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Pulmonary blood flow

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101850/assessment-of-regional-pulmonary-blood-flow-using-68-ga-dota-pet
#1
Carlos Velasco, Jesus Mateo, Arnoldo Santos, Adriana Mota-Cobian, Fernando Herranz, Juan Pellico, Ruben A Mota, Samuel España, Jesus Ruiz-Cabello
BACKGROUND: In vivo determination of regional pulmonary blood flow (PBF) is a valuable tool for the evaluation of many lung diseases. In this study, the use of (68)Ga-DOTA PET for the in vivo quantitative determination of regional PBF is proposed. This methodology was implemented and tested in healthy pigs and validated using fluorescent microspheres. The study was performed on young large white pigs (n = 4). To assess the reproducibility and consistency of the method, three PET scans were obtained for each animal...
December 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097236/lung-vaso-occlusion-in-sickle-cell-disease-mediated-by-arteriolar-neutrophil-platelet-microemboli
#2
Margaret F Bennewitz, Maritza A Jimenez, Ravi Vats, Egemen Tutuncuoglu, Jude Jonassaint, Gregory J Kato, Mark T Gladwin, Prithu Sundd
In patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), the polymerization of intraerythrocytic hemoglobin S promotes downstream vaso-occlusive events in the microvasculature. While vaso-occlusion is known to occur in the lung, often in the context of systemic vaso-occlusive crisis and the acute chest syndrome, the pathophysiological mechanisms that incite lung injury are unknown. We used intravital microscopy of the lung in transgenic humanized SCD mice to monitor acute vaso-occlusive events following an acute dose of systemic lipopolysaccharide sufficient to trigger events in SCD but not control mice...
January 12, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093463/bidirectional-cavopulmonary-anastomosis-with-additional-pulmonary-blood-flow-good-or-bad-pre-fontan-strategy
#3
Nataliya R Nichay, Yuriy N Gorbatykh, Igor A Kornilov, Ilya A Soynov, Sergey M Ivantsov, Artem V Gorbatykh, Dmitriy N Ponomarev, Alexander V Bogachev-Prokophiev, Alexander M Karaskov
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the influence of preserved additional pulmonary blood flow (APBF) on survival after bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt (BCPS) and completion of Fontan circulation. METHODS: From March 2003 and April 2015, 156 patients with a single ventricle underwent BCPS. After performing propensity score analysis (1:1) for the entire sample, 50 patients with APBF (APBF group) were matched with 50 patients without APBF (no-APBF group). RESULTS: Age (P = 0...
January 15, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090297/exhaled-nitric-oxide-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-associated-with-systemic-sclerosis
#4
Zeling Cao, Stephen C Mathai, Laura K Hummers, Ami A Shah, Fredrick M Wigley, Noah Lechtzin, Paul M Hassoun, Reda E Girgis
The fractional exhaled concentration of nitric oxide (FENO) has been shown to be reduced in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) but has not been adequately studied in PAH associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc). We measured FENO at an expiratory flow rate of 50 mL/s in 21 treatment-naive patients with SSc-associated PAH (SSc-PAH), 94 subjects with SSc without pulmonary involvement, and 84 healthy volunteers. Measurements of FENO at additional flow rates of 100, 150, and 250 mL/s were obtained to derive the flow-independent nitric oxide exchange parameters of maximal airway flux (J'awNO) and steady-state alveolar concentration (CANO)...
December 2016: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090238/red-blood-cell-dynamics-in-biomimetic-microfluidic-networks-of-pulmonary-alveolar-capillaries
#5
Hagit Stauber, Dan Waisman, Netanel Korin, Josué Sznitman
The pulmonary capillary networks (PCNs) embody organ-specific microvasculatures, where blood vessels form dense meshes that maximize the surface area available for gas exchange in the lungs. With characteristic capillary lengths and diameters similar to the size of red blood cells (RBCs), seminal descriptions coined the term "sheet flow" nearly half a century ago to differentiate PCNs from the usual notion of Poiseuille flow in long straight tubes. Here, we revisit in true-scale experiments the original "sheet flow" model and devise for the first time biomimetic microfluidic platforms of organ-specific PCN structures perfused with RBC suspensions at near-physiological hematocrit levels...
