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Hyperinflation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298960/lung-volume-reduction-coils-as-a-novel-bronchoscopic-treatment-for-emphysema
#1
Timothy A Connolly
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite regular advances in pharmacology, there remains great potential for addressing structural deficiencies, especially in emphysema. The loss of alveolar attachments to small bronchial tubes results in diffuse loss of elastic recoil and airway collapse during exhalation. This appears physiologically as hyperinflation of lung volumes with flattened diaphragms and significantly elevated residual volumes (RV) on pulmonary function testing (predicted RV > 175%)...
October 2016: Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275174/physiological-and-clinical-relevance-of-exercise-ventilatory-efficiency-in-copd
#2
REVIEW
J Alberto Neder, Danilo C Berton, Flavio F Arbex, Maria Clara Alencar, Alcides Rocha, Priscila A Sperandio, Paolo Palange, Denis E O'Donnell
Exercise ventilation (V'E) relative to carbon dioxide output (V'CO2 ) is particularly relevant to patients limited by the respiratory system, e.g. those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). High V'E-V'CO2 (poor ventilatory efficiency) has been found to be a key physiological abnormality in symptomatic patients with largely preserved forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). Establishing an association between high V'E-V'CO2 and exertional dyspnoea in mild COPD provides evidence that exercise intolerance is not a mere consequence of detraining...
March 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270675/spontaneous-hyperinflation-of-an-intragastric-balloon-5-months-after-insertion
#3
Sindhu Barola, Abhishek Agnihotri, Angela Chang Chiu, Anthony N Kalloo, Vivek Kumbhari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270543/clinical-and-functional-lung-parameters-associated-with-frequent-exacerbator-phenotype-in-subjects-with-severe-copd
#4
Alberto Capozzolo, Pierluigi Carratù, Silvano Dragonieri, Vito Antonio Falcone, Vitaliano Nicola Quaranta, Vito Liotino, Giuseppina D'Alba, Giorgio Castellana, Onofrio Resta
BACKGROUND: COPD is currently recognized as a syndrome associated with a high prevalence of comorbidities and various phenotypes. Exacerbations are very important events in the clinical history of COPD because they drive the decline in lung function. In the present study, we aim to identify whether there are any clinical and functional specific features of frequent exacerbators in a population of patients with severe COPD. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, case control study...
March 7, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255811/sagittal-lung-ct-measurements-in-the-evaluation-of-asthma-copd-overlap-syndrome-a-distinctive-phenotype-from-copd-alone
#5
Yanjuan Qu, Yiyuan Cao, Meiyan Liao, Zhiyan Lu
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at investigating the capability of sagittal-lung computed tomography (CT) measurements in differentiating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). METHODS: Clinical and high-resolution CT of 229 patients including 123 pure COPD patients and 106 ACOS patients were included. Sagittal-lung CT measurements in terms of bilateral lung height (LH), anterior-posterior lung diameter (APLD), diaphragm height (DH), and anterior sterno-diaphragmatic angle (ASDA), as well as inter-pulmonary septum length (IPSL) on axial images were measured both before and after bronchodilator (BD) administration...
March 3, 2017: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243777/blood-pooling-in-extrathoracic-veins-after-glossopharyngeal-insufflation
#6
Tanja Mijacika, Daria Frestad, Kasper Kyhl, Otto Barak, Ivan Drvis, Niels H Secher, Ante Buca, Ante Obad, Zeljko Dujic, Per Lav Madsen
PURPOSE: Trained breath-hold divers hyperinflate their lungs by glossopharyngeal insufflation (GPI) to prolong submersion time and withstand lung collapse at depths. Pulmonary hyperinflation leads to profound hemodynamic changes. METHODS: Thirteen divers performed preparatory breath-holds followed by apnea with GPI. Filling of extrathoracic veins was determined by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging and peripheral extravasation of fluid was assessed by electrical impedance...
