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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777966/determinants-of-choice-of-delivery-place-testing-rational-choice-theory-and-habitus-theory
#1
Anja Broda, Juliane Krüger, Stephanie Schinke, Andreas Weber
OBJECTIVE: The current study uses two antipodal social science theories, the rational choice theory and the habitus theory, and applies these to describe how women choose between intraclinical (i.e., hospital-run birth clinics) and extraclinical (i.e., midwife-led birth centres or home births) delivery places. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, MEASUREMENTS: Data were collected in a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey among 189 women. A list of 22 determinants, conceptualized to capture the two theoretical concepts, were rated on a 7-point Likert scale with 1 = unimportant to 7 = very important...
May 7, 2018: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774439/surgical-education-simulation-and-simulators-updating-the-concept-of-validity
#2
REVIEW
Mitchell Goldenberg, Jason Y Lee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Competency-based medical education (CBME) is rooted in the use of iterative assessments. We must ensure that the assessments used in CBME are valid, to make acceptable and accurate decisions regarding the competency of a trainee. Until recently, much of the educational and assessment literature in urology have used a now-outdated method of determining validity, based on theory and recommendations from over 50 years ago. We describe a contemporary approach to gathering construct validity evidence for the assessment of urologic trainees, for use in both clinical and simulation environments...
May 17, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773755/expectations-do-not-alter-early-sensory-processing-during-perceptual-decision-making
#3
Nuttida Rungratsameetaweemana, Sirawaj Itthipuripat, Annalisa Salazar, John T Serences
Two factors play an important role in shaping perception: the allocation of selective attention to behaviorally relevant sensory features, and prior expectations about regularities in the environment. Signal detection theory proposes distinct roles of attention and expectation on decision-making such that attention modulates early sensory processing whereas expectation influences the selection and execution of motor responses. Challenging this classic framework, recent studies suggest that expectations about sensory regularities enhance the encoding and accumulation of sensory evidence during decision-making...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772910/qualitative-assessment-of-smoke-free-policy-implementation-in-low-income-housing-enhancing-resident-compliance
#4
Jodi Anthony, Roberta Goldman, Vaughan W Rees, Rochelle L Frounfelker, Jessica Davine, Robyn R Keske, Daniel R Brooks, Alan C Geller
PURPOSE: As public housing agencies and other low-income housing providers adopt smoke-free policies, data are needed to inform implementation approaches that support compliance. DESIGN: Focused ethnography used including qualitative interviews with staff, focus groups with residents, and property observations. SETTING: Four low-income housing properties in Massachusetts, 12 months postpolicy adoption. PARTICIPANTS: Individual interviews (n = 17) with property staff (managers, resident service coordinators, maintenance, security, and administrators) and focus groups with resident smokers (n = 28) and nonsmokers (n = 47)...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772599/a-contextual-work-life-experiences-model-to-understand-nurse-commitment-and-turnover
#5
Dilmi Aluwihare-Samaranayake, Ian Gellatly, Greta Cummings, Linda Ogilvie
AIMS: To present a discussion and model depicting most effecting work life experience contextual factors that influence commitment and turnover intentions for nurses in Sri Lanka. BACKGROUND: Increasing demand for nurses has made the retention of experienced, qualified nursing staff a priority for health care organizations and highlights the need to capture contextual work-life experiences that influence nurses' turnover decisions. DESIGN: Discussion paper...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771205/organizational-health-management-through-metaphor-a-mission-based-approach
#6
Joseph M Woodside
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to identify the underlying metaphors that hospitals use to establish their organizational mission. Metaphors impact the direction and managerial decision making of organizations, and provide a method to more easily communicate to a variety of stakeholders. Design/methodology/approach A text analytics process is run to evaluate the mission statements from the largest hospitals by revenue in each of the 50 states of the USA and District of Columbia to identify the types of metaphor-based organizational health management methods...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764462/empirical-and-conceptual-investigation-of-de-implementation-of-low-value-care-from-professional-and-health-care-system-perspectives-a-study-protocol
#7
Henna Hasson, Per Nilsen, Hanna Augustsson, Ulrica von Thiele Schwarz
BACKGROUND: A considerable proportion of interventions provided to patients lacks evidence of their effectiveness. This implies that patients may receive ineffective, unnecessary, or even harmful care. Thus, in addition to implementing evidence-based practices, there is also a need to abandon interventions that are not based on best evidence, i.e., low-value care. However, research on de-implementation is limited, and there is a lack of knowledge about how effective de-implementation processes should be carried out...
