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Matthew D Hale, Matthew Nankivell, Gordon G Hutchins, Sally P Stenning, Ruth E Langley, Wolfram Mueller, Nicholas P West, Alexander I Wright, Darren Treanor, Lindsay C Hewitt, William H Allum, David Cunningham, Jeremy D Hayden, Heike I Grabsch
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery is the standard of care for UK patients with locally advanced resectable oesophageal carcinoma (OeC). However, not all patients benefit from multimodal treatment and there is a clinical need for biomarkers which can identify chemotherapy responders. This study investigated whether the proportion of tumour cells per tumour area (PoT) measured in the pre-treatment biopsy predicts chemotherapy benefit for OeC patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: PoT was quantified using digitized haematoxylin/eosin stained pre-treatment biopsy slides from 281 OeC patients from the UK MRC OE02 trial (141 treated by surgery alone (S); 140 treated by 5-fluorouracil/cisplatin followed by surgery (CS))...
October 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Tânia Nobre, Manuela Oliveira, Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt
By definition, the domestication process leads to an overall reduction of crop genetic diversity. This lead to the current search of genomic regions in wild crop relatives (CWR), an important task for modern carrot breeding. Nowadays massive sequencing possibilities can allow for discovery of novel genetic resources in wild populations, but this quest could be aided by the use of a surrogate gene (to first identify and prioritize novel wild populations for increased sequencing effort). Alternative oxidase (AOX) gene family seems to be linked to all kinds of abiotic and biotic stress reactions in various organisms and thus have the potential to be used in the identification of CWR hotspots of environment-adapted diversity...
2016: PloS One
Surajeet Chakravarty, Miguel A Fonseca, Sudeep Ghosh, Sugata Marjit
We examine the impact of religious identity and village-level religious fragmentation on behavior in Tullock contests. We report on a series of two-player Tullock contest experiments conducted on a sample of 516 Hindu and Muslim participants in rural West Bengal, India. Our treatments are the identity of the two players and the degree of religious fragmentation in the village where subjects reside. Our main finding is that the effect of social identity is small and inconsistent across the two religious groups in our study...
2016: PloS One
Yendouban Lamboni, Kristian F Nielsen, Anita R Linnemann, Yüksel Gezgin, Kerstin Hell, Martinus J R Nout, Eddy J Smid, Manuele Tamo, Martinus A J S van Boekel, Jakob Blæsbjerg Hoof, Jens Christian Frisvad
In a previous study, raw cashew kernels were assayed for the fungal contamination focusing on strains belonging to the genus Aspergillus and on aflatoxins producers. These samples showed high contamination with Aspergillus section Nigri species and absence of aflatoxins. To investigate the diversity of secondary metabolites, including mycotoxins, the species of A. section Nigri may produce and thus threaten to contaminate the raw cashew kernels, 150 strains were isolated from cashew samples and assayed for their production of secondary metabolites using liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS)...
