517/women-s-decisions-to-stay-in-or-leave-an-abusive-relationship-results-from-a-longitudinal-study-in-bolivia
#8
Eva Heim, Icek Ajzen, Peter Schmidt, Daniel Seddig
This study examined Bolivian women's decisions to stay with or leave their violent partners. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used as the theoretical framework. One hundred thirty-four women were assessed 3 times over 6 months. The TPB constructs were measured at T1 and T2; relationship status was assessed at T3. At T2, attitudes about staying and leaving predicted the intention to leave. Intention to leave at T2 but not at T1 predicted relationship status at T3. These results suggest that the decision to leave was consolidated between T1 and T2, and attitudes toward staying were most relevant to this decision...
December 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331746/canadian-neurosurgery-educators-views-on-stereotactic-radiosurgery-in-residency-training
#9
Nardin Samuel, Justine Philteos, Naif M Alotaibi, Christopher Ahuja, Alireza Mansouri, Abhaya V Kulkarni
OBJECTIVE: Despite the increasing prominence of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in treating intracranial and spinal pathologies, there is currently a dearth of exposure to this modality in neurosurgical residency. To address this gap, the aim of this study is to assess neurosurgery educators' views regarding the current state of SRS exposure, and to identify potential approaches to improve residency education in this domain. METHODS: Qualitative thematic analysis and constructivist grounded theory methodology were employed...
January 10, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328781/normalization-of-deviation-quotation-error-in-human-factors
#10
Jordan Lock, Chris Bearman
Objective The objective of this paper is to examine quotation error in human factors. Background Science progresses through building on the work of previous research. This requires accurate quotation. Quotation error has a number of adverse consequences: loss of credibility, loss of confidence in the journal, and a flawed basis for academic debate and scientific progress. Quotation error has been observed in a number of domains, including marine biology and medicine, but there has been little or no previous study of this form of error in human factors, a domain that specializes in the causes and management of error...
January 1, 2018: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326443/aesthetic-possibilities-in-removable-prosthodontics-part-1-the-aesthetic-spectrum-from-perfect-to-personal
#11
J N Besford, A F Sutton
Patients requiring dentures are getting older and as a result can be difficult to treat owing to various co-morbidities. This series of papers presents an overview of the processes involved in making removable dentures which the patient considers to be functionally and aesthetically successful. We hope not only to provide technical suggestions but also to address the issue of the clinician's, technician's and dental nurse's relationships with the dentally depleted patient. It is increasingly clear from defence organisation reports that this has a decisive effect on the success of this fundamentally difficult enterprise ('The only branch of dentistry in which you are trying to attach something to nothing' [Hubert Aïche])...
January 12, 2018: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325662/farmers-market-manager-s-level-of-communication-and-influence-on-electronic-benefits-transfer-ebt-adoption-at-midwest-farmers-markets
#12
Afroza Hasin, Sylvia Smith
OBJECTIVE: To understand market managers' level of communication and use of technology that might influence decision to adopt Electronic Benefits Transfer (EBT) at farmers' markets. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using the Theory of Diffusion of Innovation. SETTING: Electronic survey administered in midwest states of Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin. PARTICIPANTS: Farmers' market managers in Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin...
January 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324932/the-neurophysiological-and-evolutionary-considerations-of-close-combat-a-modular-approach
#13
Kostas Dervenis, Evangelos Tsialogiannis
Close Combat may be identified as a physical confrontation involving armed or unarmed fighting, lethal and/or non-lethal methods, or even simply escape from and/or de-escalation of the confrontation. Our model hypothesizes that distinct areas of the brain are utilized for specific levels of violence, based on evolutionary criteria, and that these levels of violence bring into effect distinct physiological criteria and kinesiology. This model is outlined similar to Paul D. MacLean's triune brain theory, but incorporates distinct processes inherent to the autonomic nervous system (i...