February 27, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225822/a-reconfiguration-of-the-sex-trade-how-social-and-structural-changes-in-eastern-zimbabwe-left-women-involved-in-sex-work-and-transactional-sex-more-vulnerable
#7
Jocelyn Elmes, Morten Skovdal, Kundai Nhongo, Helen Ward, Catherine Campbell, Timothy B Hallett, Constance Nyamukapa, Peter J White, Simon Gregson
Understanding the dynamic nature of sex work is important for explaining the course of HIV epidemics. While health and development interventions targeting sex workers may alter the dynamics of the sex trade in particular localities, little has been done to explore how large-scale social and structural changes, such as economic recessions-outside of the bounds of organizational intervention-may reconfigure social norms and attitudes with regards to sex work. Zimbabwe's economic collapse in 2009, following a period (2000-2009) of economic decline, within a declining HIV epidemic, provides a unique opportunity to study community perceptions of the impact of socio-economic upheaval on the sex trade...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223790/longitudinal-changes-in-lung-hyperinflation-in-copd
#8
Jimyung Park, Chang-Hoon Lee, Yeon Joo Lee, Jong Sun Park, Young-Jae Cho, Jae Ho Lee, Choon-Taek Lee, Ho Il Yoon
PURPOSE: COPD is characterized by an accelerated and progressive decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and lung hyperinflation. Although lung hyperinflation is the hallmark of COPD, data on the longitudinal changes in lung hyperinflation and any association with the decline in FEV1 are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the longitudinal changes in lung hyperinflation and to investigate its relationship with FEV1 decline. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study and studied 176 COPD patients with annual lung volume measurements over a period of 5 years or more...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221172/interventional-pulmonology-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#9
Daniela Gompelmann, Nilab Sarmand, Felix J F Herth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema are widespread diseases associated with progressive dyspnea because of airflow limitation and hyperinflation. Fundamental therapeutic strategies consist of pulmonary rehabilitation, pharmacotherapy, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive ventilation, and surgical therapeutic approaches. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last 14 years, endoscopic therapeutic modalities emerged as a substantial part of severe COPD and emphysema treatment...
February 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214133/dynamic-hyperinflation-in-patients-with-asthma-and-exercise-induced-bronchoconstriction
#10
Olga Mediano, Raquel Casitas, Carlos Villasante, Elisabet Martínez-Cerón, Raúl Galera, Ester Zamarrón, Francisco García-Río
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the behavior of operative lung volumes during exercise in patients with asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). OBJECTIVES: To compare the presence of dynamic hyperinflation (DH) in patients with mild asthma with and without EIB and in healthy individuals and to relate the changes in end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) with postexercise airflow reduction. METHODS: A total of 122 consecutive stable patients (>12 years of age) with mild asthma and 38 controls were studied...
February 14, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203436/chest-physiotherapy-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients-without-pneumonia-a-narrative-review
#11
REVIEW
Herbert D Spapen, Jouke De Regt, Patrick M Honoré
A beneficial adjuvant role of chest physiotherapy (CPT) to promote airway clearance, alveolar recruitment, and ventilation/perfusion matching in mechanically ventilated (MV) patients with pneumonia or relapsing lung atelectasis is commonly accepted. However, doubt prevails regarding the usefulness of applying routine CPT in MV subjects with no such lung diseases. In-depth narrative review based on a literature search for prospective randomized trials comparing CPT with a non-CPT strategy in adult patients ventilated for at least 48 h...
January 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199243/intraabdominal-surgery-and-anesthesia-management
#12
John Hedley-Whyte
Inspired Oxygenation in Surgical Patients During General Anesthesia With Controlled Ventilation: A Concept of Atelectasis. By Bendixen HH, Hedley-Whyte J, and Laver MB. New Engl J Med 1963; 269:991-996. Reprinted with permission. ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine if the pattern of ventilation, by itself, influences oxygenation during anesthesia and surgery and examine the hypothesis that progressive pulmonary atelectasis may occur during constant ventilation whenever periodic hyperventilation is lacking, but is reversible by passive hyperinflation of the lungs...
March 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194830/parasternal-intercostal-muscle-activity-during-methacholine-induced-bronchoconstriction
#13
Victoria MacBean, Claire L Pringle, Alan C Lunt, Keith D Sharp, Ashraf Ali, Anne Greenough, John Moxham, Gerrard F Rafferty
Neural respiratory drive, measured via the parasternal intercostal electromyogram (EMGpara), provides a non-invasive index of the load-capacity balance of the respiratory muscle pump. Previous studies in patients with obstructive lung disease have shown strong relationships between EMGpara and the extent of both airflow obstruction and hyperinflation. The relative influence of the two factors has not, however, been described. Airflow obstruction was induced via methacholine challenge testing in twenty-five adult humans...
February 14, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185721/approaches-and-adjuncts-used-by-physiotherapists-when-suctioning-adult-patients-who-are-intubated-and-ventilated-in-intensive-care-units-in-australia-and-new-zealand-a-cross-sectional-survey
#14
Charissa S L Tan, Meg Harrold, Kylie Hill
BACKGROUND: Suctioning is an integral component of care for patients who are intubated and ventilated in an intensive care unit (ICU). There appears to be no published data of physiotherapy suctioning practices in Australia or New Zealand. OBJECTIVE: To describe suctioning practices and the factors which have shaped these practices, of experienced physiotherapists working with adults who are intubated and ventilated in an ICU across Australia and New Zealand. Areas of investigation focused on: (i) suctioning approach (i...
