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Decision theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429997/attitudes-toward-cognitive-enhancer-use-among-new-zealand-tertiary-students
#1
Sanyogita Sanya Ram, Safeera Hussainy, Marcus Henning, Kay Stewart, Maree Jensen, Bruce Russell
BACKGROUND: Cognitive enhancement is the use of prescription stimulant medicines by healthy individuals for nonmedical use in academic settings. Commonly used cognitive enhancers (CEs) include methylphenidate, amphetamines, and modafinil. To understand the motivation to use CEs, it is important to look beyond prevalence and explore the extent to which attitudes, beliefs, and intentions predict the decision to use CEs. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate what factors explain the decision to use CEs among tertiary students in New Zealand, using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)...
April 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428165/a-framework-for-the-study-of-complex-mhealth-interventions-in-diverse-cultural-settings
#2
Marion A Maar, Karen Yeates, Nancy Perkins, Lisa Boesch, Diane Hua-Stewart, Peter Liu, Jessica Sleeth, Sheldon W Tobe
BACKGROUND: To facilitate decision-making capacity between options of care under real-life service conditions, clinical trials must be pragmatic to evaluate mobile health (mHealth) interventions under the variable conditions of health care settings with a wide range of participants. The mHealth interventions require changes in the behavior of patients and providers, creating considerable complexity and ambiguity related to causal chains. Process evaluations of the implementation are necessary to shed light on the range of unanticipated effects an intervention may have, what the active ingredients in everyday practice are, how they exert their effect, and how these may vary among recipients or between sites...
April 20, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427303/values-based-practice-a-framework-for-thinking-with
#3
Kay Mohanna
Values are those principles that govern behaviours, and values-based practice has been described as a theory and skills base for effective healthcare decision-making where different (and hence potentially conflicting) values are in play. The emphasis is on good process rather than pre-set right outcomes, aiming to achieve balanced decision-making. In this article we will consider the utility of this model by looking at leadership development, a current area of much interest and investment in healthcare. Copeland points out that 'values based leadership behaviors are styles with a moral, authentic and ethical dimension', important qualities in healthcare decision-making...
April 21, 2017: Education for Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426536/exploring-the-interaction-between-nursing-decision-making-and-patient-outcomes-in-2-european-cancer-centers-a-qualitative-study
#4
Dario Valcarenghi, Annamaria Bagnasco, Giuseppe Aleo, Gianluca Catania, Milko Zanini, Bruno Cavaliere, Franco Carnevale, Loredana Sasso
BACKGROUND: In some clinical settings, nurses have difficulty describing the outcomes of their caring activities. Understanding the reasons for this could help nurse leaders to improve the effectiveness and visibility of nursing practice and safeguard nurses' working conditions. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to understand how nurses working in 2 different adult cancer centers make healthcare decisions and assess the respective outcomes on their patients...
April 20, 2017: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424074/implementation-and-adaptation-of-the-re-engineered-discharge-red-in-five-california-hospitals-a-qualitative-research-study
#5
S E Mitchell, G M Weigel, V Laurens, J Martin, B W Jack
BACKGROUND: Project Re-Engineered Discharge (RED) is an evidence-based strategy to reduce readmissions disseminated and adapted by various health systems across the country. To date, little is known about how adapting Project RED from its original protocol impacts RED implementation and/or sustainability. The goal of this study was to identify and characterize contextual factors influencing how five California hospitals adapted and implemented RED and the subsequent impact on RED program sustainability...
April 19, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423861/a-digital-framework-to-support-providers-and-patients-in-diabetes-related-behavior-modification
#6
Samina Abidi, Michael Vallis, Helena Piccinini-Vallis, Syed Ali Imran, Syed Sibte Raza Abidi
We present Diabetes Web-Centric Information and Support Environment (D-WISE) that features: (a) Decision support tool to assist family physicians to administer Behavior Modification (BM) strategies to patients; and (b) Patient BM application that offers BM strategies and motivational interventions to engage patients. We take a knowledge management approach, using semantic web technologies, to model the social cognition theory constructs, Canadian diabetes guidelines and BM protocols used locally, in terms of a BM ontology that drives the BM decision support to physicians and BM strategy adherence monitoring and messaging to patients...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423839/a-semantic-framework-for-logical-cross-validation-evaluation-and-impact-analyses-of-population-health-interventions
#7
Arash Shaban-Nejad, Anya Okhmatovskaia, Eun Kyong Shin, Robert L Davis, Brandi E Franklin, David L Buckeridge
Most chronic diseases are a result of a complex web of causative and correlated factors. As a result, effective public health or clinical interventions that intend to generate a sustainable change in these diseases most often use a combination of strategies or programs. To optimize comparative effectiveness evaluations and select the most efficient intervention(s), stakeholders (i.e. public health institutions, policy-makers and advocacy groups, practitioners, insurers, clinicians, and researchers) need access to reliable assessment methods...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422062/cross-layer-design-for-optimizing-transmission-reliability-energy-efficiency-and-lifetime-in-body-sensor-networks
#8
Xi Chen, Yixuan Xu, Anfeng Liu
High transmission reliability, energy efficiency, and long lifetime are pivotal issues for wireless body area networks (WBANs. However, these performance metrics are not independent of each other, making it hard to obtain overall improvements through optimizing one single aspect. Therefore, a Cross Layer Design Optimal (CLDO) scheme is proposed to simultaneously optimize transmission reliability, energy efficiency, and lifetime of WBANs from several layers. Firstly, due to the fact that the transmission power of nodes directly influences the reliability of links, the optimized transmission power of different nodes is deduced, which is able to maximize energy efficiency in theory under the premise that requirements on delay and jitter are fulfilled...
