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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816094/theories-of-health-care-decision-making-at-the-end-of-life-a-meta-ethnography
#1
Kyounghae Kim, Katherine Heinze, Jiayun Xu, Melissa Kurtz, Hyunjeong Park, Megan Foradori, Marie T Nolan
The aim of this meta-ethnography is to appraise the types and uses of theories relative to end-of-life decision making and to develop a conceptual framework to describe end-of-life decision making among patients with advanced cancers, heart failure, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and their caregivers or providers. We used PubMed, Embase, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases to extract English-language articles published between January 2002 and April 2015...
August 1, 2017: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815580/deciding-to-come-out-to-parents-toward-a-model-of-sexual-orientation-disclosure-decisions
#2
Erika L Grafsky
The purpose of this study was to conduct research to understand nonheterosexual youths' decision to disclose their sexual orientation information to their parents. The sample for this study includes 22 youth between the ages of 14 and 21. Constructivist grounded theory guided the qualitative methodology and data analysis. The findings from this study posit an emerging model of sexual orientation disclosure decisions comprised of four interrelated factors that influence the decision to disclose or not disclose, as well as a description of the mechanism through which disclosure either does or does not occur...
August 16, 2017: Family Process
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813248/early-stress-parental-motivation-and-reproductive-decision-making-applications-of-life-history-theory-to-parental-behavior
#3
REVIEW
Tomás Cabeza de Baca, Bruce J Ellis
This review focuses on the impact of parental behavior on child development, as interpreted from an evolutionary-developmental perspective. We employ psychosocial acceleration theory to reinterpret the effects of variation in parental investment and involvement on child development, arguing that these effects have been structured by natural selection to match the developing child to current and expected future environments. Over time, an individual's development, physiology, and behavior are organized in a coordinated manner (as instantiated in 'life history strategies') that facilitates survival and reproductive success under different conditions...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813168/examining-women-s-alcohol-consumption-the-theory-of-planned-behavior-and-self-identity
#4
Helen M Haydon, Patricia L Obst, Ioni Lewis
BACKGROUND: Changing trends demonstrate that women, in several economically developed countries, are drinking at higher levels than ever before. OBJECTIVE: This study applied an extended Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), including self-identity, to examine women's intentions to consume alcohol. METHODS: Women (N = 1069) aged 18-87 years, completed a questionnaire measuring their intentions to engage in binge drinking and frequent drinking...
August 16, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812843/collaboration-between-researchers-and-knowledge-users-in-health-technology-assessment-a-qualitative-exploratory-study
#5
Mylène Tantchou Dipankui
BACKGROUND: Collaboration between researchers and knowledge users is increasingly promoted because it could enhance more evidence-based decision-making and practice. These complex relationships differ in form, in the particular goals they are trying to achieve, and in whom they bring together. Although much is understood about why partnerships form, relatively little is known about how collaboration works: how the collaborative process is shaped through the partners' interactions, especially in the field of health technology assessment (HTA)? This study aims at addressing this gap in the literature in the specific context of HTA...
December 16, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812672/rapid-and-direct-recoveries-of-predators-and-prey-through-synchronized-ecosystem-management
#6
Jameal F Samhouri, Adrian C Stier, Shannon M Hennessey, Mark Novak, Benjamin S Halpern, Phillip S Levin
One of the twenty-first century's greatest environmental challenges is to recover and restore species, habitats and ecosystems. The decision about how to initiate restoration is best-informed by an understanding of the linkages between ecosystem components and, given these linkages, an appreciation of the consequences of choosing to recover one ecosystem component before another. However, it remains difficult to predict how the sequence of species' recoveries within food webs influences the speed and trajectory of restoration, and what that means for human well-being...
March 1, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808356/the-gist-of-delay-of-gratification-understanding-and-predicting-problem-behaviors
#7
Valerie F Reyna, Evan A Wilhelms
Delay of gratification captures elements of temptation and self-denial that characterize real-life problems with money and other problem behaviors such as unhealthy risk taking. According to fuzzy-trace theory, decision makers mentally represent social values such as delay of gratification in a coarse but meaningful form of memory called "gist." Applying this theory, we developed a gist measure of delay of gratification that does not involve quantitative trade-offs (as delay discounting does) and hypothesize that this construct explains unique variance beyond sensation seeking and inhibition in accounting for problem behaviors...
