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Jessica L Hochstetler, A Jill Thompson, Natalie M Ball, Melissa C Evans, Shaun C Frame, A Lauren Haney, Amelia K Little, Jaime L O'Donnell, Bryna M Rickett, Elizabeth H Mack
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether implementing a guideline to bolus medications from continuous infusions in PICUs affects nursing satisfaction, patient safety, central line entries, medication utilization, or cost. DESIGN: This is a pre- and postimplementation quality improvement study. SETTING: An 11-bed ICU and 14-bed cardiac ICU in a university-affiliated children's hospital. PATIENTS: Patients less than 18 years old admitted to the PICU or pediatric cardiac ICU receiving a continuous infusion of dexmedetomidine, midazolam, fentanyl, morphine, vecuronium, or cisatracurium from May 2015 to May 2016, excluding November 2015 (washout period), were eligible for inclusion...
April 12, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Ryan E O'Donnell, Andrew Clement, James R Brockmole
Visual working memory (VWM) has a limited capacity of approximately 3-4 visual objects. Current theories of VWM propose that a limited pool of resources can be flexibly allocated to objects, allowing them to be represented at varying levels of precision. Factors that influence the allocation of these resources, such as the complexity and perceptual grouping of objects, can thus affect the capacity of VWM. We sought to identify whether semantic and functional relationships between objects could influence the grouping of objects, thereby increasing the functional capacity of VWM...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
N Bionghi, A Daftary, B Maharaj, Z Msibi, K R Amico, G Friedland, C Orrell, N Padayatchi, M R O'Donnell
BACKGROUND: The introduction of Bedaquiline, the first new antimycobacterial drug in over 40 years, has highlighted the critical importance of medication adherence in drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) treatment to prevent amplified drug-resistance and derive sustained benefit. Real-time electronic dose monitoring (EDM) accurately measures adherence and allows for titration of adherence support for anti-retroviral therapy (ART). The goal of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and acceptability of a next-generation electronic pillbox (Wisepill RT2000) for Bedaquiline-containing TB regimens...
April 11, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Muzammil Memon, Jeffrey Kay, Philip Hache, Nicole Simunovic, Joshua D Harris, John O'Donnell, Olufemi R Ayeni
PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the rate at which patients return to sport following arthroscopic hip surgery. METHODS: The databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed were searched by two reviewers, and titles, abstracts, and full-text articles screened in duplicate. English language studies investigating hip arthroscopy with reported return to sport outcomes were included. A meta-analysis of proportions was used to combine the rate of return to sports using a random effects model...
April 7, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Andrew Flick, Hong Xia Ding, Carolyn A Leverett, Sarah J Fink, Christopher J O'Donnell
New drugs introduced to the market every year represent privileged structures for particular biological targets. These new chemical entities (NCEs) provide insight into molecular recognition while serving as leads for designing future new drugs. This annual review describes the most likely process-scale synthetic approaches to nineteen new chemical entities (NCEs) that were approved for the first time in 2016.
April 5, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Samuel E Munoz, Liviu Giosan, Matthew D Therrell, Jonathan W F Remo, Zhixiong Shen, Richard M Sullivan, Charlotte Wiman, Michelle O'Donnell, Jeffrey P Donnelly
Over the past century, many of the world's major rivers have been modified for the purposes of flood mitigation, power generation and commercial navigation. Engineering modifications to the Mississippi River system have altered the river's sediment levels and channel morphology, but the influence of these modifications on flood hazard is debated. Detecting and attributing changes in river discharge is challenging because instrumental streamflow records are often too short to evaluate the range of natural hydrological variability before the establishment of flood mitigation infrastructure...
April 4, 2018: Nature
Amanda E Lyall, Peter Savadjiev, Elisabetta C Del Re, Johanna Seitz, Lauren J O'Donnell, Carl-Fredrik Westin, Raquelle I Mesholam-Gately, Tracey Petryshen, Joanne D Wojcik, Paul Nestor, Margaret Niznikiewicz, Jill Goldstein, Larry J Seidman, Robert W McCarley, Martha E Shenton, Marek Kubicki
Schizophrenia has been characterized as a neurodevelopmental disorder, with structural brain abnormalities reported at all stages. However, at present, it remains unclear whether gray and white matter abnormalities represent related or independent pathologies in schizophrenia. In this study, we present findings from an integrative analysis exploring the morphological relationship between gray and white matter in 45 schizophrenia participants and 49 healthy controls. We utilized mutual information (MI), a measure of how much information two variables share, to assess the morphological dependence between gray and white matter in three segments of the corpus callsoum, and the gray matter regions these segments connect: (1) the genu and the left and right rostral middle frontal gyrus (rMFG), (2) the isthmus and the left and right superior temporal gyrus (STG), (3) the splenium and the left and right lateral occipital gyrus (LOG)...
