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Acute mountain sickness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216727/high-altitude-dermatology
#1
Lt Col G K Singh
Approximately, 140 million people worldwide live permanently at high altitudes (HAs) and approximately another 40 million people travel to HA area (HAA) every year for reasons of occupation, sports or recreation. In India, whole of Ladakh region, part of Northwest Kashmir, Northern part of Sikkim and Tenga valley of Arunachal are considered inhabited areas of HAA. The low quantity of oxygen, high exposure of ultraviolet (UV) light, very low humidity, extreme subzero temperature in winter, high wind velocity, make this region difficult for lowlanders as well as for tourists...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149514/acute-mountain-sickness-amongst-tourists-to-lhasa
#2
Gaurav Sikri, Srinivasa Bhattachar
Acute mountain sickness is the commonest acute high altitude illness occurring at high altitude. Its prevalence is dependent on the ascent rate, altitude achieved, physical effort required to reach the target altitude and pharmacological intervention undertaken by the tourists visiting high altitude areas. This Letter to the Editor is an endeavour to re-emphasise the importance of all these factors affecting the prevalence of acute mountain sickness.
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143879/acute-high-altitude-sickness
#3
Andrew M Luks, Erik R Swenson, Peter Bärtsch
At any point 1-5 days following ascent to altitudes ≥2500 m, individuals are at risk of developing one of three forms of acute altitude illness: acute mountain sickness, a syndrome of nonspecific symptoms including headache, lassitude, dizziness and nausea; high-altitude cerebral oedema, a potentially fatal illness characterised by ataxia, decreased consciousness and characteristic changes on magnetic resonance imaging; and high-altitude pulmonary oedema, a noncardiogenic form of pulmonary oedema resulting from excessive hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction which can be fatal if not recognised and treated promptly...
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069461/is-acute-mountain-sickness-related-to-trait-anxiety-a-normobaric-chamber-study
#4
Martin Niedermeier, Robb Waanders, Verena Menz, Maria Wille, Martin Kopp, Martin Burtscher
INTRODUCTION: Some mountaineers are more prone to the occurrence of acute mountain sickness (AMS) than others. State anxiety during altitude exposure might be associated with AMS development. We hypothesized that trait anxiety might be higher in AMS cases compared to non-AMS cases. The aim of the present study was to study the relationship between AMS development and trait anxiety. METHODS: In an observational study design, AMS incidence during a 12-hour exposure to normobaric hypoxia (FiO2=12...
January 6, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063399/sleep-quality-among-elderly-high-altitude-dwellers-in-ladakh
#5
Ryota Sakamoto, Kiyohito Okumiya, Tsering Norboo, Norboo Tsering, Takayoshi Yamaguchi, Mitsuhiro Nose, Shinya Takeda, Toshihiro Tsukihara, Motonao Ishikawa, Shun Nakajima, Taizo Wada, Michiko Fujisawa, Hissei Imai, Yasuko Ishimoto, Yumi Kimura, Eriko Fukutomi, Wenling Chen, Kuniaki Otsuka, Kozo Matsubayashi
It has been already known that people who temporarily stay at high altitude may develop insomnia as a symptom of acute mountain sickness. However, much less is known about people living at high altitude. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of high altitude environment on sleep quality for the elderly who have been living at high altitude for their whole lives. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Domkhar valley at altitudes of 2800-4200m, Ladakh. Sleep quality was assessed using Insomnia Severity Index (ISI)...
December 29, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982053/analysis-of-high-altitude-syndrome-and-the-underlying-gene-polymorphisms-associated-with-acute-mountain-sickness-after-a-rapid-ascent-to-high-altitude
#6
Jie Yu, Ying Zeng, Guozhu Chen, Shizhu Bian, Youzhu Qiu, Xi Liu, Baida Xu, Pan Song, Jihang Zhang, Jun Qin, Lan Huang
To investigated the objective indicators and potential genotypes for acute mountain sickness (AMS). 176 male subjects were evaluated for symptoms scores and physiological parameters at 3700 m. EPAS1 gene polymorphisms were explored and verified effects of potential genotypes on pulmonary function by inhaled budesonide. The incidence of AMS was 53.98% (95/176). The individuals who suffered from headache with anxiety and greater changes in heart rate (HR), the forced vital capacity (FVC), and mean flow velocity of basilar artery (Vm-BA), all of which were likely to develop AMS...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913463/single-dose-intravenous-iron-for-iron-deficiency-a-new-paradigm
#7
Michael Auerbach, Thomas Deloughery
Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common hematologic problem in the world. Although oral iron is often viewed as front-line therapy, extensive published evidence has accumulated that IV iron is superior, in both efficacy and safety, to oral iron in many clinical situations and should be introduced much sooner in the treatment paradigm of iron-deficient patients. In this chapter, we will review the formulations of IV iron that allow total complete replacement doses in 1 or 2 sessions including practical tips for administration...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888818/high-altitude-illness
#8
Anna Hartman-Ksycińska, Jolanta Kluz-Zawadzka, Bogumił Lewandowski