January 10, 2017: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076893/-pseudo-feeders-on-fetal-mri-predict-outcome-in-vein-of-galen-malformations
#6
Guillaume Saliou, Irène Vraka, Jean-Paul Teglas, Marie-Victoire Senat, Philippe Durand, Claire Colmant, Augustin Ozanne, Jelena Martinovic, Pierre Tissiere, Catherine Adamsbaum
OBJECTIVE: While vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VGAM) can be diagnosed in the fetus, the challenge is predicting the occurrence of its two major complications: cardiopulmonary failure and encephalomalacia. This study attempts to determine which fetal brain MRI features might be used to predict the development of these complications at birth. METHODS: The cohort was extracted from a prospectively-assembled database of VGAM cases managed at a single referral centre from 2000 to 2014...
January 11, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073885/reduction-of-atrial-fibrillation-burden-by-pulmonary-vein-isolation-leads-to-a-decrease-of-cd11b-expression-on-inflammatory-cells
#7
Daniel Tarnowski, Lina Plichta, Mathias Forkmann, Silvio Quick, Stefan Ulbrich, Felix Matthias Heidrich, Stephan Wiedemann, Marian Christoph, David Maximilian Poitz, Carsten Wunderlich, Karim Ibrahim, Ruth H Strasser, Christian Pfluecke
AIMS: It is hypothesized that inflammation could promote structural and electrical remodelling processes in atrial fibrillation (AF). Atrial infiltration of monocytes and granulocytes has been shown to be dependent on CD11b expression. The aim of this study was to investigate whether treatment of AF by pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) may lead to reduced inflammation, as indicated by a decrease of CD11b expression on monocytes and granulocytes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Flow-cytometric quantification analysis and determination of systemic inflammatory markers of peripheral blood were performed in 75 patients undergoing PVI 1 day before and 6 months after PVI...
January 10, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070902/a-modified-lvad-technique-to-augment-caval-and-pulmonary-arterial-blood-flow-in-the-failing-fontan-circulation
#8
Michael F Swartz, Louis DiVincenti, Karen Smith, Robin Westcott, Kevin Belmont, William Harris, Francisco Gensini, George M Alfieris
BACKGROUND: There are minimal circulatory support options for patients with a failing Fontan. The Heartmate II (HMII) left ventricular assist device (Thoratec, Bedford, MA) in its packaged state cannot augment caval/pulmonary arterial blood flow. AIM: We hypothesized that a modified HMII pump could augment caval and pulmonary arterial blood flow. METHODS: A bifurcated ringed Gore-Tex graft (W. L. Gore & Associates, Flagstaff, AZ) was sewn to the HMII inflow, and the outflow graft transected and tapered from 16 mm to 8 mm in diameter...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066610/the-application-of-autologous-pulmonary-artery-in-surgical-correction-of-complicated-aortic-arch-anomaly
#9
Shusheng Wen, Jianzheng Cen, Jimei Chen, Gang Xu, Biaochuan He, Yun Teng, Jian Zhuang
BACKGROUND: In the patients with longer-segment aortic arch hypoplasia or interruption with ventricular septal defect, surgery with homograft vessel or autologous pericardial patch to augment descending aortic arch will not result in adverse reactions caused by end-to-end anastomosis. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed primary experience of surgical correction of complicated aortic arch anomaly with autologous main pulmonary artery. METHODS: From July 2010 to March 2016, the twenty-one cases of aortic arch complex anomalies were reconstructed with autologous main pulmonary artery...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065166/the-predictive-capabilities-of-a-novel-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-derived-marker-of-cardiopulmonary-reserve-on-established-prognostic-surrogate-markers-in-patients-with-pulmonary-vascular-disease-results-of-a-longitudinal-pilot-study
#10
Timothy J Baillie, Samuel Sidharta, Peter M Steele, Stephen G Worthley, Scott Willoughby, Karen Teo, Prashanthan Sanders, Stephen J Nicholls, Matthew I Worthley
BACKGROUND: No unified method exists to effectively predict and monitor progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We assessed the longitudinal relationship between a novel marker of cardiopulmonary reserve and established prognostic surrogate markers in patients with pulmonary vascular disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty participants with confirmed (n = 14) or at high risk (n = 6) for PAH underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) at baseline and after ~6 months of guideline-appropriate management...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057577/heterogeneity-of-blood-flow-and-metabolism-during-exercise-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#11