May 15, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763422/capturing-farm-diversity-with-hypothesis-based-typologies-an-innovative-methodological-framework-for-farming-system-typology-development
#8
Stéphanie Alvarez, Carl J Timler, Mirja Michalscheck, Wim Paas, Katrien Descheemaeker, Pablo Tittonell, Jens A Andersson, Jeroen C J Groot
Creating typologies is a way to summarize the large heterogeneity of smallholder farming systems into a few farm types. Various methods exist, commonly using statistical analysis, to create these typologies. We demonstrate that the methodological decisions on data collection, variable selection, data-reduction and clustering techniques can bear a large impact on the typology results. We illustrate the effects of analysing the diversity from different angles, using different typology objectives and different hypotheses, on typology creation by using an example from Zambia's Eastern Province...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760051/approach-to-classify-separate-and-enrich-objects-in-groups-using-ensemble-sorting
#9
Rebecca Turk-MacLeod, Alon Henson, Marc Rodriguez-Garcia, Graham M Gibson, Gerardo Aragon Camarasa, Dario Caramelli, Miles J Padgett, Leroy Cronin
The sorting of objects into groups is a fundamental operation, critical in the preparation and purification of populations of cells, crystals, beads, or droplets, necessary for research and applications in biology, chemistry, and materials science. Most of the efforts exploring such purification have focused on two areas: the degree of separation and the measurement precision required for effective separation. Conventionally, achieving good separation ultimately requires that the objects are considered one by one (which can be both slow and expensive), and the ability to measure the sorted objects by increasing sensitivity as well as reducing sorting errors...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755046/the-church-bridge-project-an-academic-community-perspective-of-a-church-based-weight-management-pilot-intervention-among-young-adult-african-americans
#10
Jennifer L Lemacks, Robert E James, Laurie Abbott, Hwanseok Choi, Ashley Parker, Ashley Bryant, Penny A Ralston, Annither Gilner Rigsby, Patricia Gilner
BACKGROUND: Churches are effective community partners and settings to address weight management among African Americans. There is limited information on the use of churches to reach young adult populations and church collaborations with primary care clinics. OBJECTIVES: The Church Bridge Project represents a community-academic partnership that presents the recruitment process of a church-based weight management intervention and describes baseline data of participants recruited from churches and primary care providers...
2018: Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753874/simulation-of-patient-flow-in-multiple-healthcare-units-using-process-and-data-mining-techniques-for-model-identification
#11
Sergey V Kovalchuk, Anastasia A Funkner, Oleg G Metsker, Aleksey N Yakovlev
INTRODUCTION: An approach to building a hybrid simulation of patient flow is introduced with a combination of data-driven methods for automation of model identification. The approach is described with a conceptual framework and basic methods for combination of different techniques. The implementation of the proposed approach for simulation of the acute coronary syndrome (ACS) was developed and used in an experimental study. METHODS: A combination of data, text, process mining techniques, and machine learning approaches for the analysis of electronic health records (EHRs) with discrete-event simulation (DES) and queueing theory for the simulation of patient flow was proposed...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752844/exploring-family-members-experiences-during-a-death-process-in-the-emergency-department-a-grounded-theory-study
#12
Carme Berbís-Morelló, Gerard Mora-López, Marta Berenguer-Poblet, Laia Raigal-Aran, Pilar Montesó-Curto, Carme Ferré-Grau
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To identify which are the needs arised from feelings, perceptions, and experiences of the family members during any time within the death process in an emergency service of an acute care hospital, with regards to the assistance received. BACKGROUND: The publications refer to the needs expressed by bereaved families, who explain the support they received right after the death of a relative in an emergency service, and during the months after the tragedy...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750987/the-opportunity-cost-of-time-modulates-cognitive-effort
#13
A Ross Otto, Nathaniel D Daw
A spate of recent work demonstrates that humans seek to avoid the expenditure of cognitive effort, much like physical effort or economic resources. Less is clear, however, about the circumstances dictating how and when people decide to expend cognitive effort. Here we adopt a popular theory of opportunity costs and response vigor and to elucidate this question. This account, grounded in Reinforcement Learning, formalizes a trade-off between two costs: the harder work assumed necessary to emit faster actions and the opportunity cost inherent in acting more slowly (i...