2016: PloS One
Amanda M West, Paul H Evangelista, Catherine S Jarnevich, Nicholas E Young, Thomas J Stohlgren, Colin Talbert, Marian Talbert, Jeffrey Morisette, Ryan Anderson
Early detection of invasive plant species is vital for the management of natural resources and protection of ecosystem processes. The use of satellite remote sensing for mapping the distribution of invasive plants is becoming more common, however conventional imaging software and classification methods have been shown to be unreliable. In this study, we test and evaluate the use of five species distribution model techniques fit with satellite remote sensing data to map invasive tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) along the Arkansas River in Southeastern Colorado...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Cornelia Mahler, Sarah Berger, Katherine Pollard, Johannes Krisam, Sven Karstens, Joachim Szecsenyi, Katja Krug
The implementation of a bachelor degree in Interprofessional Health Care at the University of Heidelberg, Germany, has fostered the need to evaluate the impact of this innovative programme. The University of the West of England Interprofessional Questionnaire (UWE-IP) was developed for longitudinal evaluation of an interprofessional curriculum. The UWE-IP consists of 35 items in four scales: "Communication and Teamwork Scale," "Interprofessional Learning Scale," "Interprofessional Interaction Scale," and "Interprofessional Relationships Scale...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Interprofessional Care
Xingguang Li, Junjie Zai, Haizhou Liu, Yi Feng, Fan Li, Jing Wei, Sen Zou, Zhiming Yuan, Yiming Shao
Following its immergence in December 2013, the recent Zaire Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa has spread and persisted for more than two years, making it the largest EBOV epidemic in both scale and geographical region to date. In this study, a total of 726 glycoprotein (GP) gene sequences of the EBOV full-length genome obtained from West Africa from the 2014 outbreak, combined with 30 from earlier outbreaks between 1976 and 2008 were used to investigate the genetic divergence, evolutionary history, population dynamics, and selection pressure of EBOV among distinct epidemic waves...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jafra D Thomas, J Mark Vanness, Bradley J Cardinal
The purpose of this study was to perform a construct validity assessment of Kendzierski's exercise self-schema theory questionnaire using objective measures of health-related physical fitness. This study tested the hypothesis that individuals with an exercise self-schema would possess significantly greater physical fitness than those who did not across three domains of health-related physical fitness: Body composition, cardiovascular fitness, and upper-body muscular endurance. Undergraduate student participants from one private university on the west coast of the United States completed informed consent forms and the exercise self-schema questionnaire within a classroom setting or at an on-campus outside tabling session...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
James West, W Warren Gill
Genome editing in large animals has tremendous practical applications, from more accurate models for medical research through improved animal welfare and production efficiency. Although genetic modification in large animals has a 30 year history, until recently technical issues limited its utility. The original methods - pronuclear injection and integrating viruses - were plagued with problems associated with low efficiency, silencing, poor regulation of gene expression, and variability associated with random integration...
June 2016: Journal of Equine Veterinary Science
Renata Havránková, Zuzana Freitinger Skalická, Jiří Havránek, Dana Novotná, Friedo Zölzer
Results are presented of a survey of almost 1000 dosimetric records of employees at the former uranium processing plant MAPE Mydlovary. Located ~20 km to the north-west of České Budějovice in South Bohemia, it was the place where most of the uranium ore mined in Czechoslovakia in the years from 1962 to 1991 was processed. The records refer to incorporation of short-lived radon progeny and long-lived radionuclides as well as external gamma exposure. The average annual doses calculated from the recorded data were 2...
October 7, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Kozo Kataoka, Kenichi Nakamura, Carmela Caballero, Serge Evrard, Anastassia Negrouk, Manabu Shiozawa, Laurence Collette, Haruhiko Fukuda, Denis Lacombe
The demand for international collaboration in cancer clinical trials has grown stronger to maximize efficiency, avoid duplication of effort and to achieve effective implementation of research results into medical practice. Infrastructures that could facilitate intercontinental collaboration not only between Europe and United States  but also between Europe and Asia are urgently needed. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer, one of the major cancer clinical research infrastructure in Europe, initiated collaboration with the Japan Clinical Oncology Group, the largest cancer research cooperative group in Japan...
October 20, 2016: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
Manuella Gautier, Michèle Gueneret, Corinne Plavonil, Eugénie Jolivet, Bruno Schaub
OBJECTIVE: To establish the normal reference range of fetal nasal bone length (NBL) during the second trimester in an Afro-Caribbean population and the likelihood ratio (LR) for fetal trisomy 21. METHODS: Prenatal records of euploid, non-malformed singleton fetuses who underwent second-trimester ultrasonographic scans at 20-24 weeks of gestation were retrospectively analyzed for NBL and gestational age (GA). Only Afro-Caribbean couples were selected. The relationship between fetal NBL and GA was determined...
October 21, 2016: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
Amara Krag, Gregory L Holmes
Infantile spasms, one of the catastrophic epilepsies, can be a diagnostic challenge since the clinical manifestations may be subtle and may mimic benign conditions. Because of the rarity of the condition, primary care physicians and pediatricians may never see a case of infantile spasms during their career and may be unfamiliar with the seizure semiology. This is a serious issue since there is evidence that early diagnosis and treatment may improve outcome. Patients and families are increasingly using the internet more than their physician as a source of medical information about epilepsy...