September 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320806/experiences-of-living-kidney-donors-during-the-donation-process
#14
Hanne Agerskov, Claus Bistrup, Mette S Ludvigsen, Birthe D Pedersen
BACKGROUND: The shortage of organs from deceased donors has led to more living donation. Furthermore, immunological developments have made it possible to perform kidney transplantation despite preformed antibodies against the donor organ. This has led to a broader recruitment base of living donors. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate experiences and considerations on becoming, and during the process of being, a living kidney donor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Interviews and participant observation were conducted before, during and after the donation...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Renal Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319844/gender-differences-in-intimate-conflict-initiation-and-escalation-tendencies
#15
Zeev Winstok, Ronit Smadar-Dror, Michael Weinberg
According to gender motivation theory, men are driven by a desire to enhance their status; whereas, women are motivated by a desire to reduce risk, and the behavioral expressions of those motivations are context-dependent. In order to test this theory in the context of intimate relationships, this study compared men's and women's escalatory tendencies in the initial development of intimate conflict. These tendencies were conceptualized in terms of four attributes: two attributes that represent response intention (decision and style) and two others that represent motivations for that intention (putting one's partner in his or her place and avoiding conflict)...
January 10, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319437/backlash-or-a-positive-response-public-opinion-of-lgb-issues-after-obergefell-v-hodges
#16
Emily Kazyak, Mathew Stange
Following Obergefell v. Hodges, same-sex marriage remains controversial and anti-LGBT state legislation has been passed, which raises questions about whether the Supreme Court's ruling may have created a backlash. We use data from two waves of a general population survey of Nebraskans conducted before and after the decision to answer three questions. First, we test three theories of how the Court decision influenced public opinion. We find that support for same-sex marriage was significantly higher following the ruling, suggesting that there was not a backlash to it...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317759/coupling-modern-portfolio-theory-and-marxan-enhances-the-efficiency-of-lesser-white-fronted-goose-s-anser-erythropus-habitat-conservation
#17
Jie Liang, Xiang Gao, Guangming Zeng, Shanshan Hua, Minzhou Zhong, Xiaodong Li, Xin Li
Climate change and human activities cause uncertain changes to species biodiversity by altering their habitat. The uncertainty of climate change requires planners to balance the benefit and cost of making conservation plan. Here optimal protection approach for Lesser White-fronted Goose (LWfG) by coupling Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT) and Marxan selection were proposed. MPT was used to provide suggested weights of investment for protected area (PA) and reduce the influence of climatic uncertainty, while Marxan was utilized to choose a series of specific locations for PA...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317467/evaluating-team-decision-making-as-an-emergent-phenomenon
#18
John Kinnear, Nick Wilson, Anthony O'Dwyer
BACKGROUND: The complexity of modern clinical practice has highlighted the fallibility of individual clinicians' decision-making, with effective teamwork emerging as a key to patient safety. Dual process theory is widely accepted as a framework for individual decision-making, with type 1 processes responsible for fast, intuitive and automatic decisions and type 2 processes for slow, analytical decisions. However, dual process theory does not explain cognition at the group level, when individuals act in teams...
January 9, 2018: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314485/factors-influencing-the-decision-to-share-cancer-genetic-results-among-family-members-an-in-depth-interview-study-of-women-in-an-asian-setting
#19
Shao-Tzu Li, Shirley Sun, Désirée Lie, Marie Met-Domestici, Eliza Courtney, Sapna Menon, Geok Hoon Lim, Joanne Ngeow
OBJECTIVE: Reluctance to share hereditary cancer syndrome genetic test results with family is reported among Asian patients. This study aims to explore patient factors influencing result-sharing with family, to improve overall testing uptake. METHODS: Participants were women with a personal/family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer who received a positive, negative, or variant of uncertain significance (VUS) test result. In-depth interviews were conducted to theme saturation to explore facilitators and barriers for sharing results with family...
January 3, 2018: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314154/evaluation-of-two-approaches-to-defining-extinction-risk-under-the-u-s-endangered-species-act
#20
Grant G Thompson, Lynn A Maguire, Tracey J Regan
The predominant definition of extinction risk in conservation biology involves evaluating the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of extinction time at a particular point (the "time horizon"). Using the principles of decision theory, this article develops an alternative definition of extinction risk as the expected loss (EL) to society resulting from eventual extinction of a species. Distinct roles are identified for time preference and risk aversion. Ranges of tentative values for the parameters of the two approaches are proposed, and the performances of the two approaches are compared and contrasted for a small set of real-world species with published extinction time distributions and a large set of hypothetical extinction time distributions...
January 3, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
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