April 2017: Journal of Behavioral Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808316/habituation-based-synaptic-plasticity-and-organismic-learning-in-a-quantum-perovskite
#8
Fan Zuo, Priyadarshini Panda, Michele Kotiuga, Jiarui Li, Mingu Kang, Claudio Mazzoli, Hua Zhou, Andi Barbour, Stuart Wilkins, Badri Narayanan, Mathew Cherukara, Zhen Zhang, Subramanian K R S Sankaranarayanan, Riccardo Comin, Karin M Rabe, Kaushik Roy, Shriram Ramanathan
A central characteristic of living beings is the ability to learn from and respond to their environment leading to habit formation and decision making. This behavior, known as habituation, is universal among all forms of life with a central nervous system, and is also observed in single-cell organisms that do not possess a brain. Here, we report the discovery of habituation-based plasticity utilizing a perovskite quantum system by dynamical modulation of electron localization. Microscopic mechanisms and pathways that enable this organismic collective charge-lattice interaction are elucidated by first-principles theory, synchrotron investigations, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, and in situ environmental breathing studies...
August 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807890/vulnerable-youth-as-prosumers-in-hiv-prevention-studies-using-participatory-action-research
#9
Cath Conn, Shoba Nayar, Dinar Lubis, Carol Maibvisira, Kristel Modderman
BACKGROUND: Stigma, voicelessness, and legislative and rights barriers, coupled with top-down decision making, are the common experiences of vulnerable youth populations that limit their opportunities to participate in vital health promotion efforts such as HIV prevention. OBJECTIVE: To consider new opportunities arising from a digital society for youth to creatively shape HIV prevention. METHODS: Drawing on research with vulnerable youth in Busoga, Uganda; Bulawayo, Zimbabwe; Bangkok, Thailand; and Bali, Indonesia, we explore current youth participation, in theory and practice, while considering new opportunities arising from a digital society for youth to creatively shape HIV prevention...
August 14, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807647/endogenous-visuospatial-attention-increases-visual-awareness-independent-of-visual-discrimination-sensitivity
#10
Marine Vernet, Shruti Japee, Savannah Lokey, Sara Ahmed, Valentinos Zachariou, Leslie G Ungerleider
Visuospatial attention often improves task performance by increasing signal gain at attended locations and decreasing noise at unattended locations. Attention is also believed to be the mechanism that allows information to enter awareness. In this experiment, we assessed whether orienting endogenous visuospatial attention with cues differentially affects visual discrimination sensitivity (an objective task performance) and visual awareness (the subjective feeling of perceiving) during the same discrimination task...
August 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804782/dopaminergic-medication-increases-reliance-on-current-information-in-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Iris Vilares, Konrad P Kording
The neurotransmitter dopamine is crucial for decision-making under uncertainty but its computational role is still a subject of intense debate. To test potential roles, we had patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), who have less internally-generated dopamine, participate in a visual decision-making task in which uncertainty in both prior and current sensory information was varied and where behavior is often predicted by Bayesian statistics. We found that many aspects of uncertainty processing were conserved in PD: they could learn the prior uncertainty and utilize both priors and current sensory information...
August 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799199/refining-moral-agency-insights-from-moral-psychology-and-moral-philosophy
#12
Aimee Milliken
Research in moral psychology has recently raised questions about the impact of context and the environment on the way the human mind works. In a 2012 call to action, Paley wrote: "If some of the conclusions arrived at by moral psychologists are true, they are directly relevant to the way nurses think about moral problems, and present serious challenges to favoured concepts in nursing ethics, such as the ethics of care, virtue, and the unity of the person" (p. 80). He urges nurse ethicists and scholars to evaluate the impact these findings may have for moral theory...
August 11, 2017: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795896/managing-visitors-during-the-hospital-stay-the-experience-of-family-caregivers-of-patients-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Tolu O Oyesanya, Barbara Bowers
Family caregivers of patients with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) regularly visit the patient during the hospital stay and are involved in their care. As impairments caused by the TBI often preclude the patient from stating preferences for visitors, family caregivers often make decisions about visitors on the patient's behalf during the hospital stay. However, limited literature investigates this process. The purpose of this study was to describe family caregivers' experience of visitors while the patient with moderate-to-severe TBI is hospitalized...