April 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421425/the-role-of-alaska-s-tribal-health-workers-in-supporting-families
#9
Miriam Chernoff, Katie Cueva
Alaska's Community Health Aides/Practitioners (CHA/Ps) are often the sole medical workers in their communities in rural Alaska, and are instrumental in providing healthcare services and education to otherwise underserved individuals. This qualitative study explored how CHA/Ps support healthy families. Six CHA/Ps from two rural communities in western Alaska were interviewed about their scope of practice, interactions with mothers, infants, families, and teens, relationship to other medical providers, and perceptions of their work...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421145/a-framework-for-describing-the-influence-of-service-organisation-and-delivery-on-participation-in-fetal-anomaly-screening-in-england
#10
Hyacinth O Ukuhor, Janet Hirst, S José Closs, William J Montelpare
Objective. The aim of this research was to explore the influence of service organisation and delivery on providers and users' interactions and decision-making in the context of Down's syndrome screening. Methods. A qualitative descriptive study involving online interviews conducted with a purposive sample of 34 community midwives, 35 pregnant women, and 15 partners from two maternity services in different health districts in England. Data were analysed using a combination of grounded theory principles and content analysis and a framework was developed...
2017: Journal of Pregnancy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420265/ichampss-usability-and-psychosocial-impact-for-increasing-implementation-of-sexual-health-education
#11
Belinda F Hernandez, Melissa F Peskin, Ross Shegog, Efrat K Gabay, Paula M Cuccaro, Robert C Addy, Eric Ratliff, Susan T Emery, Christine M Markham
INTRODUCTION: Diffusion of sexual health evidence-based programs (EBPs) in schools is a complex and challenging process. iCHAMPSS ( CHoosing And Maintaining effective Programs for Sex education in Schools) is an innovative theory- and Web-based decision support system that may help facilitate this process. The purpose of this study was to pilot-test iCHAMPSS for usability and short-term psychosocial impact. METHOD: School district stakeholders from across Texas were recruited ( N = 16) and given access to iCHAMPSS for 3 weeks in fall 2014...
May 2017: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420191/designing-effective-interactions-for-concordance-around-end-of-life-care-decisions-lessons-from-hospice-admission-nurses
#12
Carey Candrian, Channing Tate, Kirsten Broadfoot, Alexandra Tsantes, Daniel Matlock, Jean Kutner
Near the end of life, hospice care reduces symptom-related distress and hospitalizations while improving caregiving outcomes. However, it takes time for a person to gain a sufficient understanding of hospice and decide to enroll. This decision is influenced by knowledge of hospice and its services, emotion and fear, cultural and religious beliefs, and an individual's acceptance of diagnosis. Hospice admission interactions, a key influence in shaping decisions regarding hospice care, happen particularly late in the illness trajectory and are often complex, unpredictable, and highly variable...
April 18, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416084/a-conceptual-framework-for-negotiating-public-involvement-in-municipal-waste-management-decision-making-in-the-uk
#13
Kenisha Garnett, Tim Cooper, Philip Longhurst, Simon Jude, Sean Tyrrel
The technical expertise that politicians relied on in the past to produce cost-effective and environmentally sound solutions no longer provides sufficient justification to approve waste facilities. Local authorities need to find more effective ways to involve stakeholders and communities in decision-making since public acceptance of municipal waste facilities is integral to delivering effective waste strategies. This paper presents findings from a research project that explored attitudes towards greater levels of public involvement in UK waste management decision-making...