May 8, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750563/how-life-history-shapes-optimal-patterns-of-senescence-implications-from-individuals-to-societies
#14
Natalie J Lemanski, Nina H Fefferman
One evolutionary view of aging, the disposable soma theory, suggests that an organism's rate of senescence depends on the amount of energy invested in somatic maintenance. Since organisms have limited energy to allocate among growth, maintenance, and reproduction, the optimal amount of energy to invest in maintenance is influenced by the probability of death from extrinsic causes and the effect of somatic investment on survival. In eusocial animals, the disposable soma theory can be used to explain colonies' energy investment in the longevity of workers, who act as the somatic elements of a superorganism...
June 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745781/multi-sectoral-approach-to-noncommunicable-disease-prevention-policy-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-conceptual-framework-for-analysis
#15
Saliyou Sanni, Jennifer P Wisdom, Olalekan A Ayo-Yusuf, Charles Hongoro
Conceptual frameworks for health policy analysis guide investigations into interactions between institutions, interests, and ideas to identify how to improve policy decisions and outcomes. This review assessed constructs from current frameworks and theories of health policy analysis to (1) develop a preliminary synthesis of findings from selected frameworks and theories; (2) analyze relationships between elements of those frameworks and theories to construct an overarching framework for health policy analysis; and then, (3) apply that overarching framework to analyze tobacco control policies in Togo and in South Africa...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745712/signaling-emotion-and-reason-in-cooperation
#16
Emma E Levine, Alixandra Barasch, David Rand, Jonathan Z Berman, Deborah A Small
We explore the signal value of emotion and reason in human cooperation. Across four experiments utilizing dyadic prisoner dilemma games, we establish three central results. First, individuals infer prosocial feelings and motivations from signals of emotion. As a result, individuals believe that a reliance on emotion signals that one will cooperate more so than a reliance on reason. Second, these beliefs are generally accurate-those who act based on emotion are more likely to cooperate than those who act based on reason...
May 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745262/the-role-of-adolescents-from-a-low-socioeconomic-background-in-household-food-preparation-a-qualitative-study
#17
Tashara M Leak, Taylor A Aasand, Zata Vickers, Marla Reicks
The purpose of this study was to understand adolescents' from low-income households perceptions of their involvement in home food preparation, reasons underlying the extent to which they were involved, and positive and negative consequences associated with their involvement. Semistructured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 19 adolescents (13-18 years). Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim. Themes were identified using grounded theory and the constant comparative method. Eight adolescents described cooking as a primary responsibility due to adult work and family schedules, age, gender, and/or cultural expectations...
May 1, 2018: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743065/rationing-cancer-treatment-a-qualitative-study-of-perceptions-of-legitimate-limit-setting
#18
Eli Feiring, Hege Wang
BACKGROUND: Governments are facing tough choices about whether to fund new, promising but highly expensive drugs within the public healthcare system. Decisions that some drugs are not sufficiently beneficial relative to their cost to merit public funding are often contentious. The importance of making decisions that stakeholders can understand and accept as legitimate is increasingly recognized and is commonly understood to be a crucial component for stakeholder support and successful implementation...
May 9, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741966/feminine-identity-and-functional-benefits-are-key-factors-in-women-s-decision-making-about-upper-limb-prostheses-a-case-series
#19
Linda Resnik, Shana Klinger, Anisha Gill, Sarah Ekerholm Biester
PURPOSE: Although the DEKA Arm promises new abilities, it is unclear if women with upper limb amputation are willing to avail themselves of this new technology. The study purpose was to understand key factors and tradeoffs that shape women's attitudes towards the DEKA Arm. METHODS: This case series includes three women with transradial amputation. Structured surveys and semi-guided interviews were administered after completion of in-laboratory training and a home trial of the DEKA Arm...
May 9, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741802/deviant-peer-behavior-and-adolescent-delinquency-protective-effects-of-inhibitory-control-planning-or-decision-making
#20
J Benjamin Hinnant, Alissa B Forman-Alberti
We examined relations between adolescent perceptions of deviant peer behavior and delinquency as moderated by inhibitory control, planning, and decision making in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development at age 15 (N = 991). Adolescents reported perceptions of deviant peer behavior. Inhibitory control, planning, and decision making were assessed behaviorally. Delinquency was evaluated with a latent variable comprised of parent-guardian perceptions of adolescent delinquency and adolescent self-reports...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
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