Zafeiris Louvaris, Helmut Habazettl, Andreas Asimakos, Harrieth Wagner, Spyros Zakynthinos, Peter D Wagner, Ioannis Vogiatzis
The study investigated whether the capacity to regulate muscle blood flow (Q) relative to metabolic demand (VO2) is impaired in COPD. Using six NIRS optodes over the upper, middle and lower vastus lateralis in 6 patients, (FEV1:46±12%predicted) we recorded from each: a) Q by indocyanine green dye injection, b) VO2/Q ratios based on fractional tissue O2 saturation and c) VO2 as their product, during constant-load exercise (at 20%, 50% and 80% of peak capacity) in normoxia and hyperoxia (FIO2:1.0). At 50 and 80%, relative dispersion (RD) for Q, but not for VO2, was greater in normoxia (0...
January 3, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053522/do-nanoparticles-provide-a-new-opportunity-for-diagnosis-of-distal-airspace-disease
#12
Jakob Löndahl, Jonas Kf Jakobsson, David M Broday, H Laura Aaltonen, Per Wollmer
There is a need for efficient techniques to assess abnormalities in the peripheral regions of the lungs, for example, for diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema. Considerable scientific efforts have been directed toward measuring lung morphology by studying recovery of inhaled micron-sized aerosol particles (0.4-1.5 µm). In contrast, it is suggested that the recovery of inhaled airborne nanoparticles may be more useful for diagnosis. The objective of this work is to provide a theoretical background for the use of nanoparticles in measuring lung morphology and to assess their applicability based on a review of the literature...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053515/gender-differences-in-the-t-cell-profiles-of-the-airways-in-copd-patients-associated-with-clinical-phenotypes
#13
Helena Forsslund, Mingxing Yang, Mikael Mikko, Reza Karimi, Sven Nyrén, Benita Engvall, Johan Grunewald, Heta Merikallio, Riitta Kaarteenaho, Jan Wahlström, Åsa M Wheelock, C Magnus Sköld
T lymphocytes are believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). How T cells are recruited to the lungs and contribute to the inflammatory process is largely unknown. COPD is a heterogeneous disease, and discriminating disease phenotypes based on distinct molecular and cellular pathways may provide new approaches for individualized diagnosis and therapies. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and blood samples were obtained from 40 never-smokers, 40 smokers with normal lung function, and 38 COPD patients...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046320/we-fg-206-06-dual-input-tracer-kinetic-modeling-and-its-analog-implementation-for-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-dce-mri-of-malignant-mesothelioma-mpm
#14
S Lee, A Rimner, S Hayes, M Hunt, J Deasy, M Zauderer, V Rusch, N Tyagi
PURPOSE: To use dual-input tracer kinetic modeling of the lung for mapping spatial heterogeneity of various kinetic parameters in malignant MPM METHODS: Six MPM patients received DCE-MRI as part of their radiation therapy simulation scan. 5 patients had the epitheloid subtype of MPM, while one was biphasic. A 3D fast-field echo sequence with TR/TE/Flip angle of 3.62ms/1.69ms/15° was used for DCE-MRI acquisition. The scan was collected for 5 minutes with a temporal resolution of 5ߝ9 seconds depending on the spatial extent of the tumor...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041866/-management-of-patent-ductus-arteriosus-in-preterm-infants-an-evidence-based-approach
#15
V Gournay
A patent ductus arteriosus, very common in the preterm infant (incidence up to 70% in infants less than 28 weeks gestational age), causes a left-to-right shunt leading to overload of the pulmonary circulation and low systemic blood flow. These hemodynamic anomalies are associated with a higher incidence of respiratory, neurological, and digestive complications of prematurity, as well as a higher mortality rate. Although growing knowledge about the natural history, the pathophysiology, and the mechanisms of closure of the ductus arteriosus has resulted in therapeutic progress, management of the patent ductus arteriosus in the preterm infant is still a subject of intense controversy...
