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Travelers diarrhoea

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777090/how-low-an-effect-of-a-preventive-measure-against-diarrhoea-are-travellers-willing-to-pay-for-a-survey-of-norwegian-travellers
#1
Gunnar Hasle, Lise Heier
BACKGROUND: Traveller's diarrhoea (TD) is the most common infectious problem for travellers, and we lack effective ways of preventing it, apart from antibiotic prophylaxis. This study aims to quantify the risk reduction of a hypothetic TD vaccine Norwegian travellers are willing to pay for. METHODS: 1204 clients at Reiseklinikken responded to a questionnaire asking what level of effectiveness would be required of a hypothetical vaccine against TD costing US$65. RESULTS: 18...
October 21, 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751772/import-and-spread-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-by-international-travellers-combat-study-a-prospective-multicentre-cohort-study
#2
Maris S Arcilla, Jarne M van Hattem, Manon R Haverkate, Martin C J Bootsma, Perry J J van Genderen, Abraham Goorhuis, Martin P Grobusch, Astrid M Oude Lashof, Nicky Molhoek, Constance Schultsz, Ellen E Stobberingh, Henri A Verbrugh, Menno D de Jong, Damian C Melles, John Penders
BACKGROUND: International travel contributes to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. We investigated the acquisition of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) during international travel, with a focus on predictive factors for acquisition, duration of colonisation, and probability of onward transmission. METHODS: Within the prospective, multicentre COMBAT study, 2001 Dutch travellers and 215 non-travelling household members were enrolled...
October 14, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709564/the-potential-of-lactobacillus-casei-and-entercoccus-faecium-combination-as-a-preventive-probiotic-against-entamoeba
#3
Nitya Sarjapuram, Niharika Mekala, Meetali Singh, Utpal Tatu
Travellers' diarrhoea caused by enteric protozoa like Entamoeba histolytica is among the most common protozoan diseases in developing countries. In developing countries, amoebiasis is the second most prevalent protozoan disease. This protozoan parasite is often known to coexist as a part of the normal gut microbiota. It is estimated that around 50-60 % of population in developing countries might be harbouring Entamoeba in an asymptomatic manner. Due to physiological perturbation or upon immuno-compromise, it can become virulent and then cause diarrhoea, bloody stools and may invade other organs if left untreated...
October 5, 2016: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694334/fever-of-unknown-origin-in-a-patient-initially-presenting-with-traveller-s-diarrhoea
#4
Malik Asif Humayun, Tristan Richardson, Augustin Brooks
A 17-year-old male presented with diarrhoea and malaise following his return from Kenya and Tunisia. He was managed as a case of traveller's diarrhoea. Stool cultures were negative for pathogenic bacterial growth. Two weeks later he presented with worsening lower back pain. MRI of lumbosacral spine suggested L1 osteomyelitis. CT-guided spinal aspirate grew no organisms and repeat viral serology and blood cultures (including tuberculosis screening) were negative. He was treated with a 6-week course of ceftriaxone...
September 30, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688852/beneficial-properties-of-probiotics
#5
Lye Huey Shi, Kunasundari Balakrishnan, Kokila Thiagarajah, Nor Ismaliza Mohd Ismail, Ooi Shao Yin
Probiotics are live microorganisms that can be found in fermented foods and cultured milk, and are widely used for the preparation of infant food. They are well-known as "health friendly bacteria", which exhibit various health beneficial properties such as prevention of bowel diseases, improving the immune system, for lactose intolerance and intestinal microbial balance, exhibiting antihypercholesterolemic and antihypertensive effects, alleviation of postmenopausal disorders, and reducing traveller's diarrhoea...
