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Diffusion capacity

Ross E McMurtrie, Torgny Näsholm
The classic model of nitrogen (N) flux into roots is as a Michaelis-Menten (MM) function of soil-N concentration at root surfaces. Furthermore, soil-N transport processes that determine soil-N concentration at root surfaces are seen as a bottleneck for plant nutrition. Yet, neither the MM relationship nor soil-N transport mechanisms are represented in current terrestrial biosphere models. Processes governing N supply to roots - diffusion, mass flow, N immobilization by soil microbes - are incorporated in a model of root-N uptake...
December 11, 2017: New Phytologist
Ting Jin, Qingqing Han, Yijing Wang, Lifang Jiao
Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have received extensive attention as ideal candidates for large-scale energy storage systems (ESSs) owing to the rich resources and low cost of sodium (Na). However, the larger size of Na+ and the less negative redox potential of Na+ /Na result in low energy densities, short cycling life, and the sluggish kinetics of SIBs. Therefore, it is necessary to develop appropriate Na storage electrode materials with the capability to host larger Na+ and fast ion diffusion kinetics. 1D materials such as nanofibers, nanotubes, nanorods, and nanowires, are generally considered to be high-capacity and stable electrode materials, due to their uniform structure, orientated electronic and ionic transport, and strong tolerance to stress change...
December 11, 2017: Small
Yuyu Li, Zhi Deng, Jian Peng, Enyi Chen, Yao Yu, Xiang Li, Jiahuan Luo, Yangyang Huang, Jinlong Zhu, Chun Fang, Qing Li, Jiantao Han, Yunhui Huang
Here, we report a P2-type layered Na2Zn2TeO6 (NZTO) with a high Na+ ion conductivity ~0.6 × 10-3 S cm-1 at room temperature (RT), which is comparable to the currently best Na1+nZr2SinP3-nO12 NASICON structure. As little as the Ga3+ substitution for Zn2+, more Na+ vacancies are introduced in the interlayer gaps, which greatly reduced strong Na+-Na+ coulomb interactions. Ga-substituted NZTO exhibits a superionic conductivity of ~1.1 × 10-3 S cm-1 at RT, and excellent phase and electrochemical stability. All solid-state batteries have been successfully assembled with a capacity of ~70 mAh g-1 over 10 cycles with a rate of 0...
December 10, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
D Durce, M Aertsens, D Jacques, N Maes, M Van Gompel
A coupled experimental-modelling approach was developed to evaluate the effects of molecular weight (MW) of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on its transport through intact Boom Clay (BC) samples. Natural DOM was sampled in-situ in the BC layer. Transport was investigated with percolation experiments on 1.5cm BC samples by measuring the outflow MW distribution (MWD) by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). A one-dimensional reactive transport model was developed to account for retardation, diffusion and entrapment (attachment and/or straining) of DOM...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Ricardo A Gómez Tejada, Cora G Legarreta, Juan Ignacio Enghelmayer, Milagros Dianti, Silvana Acuña, Gloria Olmedo
In a series of nine patients with histopathological diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, we retrospectively evaluated clinical data, exposure related factors, pulmonary function tests and chest computed tomography scans. A restrictive abnormality with reduction of diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide was mainly found. Chest scans showed fibrotic patterns in most cases; ground glass attenuation areas with mosaic pattern and consolidation in the rest. Exposure to avian antigens, cereal grains and air conditioners contaminated with fungi yeasts and bacteria, were suspected from clinical data in two-thirds of the cases...
2017: Medicina
Mukesh Dhanka, Chaitra Shetty, Rohit Srivastava
Recently, polysaccharides based microparticles have been found to offer an attractive potential as a carrier in drug delivery field. In this study, bare gellan gum microparticles (GG MPs) and methotrexate (MTX) loaded gellan gum microparticles (MTX-GG MPs) prepared by using simple water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion solvent diffusion method. The developed microparticles (MPs) were found discretely distributed in a spherical shape. MTX has been encapsulated in microparticles with 84.8±1.68% encapsulation efficiency (%EE) and 6...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Claudio Caviezel, Nadja Schaffter, Didier Schneiter, Daniel Franzen, Ilhan Inci, Isabelle Opitz, Walter Weder
BACKGROUND: Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) has been proven to be a successful procedure and can be performed with low mortality when defined selection criteria are met. We hypothesized good outcome and low mortality after LVRS for selected patients with severe hyperinflation and nonhomogeneous morphology even when diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (Dlco) is less than 20%. METHODS: The study included all patients scheduled for LVRS between March 2005 and May 2014 with a preoperative Dlco of less than 20%...