February 6, 2017: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182686/predicting-structure-function-relations-and-survival-following-surgical-and-bronchoscopic-lung-volume-reduction-treatment-of-emphysema
#15
Jarred R Mondoñedo, Béla Suki
Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) and bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (bLVR) are palliative treatments aimed at reducing hyperinflation in advanced emphysema. Previous work has evaluated functional improvements and survival advantage for these techniques, although their effects on the micromechanical environment in the lung have yet to be determined. Here, we introduce a computational model to simulate a force-based destruction of elastic networks representing emphysema progression, which we use to track the response to lung volume reduction via LVRS and bLVR...
February 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142136/feasibility-and-safety-of-a-transthoracic-pneumostoma-airway-bypass-in-severe-emphysema-patients
#16
Gregory I Snell, Lynda Holsworth, Sadie Khorramnia, Glen P Westall, Trevor J Williams, Silvana Marasco, Julian H Gooi
BACKGROUND: Emphysema is characterised by airflow obstruction, hyperinflation, and resultant dyspnoea. It is worth investigating whether decompression improves lung mechanics and enhances quality of life (QoL). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to describe the feasibility and safety of creating a transthoracic pneumostoma to enable lung reduction. METHODS: A transthoracic 10-mm diameter Portaero Access Tube (Portaero™, Cupertino, CA, USA) was implanted via a third intercostal space incision in 15 severe emphysema patients [mean age 63 years, forced expiratory volume in 1 s 54% predicted, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide 31% predicted, residual volume 246% predicted, Six-Minute Walk Test 296 m]...
February 1, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132419/detection-of-smoothly-distributed-spatial-outliers-with-applications-to-identifying-the-distribution-of-parenchymal-hyperinflation-following-an-airway-challenge-in-asthmatics
#17
Andrew L Thurman, Jiwoong Choi, Sanghun Choi, Ching-Long Lin, Eric A Hoffman, Chang Hyun Lee, Kung-Sik Chan
Methacholine challenge tests are used to measure changes in pulmonary function that indicate symptoms of asthma. In addition to pulmonary function tests, which measure global changes in pulmonary function, computed tomography images taken at full inspiration before and after administration of methacholine provide local air volume changes (hyper-inflation post methacholine) at individual acinar units, indicating local airway hyperresponsiveness. Some of the acini may have extreme air volume changes relative to the global average, indicating hyperresponsiveness, and those extreme values may occur in clusters...
January 29, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124966/-a-case-of-bronchiolitis-obliterans-secondary-to-human-metapneumovirus-bronchiolitis
#18
Osman Yeşilbaş, Esra Şevketoğlu, Hasan Serdar Kıhtır, Mey Talip Petmezci, Elif Bato, Seda Balkaya, Nevin Hatipoğlu, Mert Ahmet Kuşkucu, Figen Palabıyık, Erkan Çakır
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV), formerly classified in Paramyxoviridae family is now moved into Pneumoviridae, which was described as a novel family. It causes upper and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) usually in children younger than five years old. The recent epidemiological studies indicated that hMPV is the second most frequently detected virus in LRTIs of young children, following the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is a chronic obstructive lung disease characterized by fibrosis of the distal respiratory airways...
October 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119488/altered-lung-structure-and-function-in-mid-childhood-survivors-of-very-preterm-birth
#19
Shannon J Simpson, Karla M Logie, Christopher A O'Dea, Georgia L Banton, Conor Murray, Andrew C Wilson, J Jane Pillow, Graham L Hall
RATIONALE: Survivors of preterm birth are at risk of chronic and lifelong pulmonary disease. Follow-up data describing lung structure and function are scarce in children born preterm during the surfactant era. OBJECTIVES: To obtain comprehensive data on lung structure and function in mid-childhood from survivors of preterm birth. We aimed to explore relationships between lung structure, lung function and respiratory morbidity as well as early life contributors to poorer childhood respiratory outcomes...
January 24, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109942/effect-of-pulmonary-rehabilitation-on-tidal-expiratory-flow-limitation-at-rest-and-during-exercise-in-copd-patients
#20
Elpida P Theodorakopoulou, Sofia-Antiopi Gennimata, Maria Harikiopoulou, Georgios Kaltsakas, Anastasios Palamidas, Antonia Koutsoukou, Charis Roussos, Epameinondas N Kosmas, Petros Bakakos, Nickolaos G Koulouris
We hypothesized that severe COPD patients who present with the disadvantageous phenomenon of Expiratory Flow Limitation (EFL) may benefit as COPD patients without EFL do after implementation of a Pulmonary Rehabilitation (PR) program. Forty-two stable COPD patients were studied at rest and during exercise. EFL and dynamic hyperinflation (DH) were documented using the negative expiratory pressure (NEP) technique and inspiratory capacity (IC) maneuvers, respectively. Patient centered outcomes were evaluated by the Saint-George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and the mMRC dyspnea scale...
January 18, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
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