August 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566312/frequent-acquisition-of-low-virulence-strains-of-esbl-producing-escherichia-coli-in-travellers
#6
M Vading, M H Kabir, M Kalin, A Iversen, S Wiklund, P Nauclér, C G Giske
OBJECTIVES: International travel is a risk factor for intestinal colonization with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (EPE). This prospective cohort study focuses on molecular features of and risk factors for travel-acquired EPE. METHODS: Rectal swabs and survey data were collected from 188 Swedes travelling to four regions of high EPE prevalence. Samples were plated onto selective agars. ESBL producers were determined using phenotypic methods. Molecular characterization regarding virulence factors and phylogenetic grouping of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli was done using PCR...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558432/first-description-of-shigella-sonnei-harbouring-blactx-m-55-outside-asia
#7
Jeannete Zurita, David Ortega-Paredes, Pedro Barba
Shigella sonnei harbouring blaCTX-M-55 was isolated outside of Asia for the first time. The blaCTX-M-55 gene was found to be downstream of ISEcp1 and located in a ̴130-kb conjugative plasmid belonging to the I1 incompatibility group. The strain was recovered from a 7-year-old Ecuadorian girl with watery diarrhoea who had not travelled abroad. Recent local data describe the emergence of blaCTX-M-55 and other variants typically found in Asia in the Andean Region, suggesting that increased travel of humans and trade relationships with Asian countries are influencing the current Ecuadorian bacterial resistance situation...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503854/use-of-antimicrobial-agents-for-treatment-and-prevention-of-travellers-diarrhoea-in-the-face-of-enhanced-risk-of-transient-fecal-carriage-of-multi-drug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-setting-the-stage-for-consensus-recommendations
#8
REVIEW
Herbert L DuPont, Robert Steffen
BACKGROUND: The recommendation that antibiotics should be used for routine therapy of travellers' diarrhoea is being reconsidered in view of growing evidence that the therapy may lead to intestinal carriage of multi-drug resistant (MDR) colonic microbiota. This review attempts to put the issues of therapy and MDR acquisition in perspective to help in the establishment of therapeutic recommendations for travellers' diarrhoea. METHODS: The existing literature showing the risk and consequences of acquisition of MDR microbiota in antibiotic-treated travellers was reviewed...
June 2016: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473947/evaluation-of-a-programme-for-rapid-assessment-of-febrile-travelers-raft-a-clinic-based-quality-improvement-initiative
#9
Farah Jazuli, Terence Lynd, Jordan Mah, Michael Klowak, Dale Jechel, Stefanie Klowak, Howard Ovens, Sam Sabbah, Andrea K Boggild
BACKGROUND: Fever in the returned traveller is a potential medical emergency warranting prompt attention to exclude life-threatening illnesses. However, prolonged evaluation in the emergency department (ED) may not be required for all patients. As a quality improvement initiative, we implemented an algorithm for rapid assessment of febrile travelers (RAFT) in an ambulatory setting. METHODS: Criteria for RAFT referral include: presentation to the ED, reported fever and travel to the tropics or subtropics within the past year...
2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27363327/systematic-review-of-loperamide-no-proof-of-antibiotics-being-superior-to-loperamide-in-treatment-of-mild-moderate-travellers-diarrhoea
#10
REVIEW
Tinja Lääveri, Jesper Sterne, Lars Rombo, Anu Kantele
Looking at the worldwide emergency of antimicrobial resistance, international travellers appear to have a central role in spreading the bacteria across the globe. Travellers' diarrhoea (TD) is the most common disease encountered by visitors to the (sub)tropics. Both TD and its treatment with antibiotics have proved significant independent risk factors of colonization by resistant intestinal bacteria while travelling. Travellers should therefore be given preventive advice regarding TD and cautioned about taking antibiotics: mild or moderate TD does not require antibiotics...
July 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27297408/campylobacter-jejuni-associated-perimyocarditis-two-case-reports-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Fredrik Hessulf, Johan Ljungberg, Per-Anders Johansson, Mats Lindgren, Johan Engdahl
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter spp. are among the most common bacterial causes of gastroenteritis world-wide and mostly follow a benign course. We report two cases of Campylobacter jejuni-associated perimyocarditis, the first two simultaneous cases published to date and the third and fourth cases over all in Sweden, and a review of the literature. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy 24-yo male (A) presented at the Emergency Department(ED) with recent onset of chest pain and a 3-day history of abdominal pain, fever and diarrhoea...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27296584/norovirus-in-a-united-states-virgin-islands-resort-outbreak-investigation-response-and-costs
#12
Eyal Leshem, Paul A Gastañaduy, Tarak Trivedi, Alison Laufer Halpin, Jeshua Pringle, Francine Lang, Nicole Gregoricus, Jan Vinjé, Casey Barton Behravesh, Umesh Parashar, Aron J Hall
BACKGROUND: During 8-20 April 2012, an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness occurred among guests and employees of a resort hotel in St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands. We describe outbreak characteristics, and estimate indirect (non-medical) costs to travellers. METHODS: Employees who met the case definition were interviewed and provided stool samples. Samples were tested for norovirus by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Guests were asked to complete a survey aimed to identify and characterize cases, and to estimate quality adjusted vacation days (QAVD) lost...