October 17, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Xin Tong, Jiani Chen, Sung-Pa Park, Xi Wang, Chiyi Wang, Minglian Su, Dong Zhou
The aim of this study was to better understand social support in adult people with epilepsy (PWE) in China and to explore the factors related to weaker or stronger social support in PWE when compared with a group of matching healthy controls. Consecutively, we recruited PWE from the epilepsy outpatient clinic of the West China Hospital and healthy controls from nearby urban and rural areas. People with epilepsy and healthy controls were gender- and age-matched. Each participant was interviewed and completed the following instruments: the Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)...
October 17, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Yuxiao Wang, Jingxin Li, Yuemei Hu, Qi Liang, Mingwei Wei, Fengcai Zhu
Ebola virus disease (EVD) has become a great threat to humans across the world in recent years. The 2014 Ebola epidemic in West Africa caused numerous deaths and attracted worldwide attentions. Since no specific drugs and treatments against EVD was available, vaccination was considered as the most promising and effective method of controlling this epidemic. So far, 7 vaccine candidates had been developed and evaluated through clinical trials. Among them, the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccine (rVSV-EBOV) is the most promising candidate, which demonstrated a significant protection against EVD in phase III clinical trial...
October 20, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Essowè Palanga, Denis Filloux, Darren P Martin, Emmanuel Fernandez, Daniel Gargani, Romain Ferdinand, Jean Zabré, Zakaria Bouda, James Bouma Neya, Mahamadou Sawadogo, Oumar Traore, Michel Peterschmitt, Philippe Roumagnac
Cowpea, (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp)) is an annual tropical grain legume. Often referred to as "poor man's meat", cowpea is one of the most important subsistence legumes cultivated in West Africa due to the high protein content of its seeds. However, African cowpea production can be seriously constrained by viral diseases that reduce yields. While twelve cowpea-infecting viruses have been reported from Africa, only three of these have so-far been reported from Burkina Faso. Here we use a virion-associated nucleic acids (VANA)-based metagenomics method to screen for the presence of cowpea viruses from plants collected from the three agro-climatic zones of Burkina Faso...
2016: PloS One
Leyla Ismayilova, Eleni Gaveras, Austin Blum, Alexice Tô-Camier, Rachel Nanema
OBJECTIVES: Research about the mental health of children in Francophone West Africa is scarce. This paper examines the relationships between adverse childhood experiences, including exposure to violence and exploitation, and mental health outcomes among children living in ultra-poverty in rural Burkina Faso. METHODS: This paper utilizes baseline data collected from 360 children ages 10-15 and 360 of their mothers recruited from twelve impoverished villages in the Nord Region of Burkina, located near the Sahel Desert and affected by extreme food insecurity...
2016: PloS One
Marie Louise Landry, Kirsten St George
CONTEXT: -The rapid and accurate diagnosis of Zika virus infection is an international priority. OBJECTIVE: -To review current recommendations, methods, limitations, and priorities for Zika virus testing. DATA SOURCES: -Sources include published literature, public health recommendations, laboratory procedures, and testing experience. CONCLUSIONS: -Until recently, the laboratory diagnosis of Zika infection was confined to public health or research laboratories that prepared their own reagents, and test capacity has been limited...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
David Sagar, Marcus West
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Analytical Psychology
David Sagar, Marcus West
This paper explores the process of psychological and spiritual development through a series of active imaginations arising from the author's 'psycho-spiritual quest', a process of transformation in which the individual progressively frees themselves from the ego's identifications and may be afforded a vision of the 'self as consciousness', as described by Vedanta. The author describes how this quest was facilitated by the disciplines of Transcendental Meditation, Jungian analysis and Vedanta, and how these three disciplines can work together to foster psycho-spiritual development...
November 2016: Journal of Analytical Psychology
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