December 6, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Gareth P Hempson, Sally Archibald, William J Bond
The extirpation of native wildlife species and widespread establishment of livestock farming has dramatically distorted large mammal herbivore communities across the globe. Ecological theory suggests that these shifts in the form and the intensity of herbivory have had substantial impacts on a range of ecosystem processes, but for most ecosystems it is impossible to quantify these changes accurately. We address these challenges using species-level biomass data from sub-Saharan Africa for both present day and reconstructed historical herbivore communities...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Cirlene de Lima Marinho, Maria Christina Paixão Maioli, Jorge Luis Machado do Amaral, Agnaldo José Lopes, Pedro Lopes de Melo
BACKGROUND: The improvement in sickle cell anemia (SCA) care resulted in the emergence of a large population of adults living with this disease. The mechanisms of lung injury in this new population are largely unknown. The forced oscillation technique (FOT) represents the current state-of-the-art in the assessment of lung function. The present work uses the FOT to improve our knowledge about the respiratory abnormalities in SCA, evaluates the associations of FOT with the functional exercise capacity and investigates the early detection of respiratory abnormalities...
2017: PloS One
Jan-Hendrik Sommerling, Maria Betania Carreira de Matos, Ellen Hildebrandt, Alberto Dessy, Robbert J Kok, Hermann Nirschl, Gero Leneweit
Many food preparations, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics use water in oil (W/O) emulsions stabilized by phospholipids. Moreover, recent technological developments try to produce liposomes or lipid coated capsules from W/O emulsions, but are faced with colloidal instabilities. To explore these instability mechanisms, emulsification by sonication was applied in three cycles and the sample stability was studied for 3 hours after each cycle. Clearly identifiable temporal structures of instability provide evidence about the emulsion morphology: an initial regime of about 10 minutes is shown to be governed by coalescence after which Ostwald ripening dominates...
December 8, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Rencheng Jin, Hua Jiang, Qingyao Wang, Guihua Li, Shanmin Gao
Compare to single component material, the hybrids materials with various components display superior electrochemical performance. In this work, two dimensional CoSx@NC@Sb nanosheets assembled by ultrathin CoSx nanosheets (~4 nm), thin layer of N-doped amorphous carbon combined with colloid like Sb nanoparticles are designed and synthesized via solvothermal route accompanied by carbonization and Sb deposition procedure. If applied in lithium-ion batteries, the hybrids exhibit the specific capacity of 960 mAh g-1 at the 100th cycle at 0...
December 8, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Federica De Giacomi, Sushravya Raghunath, Ronald Karwoski, Brian J Bartholmai, Teng Moua
PURPOSE: Fibrotic interstitial lung diseases presenting with nonspecific and overlapping radiologic findings may be difficult to diagnose without surgical biopsy. We hypothesized that baseline quantifiable radiologic features and their short-term interval change may be predictive of underlying histologic diagnosis as well as long-term survival in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) presenting without honeycombing versus nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty biopsy-confirmed IPF and 20 biopsy-confirmed NSIP patients with available high-resolution chest computed tomography 4 to 24 months apart were studied...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
A M Hallas, J Gaudet, N P Butch, Guangyong Xu, M Tachibana, C R Wiebe, G M Luke, B D Gaulin
We report neutron scattering measurements on Er_{2}Pt_{2}O_{7}, a new addition to the XY family of frustrated pyrochlore magnets. Symmetry analysis of our elastic scattering data shows that Er_{2}Pt_{2}O_{7} orders into the k=0, Γ_{7} magnetic structure (the Palmer-Chalker state), at T_{N}=0.38  K. This contrasts with its sister XY pyrochlore antiferromagnets Er_{2}Ti_{2}O_{7} and Er_{2}Ge_{2}O_{7}, both of which order into Γ_{5} magnetic structures at much higher temperatures, T_{N}=1.2 and 1.4 K, respectively...
November 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Shaomao Xu, Yonggang Yao, Yuanyuan Guo, Xiaoqiao Zeng, Steven D Lacey, Huiyu Song, Chaoji Chen, Yiju Li, Jiaqi Dai, Yanbin Wang, Yanan Chen, Boyang Liu, Kun Fu, Khalil Amine, Jun Lu, Liangbing Hu
The lithium-air (Li-O2 ) battery has been deemed one of the most promising next-generation energy-storage devices due to its ultrahigh energy density. However, in conventional porous carbon-air cathodes, the oxygen gas and electrolyte often compete for transport pathways, which limit battery performance. Here, a novel textile-based air cathode is developed with a triple-phase structure to improve overall battery performance. The hierarchical structure of the conductive textile network leads to decoupled pathways for oxygen gas and electrolyte: oxygen flows through the woven mesh while the electrolyte diffuses along the textile fibers...