May 2016: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27234415/-traveller-s-diarrhoea
#13
Jordi Vila, Ines Oliveira, Yuliya Zboromyrska, Joaquim Gascon
Traveller's diarrhoea (TD) is acquired primarily through ingestion of food and drinks contaminated with pathogens that cause diarrhoea. They can be bacteria, protozoa, helminths, and viruses. Globally, the most common causes of TD are two pathotypes of Escherichia coli (enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative) and Campylobacter, although there are significant variations by geographic area visited. Most TD occurs in individuals traveling to low-middle income countries. The type of travel, length of stay, traveller's age, and the presence of certain underlying conditions are important risk factors to consider for the acquisition of TD...
May 24, 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27223840/travel-to-asia-and-traveller-s-diarrhoea-with-antibiotic-treatment-are-independent-risk-factors-for-acquiring-ciprofloxacin-resistant-and-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-a-prospective-cohort-study
#14
E A Reuland, G J B Sonder, I Stolte, N Al Naiemi, A Koek, G B Linde, T J W van de Laar, C M J E Vandenbroucke-Grauls, A P van Dam
Travel to (sub)tropical countries is a well-known risk factor for acquiring resistant bacterial strains, which is especially of significance for travellers from countries with low resistance rates. In this study we investigated the rate of and risk factors for travel-related acquisition of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E), ciprofloxacin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CIPR-E) and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Data before and after travel were collected from 445 participants...
August 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27166472/review-of-the-causes-and-management-of-chronic-gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-returned-travellers-referred-to-an-australian-infectious-diseases-service
#15
Noha Ferrah, Karin Leder, Katherine Gibney
BACKGROUND: Thirty to seventy per cent of overseas travellers experience traveller's diarrhoea (TD), a potential cause of serious gastrointestinal (GI) sequelae. However, there is limited evidence on the optimal management of TD. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this article are to characterise the aetiologies and management of returned travellers with ongoing GI symptoms referred to a specialist infectious diseases service. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective medical record review of patients referred to the Victorian Infectious Disease Service (VIDS) in 2013-15 with a history of overseas travel and GI symptoms present for longer than two weeks...
May 2016: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27094342/travellers-diarrhoea
#16
REVIEW
Jessica Barrett, Mike Brown
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27043884/determinants-and-frequency-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-in-a-german-sample
#17
A Althaus, W Broicher, P Wittkamp, V Andresen, A W Lohse, B Löwe
BACKGROUND: To date there is no study that has estimated the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in Germany according to the current Rome III criteria. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of IBS in a non-clinical German sample. Furthermore, we investigated the association of IBS with socio-demographic and psychological risk factors. METHODS: Baseline data from a prospective cohort study were analysed, including the IBS Module of the Rome III Diagnostic Questionnaires and validated psychometric scales including the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15), the Big Five Inventory (BFI), the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-5), and the Whiteley-Index (WI-7)...
March 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26970046/prospective-study-of-pathogens-in-asymptomatic-travellers-and-those-with-diarrhoea-aetiological-agents-revisited
#18
T Lääveri, J Antikainen, S H Pakkanen, J Kirveskari, A Kantele
Travellers' diarrhoea (TD) remains the most frequent health problem encountered by visitors to the (sub)tropics. Traditional stool culture identifies the pathogen in only 15% of cases. Exploiting PCR-based methods, we investigated TD pathogens with a focus on asymptomatic travellers and severity of symptoms. Pre- and post-travel stools of 382 travellers with no history of antibiotic use during travel were analysed with a multiplex quantitative PCR for Salmonella, Yersinia, Campylobacter, Shigella, Vibrio cholerae and five diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli: enteroaggregative (EAEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) and enteroinvasive (EIEC)...
June 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26914019/provision-of-travel-medicine-advice-through-community-pharmacies-assessment-of-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-of-pharmacists-in-malaysia
#19
Nur Akmar Taha, Yee Lian See
OBJECTIVES: The risk for travel-related illnesses has increased with significant growth in international travel, but very few travellers seek travel advice. Community pharmacists can play a vital role in the provision of travel medicine advice due to their accessibility. This study aimed to assess travel medicine knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) among community pharmacists in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. METHODS: A self-administered KAP questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample of pharmacists in Kuala Lumpur identified from the list of licensed community pharmacists in Malaysia year 2014...
October 2016: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26876059/clinical-features-and-laboratory-findings-of-dengue-fever-in-german-travellers-a-single-centre-retrospective-analysis
#20
Pulad Tavakolipoor, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Gerd Dieter Burchard, Sabine Jordan
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever (DF) is one of the most relevant human arboviral infections worldwide and has become a frequent cause of fever in the returning traveller. This retrospective study aimed to characterize epidemiological and clinical features and laboratory findings of dengue fever in German travellers. METHODS: This descriptive study analyzed medical records of patients diagnosed with DF presenting at the Section of Tropical Medicine of the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf from 2007 to 2011...
January 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
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