April 13, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414628/fried-green-tomatoes-and-the-color-purple-a-case-study-in-lesbian-friendship-and-cultural-controversy
#14
Kristen Proehl
Published in the 1980s, Fannie Flagg's Fried Green Tomatoes at the Whistle Stop Café and Alice Walker's The Color Purple are lesbian coming-of-age narratives that share a great deal in common in terms of their thematic content, publication histories, and cultural afterlives. In both novels, female friendships are shaped by patriarchal violence and develop in the context of the rural, segregated, early twentieth-century U.S. South. But the two novels also diverge in significant ways, as differences in race, gender, class, and sexuality shape their protagonists' experiences of love and friendship...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Lesbian Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414472/disclosing-a-disability-do-strategy-type-and-onset-controllability-make-a-difference
#15
Brent J Lyons, Sabrina D Volpone, Jennifer L Wessel, Natalya M Alonso
In hiring contexts, individuals with concealable disabilities make decisions about how they should disclose their disability to overcome observers' biases. Previous research has investigated the effectiveness of binary disclosure decisions-that is, to disclose or conceal a disability-but we know little about how, why, or under what conditions different types of disclosure strategies impact observers' hiring intentions. In this article, we examine disability onset controllability (i.e., whether the applicant is seen as responsible for their disability onset) as a boundary condition for how disclosure strategy type influences the affective reactions (i...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410444/verification-of-nonequilibrium-mechanism-of-ultrafast-charge-recombination-in-excited-donor-acceptor-complexes
#16
Tatyana V Mikhailova, Valentina A Mikhailova, Anatoly I Ivanov
Control of charge transfer requires knowledge of its detailed mechanism. Due to the large number of known mechanisms, the identification of the mechanism in specific systems is a challenge so far. In this article we propose the idea of how to distinguish between thermal and nonequilibrium modes of charge recombination in excited donor-acceptor complexes. Simulations of the effect of solvent relaxation time scale on ultrafast charge recombination kinetics in photoexcited donor-acceptor complexes within the framework of the multichannel stochastic model have shown that a series of regularities inherent to the thermal and nonequilibrium charge transfer can strongly differ...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407718/perspectives-on-tactile-intervention-for-children-with-cerebral-palsy-a-framework-to-guide-clinical-reasoning-and-future-research
#17
Megan L Auld, Leanne M Johnston
PURPOSE: Many children with cerebral palsy (CP) are known to experience tactile impairments. Research evaluating specific interventions to manage this is, however, minimal. This paper seeks to consolidate current literature and provide a framework to help clinicians and researchers think strategically about tactile treatment selection and future research planning. METHOD: The framework is described via a novel analogy - "The Apartment Block Theory". The theory describes the relative effectiveness of three intervention strategies aimed at overcoming a poorly responsive tactile system: (1) Pressing the buzzer - providing repeated passive tactile stimulation at the periphery; (2) Sneaking in the door - providing active tactile-enhanced motor training that capitalises on the opportunity to provide high-dose tactile input during motor interventions; and (3) Connecting another way - providing visually enhanced touch strategies with the aim of enhancing tactile function, which can be compared to phoning the apartment as an alternative to using the buzzer...
April 14, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406675/how-does-it-feel-a-signal-detection-approach-to-feeling-generation
#18
Anat Karmon-Presser, Gal Sheppes, Nachshon Meiran
Feeling, or the subjective emotional experience, is a fundamental element of the emotional reaction, yet past attempts to understand the mechanisms of feeling generation remain limited. The current study presents a signal detection theory (SDT) conceptualization of feeling generation. Accordingly, feeling, like other sensations, reflects an outcome of an inner decision regarding the emotional evidence, and, therefore, can be evaluated via 2 processes: evidence differentiation (d')-the ability to emotionally differentiate between external stimuli, given the essentially noisy evidence-and criterion (c)-the report threshold, or amount of evidence needed to have an intense reportable feeling...
April 13, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406376/thinking-fast-increases-framing-effects-in-risky-decision-making
#19
Lisa Guo, Jennifer S Trueblood, Adele Diederich
Every day, people face snap decisions when time is a limiting factor. In addition, the way a problem is presented can influence people's choices, which creates what are known as framing effects. In this research, we explored how time pressure interacts with framing effects in risky decision making. Specifically, does time pressure strengthen or weaken framing effects? On one hand, research has suggested that framing effects evolve through the deliberation process, growing larger with time. On the other hand, dual-process theory attributes framing effects to an intuitive, emotional system that responds automatically to stimuli...
April 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406375/who-dares-who-errs-disentangling-cognitive-and-motivational-roots-of-age-differences-in-decisions-under-risk
#20
Thorsten Pachur, Rui Mata, Ralph Hertwig
We separate for the first time the roles of cognitive and motivational factors in shaping age differences in decision making under risk. Younger and older adults completed gain, loss, and mixed-domain choice problems as well as measures of cognitive functioning and affect. The older adults' decision quality was lower than the younger adults' in the loss domain, and this age difference was attributable to the older adults' lower cognitive abilities. In addition, the older adults chose the more risky option more often than the younger adults in the gain and mixed domains; this difference in risk aversion was attributable to less pronounced negative affect among the older adults...
April 2017: Psychological Science
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