High-altitude illness is a result of prolonged high-altitude exposure of unacclimatized individuals. The illness is seen in the form of acute mountain sickness (AMS) which if not treated leads to potentially life-threatening high altitude pulmonary oedema and high-altitude cerebral oedema. Medical problems are caused by hypobaric hypoxia stimulating hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) release. As a result, the central nervous system, circulation and respiratory system function impairment occurs. The most important factor in AMS treatment is acclimatization, withdrawing further ascent and rest or beginning to descent; oxygen supplementation, and pharmacological intervention, and, if available, a portable hyperbaric chamber...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847819/acute-mountain-sickness-symptoms-depend-on-normobaric-versus-hypobaric-hypoxia
#9
Dana M DiPasquale, Gary E Strangman, N Stuart Harris, Stephen R Muza
Acute mountain sickness (AMS), characterized by headache, nausea, fatigue, and dizziness when unacclimatized individuals rapidly ascend to high altitude, is exacerbated by exercise and can be disabling. Although AMS is observed in both normobaric (NH) and hypobaric hypoxia (HH), recent evidence suggests that NH and HH produce different physiological responses. We evaluated whether AMS symptoms were different in NH and HH during the initial stages of exposure and if the assessment tool mattered. Seventy-two 8 h exposures to normobaric normoxia (NN), NH, or HH were experienced by 36 subjects...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788038/history-of-migraine-predicts-headache-at-high-altitude
#10
Christopher Davis, Elaine Reno, Edward Maa, Robert Roach
: Davis, Christopher, Elaine Reno, Edward Maa, and Robert Roach. History of Migraine Predicts Headache at High Altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 17:300-304, 2016.-Objective: To characterize the spectrum of headaches and their association with migraine history within a population of recreational hikers above 4300 m. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional survey design, a convenience sample of 667 hikers participated in a written survey after descent from Mount Gray/Torreys (4349 m)...
December 2016: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722064/subjective-assessment-of-acute-mountain-sickness-investigating-the-relationship-between-the-lake-louise-self-report-a-visual-analogue-scale-and-psychological-well-being-scales
#11
Anika Frühauf, Martin Burtscher, Elena Pocecco, Martin Faulhaber, Martin Kopp
PURPOSE: There is an ongoing discussion how to assess acute mountain sickness (AMS) in real life conditions. Next to more-item scales with a cut off like the Lake Louise Self-Report (LLS), some authors suggested to use visual analog scales (VAS) to assess AMS. This study tried to contribute to this question using VAS items used for the Subjective Ratings of Drug Effects, including an additional single item for AMS. Furthermore, we investigated if instruments developed to assess psychological well-being might predict AMS assessed via LLS or VAS...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667557/blood-brain-barrier-changes-in-high-altitude
#12
José V Lafuente, Garazi Bermudez, Lorena Camargo-Arce, Susana Bulnes
Cerebral syndromes related to high-altitude exposure are becoming more frequent as the number of trips to high altitudes has increased in the last decade. The commonest symptom is headache, followed by acute mountain sickness (AMS) and high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE), which can be fatal. The pathophysiology of these syndromes is not fully understood. The classical "tight-fit hypothesis" posits that there are some anatomical variations that would obstruct the sinovenous outflow and worsen vasogenic edema and intracranial hypertension reactive to hypoxia...
2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662354/lipid-subhyaloid-maculopathy-and-exposure-to-high-altitude
#13
Roberta Rosas Petrocinio, Elga Dias Gomes
BACKGROUND: High altitude retinopathy (HAR) includes a number of diseases related to high altitude such as acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and high altitude cerebral edema (HACE). High altitude retinopathy is mainly characterized by retinal hemorrhages, usually sparing the macular region, a condition specifically known as high altitude retinal hemorrhages (HARH). The pathogenesis of HARH is unclear. Many studies show that lack of oxygen causes an inadequate autoregulation of retinal circulation, causing vascular incompetence...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660613/multiparametric-magnetic-resonance-investigation-of-brain-adaptations-to-6-days-at-4350-m
#14
Samuel Verges, Thomas Rupp, Marjorie Villien, Laurent Lamalle, Irène Troprés, Camille Poquet, Jan M Warnking, François Estève, Pierre Bouzat, Alexandre Krainik
OBJECTIVE: Hypoxic exposure in healthy subjects can induce acute mountain sickness including headache, lethargy, cerebral dysfunction, and substantial cerebral structural alterations which, in worst case, can lead to potentially fatal high altitude cerebral edema. Within this context, the relationships between high altitude-induced cerebral edema, changes in cerebral perfusion, increased brain parenchyma volume, increased intracranial pressure, and symptoms remain unclear. METHODS: In 11 subjects before and after 6 days at 4350 m, we performed multiparametric magnetic resonance investigations including anatomical, apparent diffusion coefficient and arterial spin labeling sequences...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640135/a-higher-baseline-somatization-score-at-sea-level-as-an-independent-predictor-of-acute-mountain-sickness
#15
Shi-Zhu Bian, Jun Jin, Jun-Qing Dong, Qian-Ning Li, Jie Yu, Cai-Fa Tang, Shi-Yong Yu, Xiao-Hui Zhao, Jun Qin, Lan Huang
OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to identify the predictive values of psychological factors that are evaluated by the Symptoms Checklist-90 (SCL-90) for acute mountain sickness (AMS). METHODS: The subjects (n=285, non-acclimatized young Chinese men), who were recruited in July 2013, completed a case report questionnaire. In addition, their vital signs (heart rate [HR], blood pressure and pulse oxygen saturation) were measured, and their psychological factors were examined using the SCL-90 at sea level...