December 29, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033607/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-adults-variants-complications-during-therapy-and-the-role-of-radiological-imaging
#16
Laura Beck, Matthias C Burg, Walter Heindel, Christoph Schülke
Background Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and extracorporeal life support (ECLS) as respiratory and circulatory assist therapies are gaining in importance in the treatment of critically ill patients. Depending on the place of cannulation - veno-venous for ECMO and veno-arterial for ECLS - distinct changes in hemodynamics will occur. In this review we describe the different types of ECMO and ECLS systems, the typical cannula placement and frequent complications under therapy. The most suitable imaging modalities will be presented and typical hemodynamic pitfalls in contrast-enhanced computed tomography or angiography will be elucidated...
December 29, 2016: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033087/unexpected-internalization-of-a-pulmonary-artery-band-in-a-porcine-model-of-tetralogy-of-fallot
#17
Zakaria Jalal, François Roubertie, Emmanuelle Fournier, Virginie Dubes, David Benoist, Jerome Naulin, Samantha Delmond, Marlène Durand, Michel Haissaguerre, Olivier Bernus, Jean-Benoit Thambo
BACKGROUND: We report our experience of an unexpected complication of internalization of a pulmonary artery (PA) band in the vascular lumen, which occurred in a chronic porcine model of repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). METHODS: Twelve piglets were divided into 3 groups: (1) TOF model animals (PA band plus pulmonary valvotomy, n = 4), (2) pulmonary insufficiency (PI) animals (pulmonary valvotomy, n = 4), and (3) control animals (n = 4). A nonabsorbable, coated braided polyester tape was used to perform the main pulmonary artery banding...
January 2017: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031653/complications-after-a-bidirectional-cavopulmonary-anastomosis-with-accessory-sources-of-pulmonary-blood-flow
#18
Efrén Martínez-Quintana, Fayna Rodríguez-González
Creating an accessory source of pulsatile pulmonary blood flow in a patient with a bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis may have advantages and disadvantages. In relation to the latter, we report the complications seen in a cyanotic congenital heart disease patient who developed a superior vena cava syndrome plus severe swelling of his right hand that evolved satisfactorily after percutaneous and medical treatment.
December 2016: International Journal of Angiology: Official Publication of the International College of Angiology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031119/-the-expression-of-t-bet-is-negatively-correlated-with-the-expressions-of-ifn-%C3%AE-and-tnf-%C3%AE-in-cd4-t-cells-of-patients-with-active-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#19
Bingfen Yang, Fei Zhai, Jing Jiang, Weiguo Sun, Ruo Wang, Hongjuan An, Xiaoxing Cheng
Objective To investigate the relationship between T box expressed in T cells (T-bet) and the production of interferon γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) in CD4(+)T cells of patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from peripheral blood by density gradient centrifugation. Individuals with latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection were screened by enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT). The expressions of T-bet, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 in CD4(+)T cells were detected by flow cytometry...
January 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029591/cardiorespiratory-interactions-in-paediatrics-it-s-almost-always-the-circulation-stupid
#20
REVIEW
M L Rigby, M Rosenthal
The interaction of the heart and lungs is probably the most important aspect of life and survival. Fortunately, it is not difficult to understand the fundamentals. The purpose of the lungs and their ventilation is to present oxygen to the circulation via the alveoli and to receive carbon dioxide from the circulation and then expel it. The relations of the heart and lungs and the matching of blood flow to the various organs with ventilation and lung perfusion may be disrupted by a variety of congenital or acquired heart malformations...
August 12, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
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