December 8, 2017: Advanced Materials
Yunlong Deng, Jirong Mou, Lihua He, Fengyu Xie, Qiaoji Zheng, Chenggang Xu, Dunmin Lin
A core-shell structured LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4@LiCoO2 cathode material has been successfully synthesized by the combination of sol-gel and solid state methods. The coating of LiCoO2 has a significant effect on the electrochemical performance of the spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-based cathode material, especially the cycling stability at high temperature and rate capability. After modification, the ionic conductivity of the material is greatly improved due to the high ion conductivity of LiCoO2. The LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4@LiCoO2 with 1% LiCoO2 presents the optimal rate capability and delivers a relatively high discharge capacity of 122 mA h g-1 at 10C...
December 7, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Jinlin Yang, Zhicheng Ju, Yong Jiang, Zheng Xing, Baojuan Xi, Jinkui Feng, Shenglin Xiong
The intercalation of potassium ions into graphite is demonstrated to be feasible, while the electrochemical performance of potassium-ion batteries (KIBs) remains unsatisfying. More effort is needed to improve the specific capacity while maintaining a superior rate capability. As an attempt, nitrogen/oxygen dual-doped hierarchical porous hard carbon (NOHPHC) is introduced as the anode in KIBs by carbonizing and acidizing the NH2 -MIL-101(Al) precursor. Specifically, the NOHPHC electrode delivers high reversible capacities of 365 and 118 mA h g-1 at 25 and 3000 mA g-1 , respectively...
December 7, 2017: Advanced Materials
David Nicolas Østedgaard-Munck, Jacopo Catalano, Mette Birch Kristensen, Anders Bentien
This article elaborates on the design and optimization of a specialized flow cell for the measurement of direct conversion of pressure into electrical energy (Electrokinetic Energy Conversion, EKEC) which has been presented in Østedgaard-Munck et al. (2017) [1]. Two main flow cell parameters have been monitored and optimized: A) the hydraulic pressure profile on each side of the membrane introduced by pumps recirculating the electrolyte solution through the flow fields and B) the electrical resistance between the current collectors across the combined flow cell...
December 2017: Data in Brief
Sang Hoon Lee, Moo Suk Park, Song Yee Kim, Dong Soon Kim, Young Whan Kim, Man Pyo Chung, Soo Taek Uh, Choon Sik Park, Sung Woo Park, Sung Hwan Jeong, Yong Bum Park, Hong Lyeol Lee, Jong Wook Shin, Eun Joo Lee, Jin Hwa Lee, Yangin Jegal, Hyun Kyung Lee, Yong Hyun Kim, Jin Woo Song, Jong Sun Park
BACKGROUND: The effects of corticosteroid-based therapy in patients with idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (iNSIP), and factors affecting treatment outcome, are not fully understood. We aimed to investigate the long-term treatment response and factors affecting the treatment outcome in iNSIP patients from a multi-center study in Korea. METHODS: The Korean interstitial lung disease (ILD) Study Group surveyed ILD patients from 2003 to 2007. Patients were divided into two groups to compare the treatment response: response group (forced vital capacity (FVC) improves ≥10% after 1 year) and non-response group (FVC <10%)...
December 6, 2017: Respiratory Research
Andreas R Thomsen, Christine Aldrian, Peter Bronsert, Yi Thomann, Norbert Nanko, Nicolas Melin, Gerta Rücker, Marie Follo, Anca L Grosu, Gabriele Niedermann, Paul G Layer, Anja Heselich, Per G Lund
Multicellular spheroids represent a well-established 3D model to study healthy and diseased cells in vitro. The use of conventional 3D cell culture platforms for the generation of multicellular spheroids is limited to cell types that easily self-assemble into spheroids because less adhesive cells fail to form stable aggregates. A high-precision micromoulding technique developed in our laboratory produces deep conical agarose microwell arrays that allow the cultivation of uniform multicellular aggregates, irrespective of the spheroid formation capacity of the cells...
December 6, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Quanning Ma, Qianyu Zhuang, Jun Liang, Zhonghua Zhang, Jing Liu, Hongrui Peng, Changming Mao, Guicun Li
The 3D flowerlike iron sulfide (F-FeS) is successfully synthesized via a facile one-step sulfurization process, and the electrochemical properties as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are investigated. Compared with bulk iron sulfide, we find that the unique structural features, overall flowerlike structure, composed of several dozen nanopetals and numerous small size iron sulfide particles embedded within the fine nanopetals, and hierarchical pore structure features provide signification improvements in lithium storage performance, with a high-rate discharge capacity of 779...
December 6, 2017: Nanomaterials
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