April 3, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Sarah E Deery, Thomas F X O'Donnell, Sara L Zettervall, Jeremy D Darling, Katie E Shean, A James O'Malley, Bruce E Landon, Marc L Schermerhorn
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: While higher lead surgeon volume has been associated with lower mortality following open abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair, little is known about the impact of using an attending surgeon as assistant surgeon. The aim of this study was to determine whether the presence of an assistant surgeon, particularly a high volume assistant, mitigates the relationship between lead surgeon volume and outcomes. METHODS: All Medicare beneficiaries who underwent intact, open AAA repair between 2003 and 2008 were evaluated and nested regression models were constructed to evaluate the relationship between surgeon and assistant volume and peri-operative mortality, adjusting for comorbid conditions and hospital volume...
March 30, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Kathryn L O'Connor, C Dain Allred, Kenneth L Cameron, Darren E Campbell, Christopher J D'Lauro, Megan N Houston, Brian R Johnson, Tim F Kelly, Gerald McGinty, Patrick G O'Donnell, Karen Y Peck, Steven J Svoboda, Paul Pasquina, Thomas McAllister, Michael McCrea, Steven P Broglio
Introduction: The prevalence and possible long-term consequences of concussion remain an increasing concern to the U.S. military, particularly as it pertains to maintaining a medically ready force. Baseline testing is being used both in the civilian and military domains to assess concussion injury and recovery. Accurate interpretation of these baseline assessments requires one to consider other influencing factors not related to concussion. To date, there is limited understanding, especially within the military, of what factors influence normative test performance...
March 28, 2018: Military Medicine
Joseph A Himle, Deborah Bybee, Lisa A O'Donnell, Addie Weaver, Sarah Vlnka, Daniel T DeSena, Jessica M Rimer
Habit Reversal Therapy (HRT) is helpful for many persons suffering from trichotillomania. However successful habit reversal therapy requires awareness of hair pulling behaviors. Available methods to monitor hair pulling behaviors are less than ideal, particularly when sufferers are unaware of their pulling-related behaviors. This open feasibility trial included 20 persons with trichotillomania who were treated with nine weeks of HRT with experienced clinicians following a well-established HRT protocol. HRT was augmented with an electronic Awareness Enhancing and Monitoring Device (AEMD) designed to alert users of hand to head contact and to monitor the frequency of pulling-related behaviors...
January 2018: Journal of Obsessive-compulsive and related Disorders
Manuel V Borca, Vivian O'Donnell, Lauren G Holinka, Elizabeth Ramírez-Medina, Benjamin A Clark, Elizabeth A Vuono, Keith Berggren, Marialexia Alfano, Lucas B Carey, Juergen A Richt, Guillermo R Risatti, Douglas P Gladue
African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a contagious and frequently lethal disease of pigs causing significant economic consequences to the swine industry. The ASFV genome encodes for more than 150 genes, but only a few of them have been studied in detail. Here we report the characterization of open reading frame L83L which encodes a highly conserved protein across all ASFV isolates. A recombinant ASFV harboring a HA tagged L83L protein was developed (ASFV-G-L83L-HA) and used to demonstrate that L83L is a transiently expressed early virus protein...
March 29, 2018: Virus Research
Francis J Ha, Hui-Chen Han, Prashanthan Sanders, Andrew W Teh, David O'Donnell, Omar Farouque, Han S Lim
INTRODUCTION: Atrio-esophageal fistula (AEF) is a dire complication of atrial fibrillation ablation. The diagnostic yield of computed tomography (CT) chest, the role and timing of repeat testing, and the value of other investigations in the diagnosis of AEF is uncertain. METHODS: We systematically reviewed published AEF cases to evaluate radiological, bedside and biochemical investigations for AEF (registered on PROSPERO [CRD42017077493]). RESULTS: Eighty-seven articles with 126 patients (median age, 59 years; male, 71%) were included in the analysis...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
Callum F O'Donnell, S Chaitanya Kumar, K T Zawilski, P G Schunemann, M Ebrahim-Zadeh
We report a high-repetition-rate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO) for the deep-infrared (deep-IR) based on type-I critical phase-matching in CdSiP2 (CSP), pumped directly by a Ti:sapphire laser. Using angle-tuning in the CSP crystal, the OPO can be continuously tuned across 7306-8329 nm (1201-1369  cm-1 ) in the deep-IR. It delivers up to 18 mW of idler average power at 7306 nm and >7  mW beyond 8000 nm at 80.5 MHz repetition rate, with the spectra exhibiting bandwidths of >150  nm across the tuning range...