December 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627890/hypobaric-hypoxia-down-regulated-junctional-protein-complex-implications-to-vascular-leakage
#16
Dangjai Souvannakitti, Paleerath Peerapen, Visith Thongboonkerd
Acute mountain sickness (AMS) can cause capillary hyper-permeability and vasogenic edema. However, its underlying mechanisms remained unclear and there is no previous in vitro study on AMS. We therefore conducted an in vitro study and examined whether continuous hypobaric hypoxia (CHH) could alter expression of junctional protein complex of vascular endothelial cells, causing hyper-permeabilization. EA.hy926 human endothelial cells were exposed to either CHH or normoxia for up to 24 h. Flow cytometry using annexin V/propidium iodide co-staining demonstrated that cell death had no significant difference at 12-h, but was increased by CHH at 24-h...
September 14, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621942/altitude-stress-during-participation-of-medical-congress
#17
EDITORIAL
Soon Bae Kim, Jong Sung Kim, Sang Jun Kim, Su Hee Cho, Dae Chul Suh
Medical congresses often held in highlands. We reviewed several medical issues associated with altitude stress especially while physicians have participated medical congress held in high altitude. Altitude stress, also known as an acute mountain sickness (AMS), is caused by acute exposure to low oxygen level at high altitude which is defined as elevations at or above 1,200 m and AMS commonly occurs above 2,500 m. Altitude stress with various symptoms including insomnia can also be experienced in airplane. AMS and drunken state share many common features in symptoms, neurologic manifestations and even show multiple microbleeds in corpus callosum and white matter on MRI...
September 2016: Neurointervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593617/effects-of-dietary-nitrate-supplementation-on-symptoms-of-acute-mountain-sickness-and-basic-physiological-responses-in-a-group-of-male-adolescents-during-ascent-to-mount-everest-base-camp
#18
Philip J Hennis, Kay Mitchell, Edward Gilbert-Kawai, Vassiliki Bountziouka, Angie Wade, Martin Feelisch, Michael P Grocott, Daniel S Martin
: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary nitrate supplementation, in the form of beetroot juice, on acute mountain sickness (AMS) symptoms and physiological responses, in a group of young males trekking to Mount Everest Base Camp (EBC). Forty healthy male students (mean age (SD): 16 (1) yrs) trekked to EBC over 11 days. Following an overnight fast, each morning participants completed the Lake Louise AMS questionnaire and underwent a series of physiological tests: resting blood pressure as well as resting and exercising heart rate, respiratory rate, and peripheral oxygen saturation...
September 2, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548274/brief-working-memory-and-physiological-monitoring-during-a-high-altitude-expedition
#19
Carine Malle, Benoît Ginon, Cyprien Bourrilhon
: Malle, Carine, Benoît Ginon, and Cyprien Bourrilhon. Brief working memory and physiological monitoring during a high-altitude expedition. High Alt Med Biol. 17:359-364, 2016.-Background: Various studies have shown the deleterious effects of high-altitude hypoxia on cognitive functions, including attention and memory. Since optimal cognitive abilities may be crucial for mountain safety, this study was aimed to assess the relevance of a brief working memory test to quickly assess cognition at high altitude...
December 2016: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529318/effects-of-acute-profound-hypoxia-on-healthy-humans-implications-for-safety-of-tests-evaluating-pulse-oximetry-or-tissue-oximetry-performance
#20
Philip E Bickler, John R Feiner, Michael S Lipnick, Paul Batchelder, David B MacLeod, John W Severinghaus
Extended periods of oxygen deprivation can produce acidosis, inflammation, energy failure, cell stress, or cell death. However, brief profound hypoxia (here defined as SaO2 50%-70% for approximately 10 minutes) is not associated with cardiovascular compromise and is tolerated by healthy humans without apparent ill effects. In contrast, chronic hypoxia induces a suite of adaptations and stresses that can result in either increased tolerance of hypoxia or disease, as in adaptation to altitude or in the syndrome of chronic mountain sickness...
January 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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