May 2017: Journal of Family Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795577/understanding-the-emergence-and-development-of-medical-collaboration-across-organizational-boundaries-a-longitudinal-case-study
#14
Nassera Touati, Charo Rodríguez, Marie-Andrée Paquette, Jean-Louis Denis
Our goal in this investigation was to help shed light on the very difficult process of collaboration between family physicians and specialists working at different levels of healthcare delivery. More precisely, and grounded on Giddens' structuration theory, our investigation aims to understand how medical collaboration emerges and develops around chronic patients. This was a longitudinal interpretive case study, the "case" being a continuum-of-care for patients suffering from diabetes, put in place in an urban health center in the Canadian province of Quebec...
August 1, 2017: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794169/assessing-the-association-between-thinking-dispositions-and-clinical-error
#15
John Kinnear, Nick Wilson
BACKGROUND: Dual-process theory suggests that type 1 thinking results in a propensity to make 'intuitive' decisions based on limited information. Type 2 processes, on the other hand, are able to analyse these initial responses and replace them with rationalised decisions. Individuals may have a preference for different modes of rationalisation, on a continuum from careful to cursory. These 'dispositions' of thinking reside in type 2 processes and may result in error when the preference is for 'quick and casual' decision-making...
August 9, 2017: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793374/pain-assessment-by-emergency-nurses-at-triage-in-the-emergency-department-a-qualitative-study
#16
Marilène Vuille, Maryline Foerster, Eliane Foucault, Olivier Hugli
AIM: To investigate the assessment of pain intensity in the specific context of triage. BACKGROUND: Acute pain affects most patients admitted in emergency departments (ED) but pain relief in this setting remains insufficient. Evaluation of pain and its treatment at the time of patient triage expedites the administration of analgesia, but may be awkward at this time-pressured moment. The assessment of pain intensity by a validated pain scale is a critical initial step, and a patient's self-reporting is widely considered as the key to effective pain management...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774759/parents-perspectives-on-navigating-the-work-of-speaking-up-in-the-nicu
#17
Audrey Lyndon, Kirsten Wisner, Carrie Holschuh, Kelly M Fagan, Linda S Franck
OBJECTIVE: To describe parents' perspectives and likelihood of speaking up about safety concerns in the NICU and identify barriers and facilitators to parents speaking up. DESIGN: Exploratory, qualitatively driven, mixed-methods design using questionnaires, interviews, and observations with parents of newborns in the NICU. The qualitative investigation was based on constructivist grounded theory. Quantitative measures included ratings and free-text responses about the likelihood of speaking up in response to a hypothetical scenario about lack of clinician hand hygiene...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772164/multiple-criteria-decision-analysis-mcda-for-evaluating-new-medicines-in-health-technology-assessment-and-beyond-the-advance-value-framework
#18
Aris Angelis, Panos Kanavos
Escalating drug prices have catalysed the generation of numerous "value frameworks" with the aim of informing payers, clinicians and patients on the assessment and appraisal process of new medicines for the purpose of coverage and treatment selection decisions. Although this is an important step towards a more inclusive Value Based Assessment (VBA) approach, aspects of these frameworks are based on weak methodologies and could potentially result in misleading recommendations or decisions. In this paper, a Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) methodological process, based on Multi Attribute Value Theory (MAVT), is adopted for building a multi-criteria evaluation model...
June 20, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770384/do-i-need-to-have-my-hands-free-to-understand-hand-related-language-investigating-the-functional-relevance-of-experiential-simulations
#19
Jessica Vanessa Strozyk, Carolin Dudschig, Barbara Kaup
Theories of embodiment state that people mentally simulate the described situations and events during language comprehension. While several studies have provided evidence that these simulations exist, it is still unclear whether they are functionally relevant for comprehension. To investigate this question, we studied the effects of a secondary task on the processing of hand- and foot-related nouns. The secondary task occupied either the hand or the foot system, thereby impeding hand- or foot-related simulations, respectively...
August 2, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769072/post-conventional-moral-reasoning-is-associated-with-increased-ventral-striatal-activity-at-rest-and-during-task
#20
Zhuo Fang, Wi Hoon Jung, Marc Korczykowski, Lijuan Luo, Kristin Prehn, Sihua Xu, John A Detre, Joseph W Kable, Diana C Robertson, Hengyi Rao
People vary considerably in moral reasoning. According to Kohlberg's theory, individuals who reach the highest level of post-conventional moral reasoning judge moral issues based on deeper principles and shared ideals rather than self-interest or adherence to laws and rules. Recent research has suggested the involvement of the brain's frontostriatal reward system in moral judgments and prosocial behaviors. However, it remains unknown whether moral reasoning level is associated with differences in reward system function...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
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