April 1, 2018: Optics Letters
Jesus G Ovejero, Soon Joon Yoon, Junwei Li, Alvaro Mayoral, Xiaohu Gao, Matthew O'Donnell, Miguel A García, Pilar Herrasti, Antonio Hernando
This article describes a novel synthetic route to obtain hybrid nanostructures that combine the plasmonic properties of gold nanorods with the magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles in a robust silica nanostructure. The silica matrix enhances the physico-chemical stability of the nanostructure and preserves its magneto-plasmonic properties by avoiding the interface between gold and iron oxide. In addition, the magneto-plasmonic features of the nanohybrids can be tuned due to the independent synthesis of each component...
January 25, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Grainne Butler, Colm Breatnach, Sinead Harty, Patrick Gavin, Colm O'Donnell, Michael J O'Grady
BACKGROUND: A survey of paediatric higher specialist trainees was carried out in 2002 assessing career intentions and perception of training. Fourteen years later, with increased numbers of trainees and a national model of care and a tertiary paediatric hospital on the horizon, we re-evaluated the career intentions of the current trainee workforce. AIMS: To assess the career intentions of the current paediatric higher specialist trainees. METHODS: A 28-item questionnaire was developed based on a previously validated instrument and distributed online using the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland trainee database...
March 27, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Kathryn A O'Donnell
Large-scale genome sequencing studies have identified a wealth of mutations in human tumors and have dramatically advanced the field of cancer genetics. However, the functional consequences of an altered gene in tumor progression cannot always be inferred from mutation status alone. This underscores the critical need for complementary methods to assign functional significance to mutated genes in cancer. Transposons are mobile genetic elements that serve as powerful tools for insertional mutagenesis. Over the last decade, investigators have employed mouse models with on-demand transposon-mediated mutagenesis to perform unbiased genetic screens to identify clinically relevant genes that participate in the pathogenesis of human cancer...
March 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
J R Zelnick, B Seepamore, A Daftary, K R Amico, X Bhengu, G Friedland, N Padayatchi, K Naidoo, M R O'Donnell
KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, is the epicenter of an epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection, characterized by low rates of medication adherence and retention in care. Social workers may have a unique role to play in improving DR-TB-HIV outcomes. We designed, implemented and evaluated a model-based pilot training course on patient-centered care, treatment literacy in DR-TB and HIV coinfection, patient support group facilitation, and self-care. Ten social workers participated in a 1-day training course...
March 21, 2018: Public Health Action
Sarine S Janetsian-Fritz, Nicholas M Timme, Aqilah M McCane, Anthony J Baucum Ii, Brian F O'Donnell, Christopher C Lapish
Early life trauma is a risk factor for a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia (SZ). The current study assessed how an early life traumatic event, maternal deprivation (MD), alters cognition and brain function in rodents. Rats were maternally deprived in the early postnatal period and then recognition memory (RM) was tested in adulthood using the novel object recognition task. The expression of catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) were quantified in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), ventral striatum, and temporal cortex (TC)...
March 27, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Thomas F X O'Donnell, Sarah E Deery, Katie E Shean, Murray A Mittleman, Jeremy D Darling, Mohammad H Eslami, Randall R DeMartino, Marc L Schermerhorn
BACKGROUND: Although preoperative and perioperative statin therapy improves postoperative outcomes in several populations, few data examine its association with survival after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. In addition, no data exist regarding the benefits of starting statins in patients with AAA not currently taking them. METHODS: We performed a registry-based study of all patients undergoing repair of AAAs in the Vascular Quality Initiative between 2003 and 2017 without documented statin intolerance...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Rebecca J Song, Xuan-Mai T Nguyen, Rachel Quaden, Yuk-Lam Ho, Amy C Justice, David R Gagnon, Kelly Cho, Christopher J O'Donnell, John Concato, J Michael Gaziano, Luc Djoussé
Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with a lower risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in the general population but has not been well studied in US veterans. We obtained self-reported alcohol consumption from Million Veteran Program participants. Using electronic health records, CAD events were defined as 1 inpatient or 2 outpatient diagnosis codes for CAD, or 1 code for a coronary procedure. We excluded participants with prevalent CAD (n = 69,995) or incomplete alcohol information (n = 8,449)...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
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