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Travelers diarrhoea

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763669/travel-related-health-problems-in-the-immunocompromised-traveller-an-exploratory-study
#1
Mariëlle van Aalst, Marella C E van Ruissen, Roos Verhoeven, Godelieve J de Bree, Abraham Goorhuis, Martin P Grobusch
BACKGROUND: Immunocompromised travellers (ICTs) are at increased risk of travel-related health problems. Therefore, they are advised to attend specialised pre-travel clinics for advise on vaccination, malaria chemoprophylaxis and on demand antibiotics. However, studies yield conflicting data regarding travel-related health problems encountered by ICTs; questioning the rationale for certain advises, and particularly the advice of on demand antibiotics. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate self-reported travel-related health problems, antibiotic use, medical visits and risk behaviours in ICTs and controls...
May 12, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718439/cholera-under-diagnosis-and-differentiation-from-other-diarrhoeal-diseases
#2
Tristan P Learoyd, Rupert M Gaut
Background: Globally 1.4 billion people are at risk from cholera in countries where the disease is endemic, with an estimated 2.8 million cases annually. The disease is significantly under reported due to economic, social and political disincentives as well as poor laboratory resources and epidemiological surveillance in those regions. In addition, identification of cholera from other diarrhoeal causes is often difficult due to shared pathology and symptoms with few reported cases in travellers from Northern Europe...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718437/antibiotic-resistance-in-travellers-diarrhoeal-disease-an-external-perspective
#3
Geeta Hitch, Naomi Fleming
Background: There are many recommendations on the use of antibiotics for prophylaxis and treatment of travellers' diarrhoea (TD). As pharmacists with a special interest in antimicrobial stewardship, we examine and offer our perspective on advice that is recommended to travellers in terms of prevention, treatment and management of TD with a focus on antibiotic use and resistance. Methods: Publications on TD were identified through PubMed, Google Scholar and Cochrane Library databases searches using search terms 'travellers diarrhoea', 'travellers diarrhoea', 'travellers' diarrhoea' 'guidelines', 'expert opinion', 'expert reviews', 'South Asia' and 'South East Asia' (S and SE Asia), 'antibiotics', 'resistance genes', 'travel advice', 'pharmacists', 'guidelines', 'prevention' and 'treatment'...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718436/non-pharmacotherapeutic-interventions-in-travellers-diarrhoea-td
#4
Derek P Evans
Background: This is a review of some of the non-pharmacotherapeutic interventions in travellers diarrhoea (TD) looking particularly at the role of pre and probiotics, the evidence behind water purification and the impact of advice given and its adherence by travellers. Method: A systematic review of the research completed under section using the listed key words and searched using the databases of Google Scholar, Journal of Travel Medicine, QxMD, ReadCube and The Knowledge Network...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702254/despite-antibiotic-treatment-of-travellers-diarrhoea-pathogens-are-found-in-stools-from-half-of-travellers-at-return
#5
Tinja Lääveri, Katri Vilkman, Sari Pakkanen, Juha Kirveskari, Anu Kantele
BACKGROUND: Among visitors to the (sub)tropics, 20-50% contract travellers' diarrhoea (TD) and 5-30% take antibiotics. While shortening the duration of illness, antimicrobials predispose to acquisition of multi-drug resistant bacteria. Therefore, liberal use is no longer advocated. Although antibiotics kill pathogens, no data support the view that they could prevent post-infectious sequelae. We investigated how antibiotic use for TD abroad impacts the pathogen findings at return. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We revisited 456 travellers' clinical data and stool pathogens examined by qPCR for Salmonella, Yersinia, Campylobacter, Shigella, Vibrio cholerae and enteroaggregative (EAEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) and enteroinvasive (EIEC) Escherichia coli...
April 24, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672708/do-prebiotics-reduce-the-risk-of-travellers-diarrhoea-promising-but-more-research-needed
#6
Bradley A Connor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664899/universal-versus-conditional-day-3-follow-up-for-children-with-non-severe-unclassified-fever-at-the-community-level-in-ethiopia-a-cluster-randomised-non-inferiority-trial
#7
Karin Källander, Tobias Alfvén, Tjede Funk, Ayalkibet Abebe, Abreham Hailemariam, Dawit Getachew, Max Petzold, Laura C Steinhardt, Julie R Gutman
BACKGROUND: With declining malaria prevalence and improved use of malaria diagnostic tests, an increasing proportion of children seen by community health workers (CHWs) have unclassified fever. Current community management guidelines by WHO advise that children seen with non-severe unclassified fever (on day 1) should return to CHWs on day 3 for reassessment. We compared the safety of conditional follow-up reassessment only in cases where symptoms do not resolve with universal follow-up on day 3...
April 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514211/ctx-m-esbl-producing-enterobacteriaceae-estimated-prevalence-in-adults-in-england-in-2014
#8
Cliodna A M McNulty, Donna M Lecky, Li Xu-McCrae, Deborah Nakiboneka-Ssenabulya, Keun-Taik Chung, Tom Nichols, Helen Lucy Thomas, Mike Thomas, Adela Alvarez-Buylla, Kim Turner, Sahida Shabir, Susan Manzoor, Stephen Smith, Linda Crocker, Peter M Hawkey
Background: ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLPE) are increasing in prevalence worldwide and are more difficult to treat than non-ESBLPE. Their prevalence in the UK general population is unknown, as the only previous UK ESBLPE faecal colonization study involved patients with diarrhoea. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of CTX-M ESBLPE faecal colonization in the general adult population of England in 2014, and investigate risk factors. Methods: A stratified random sample of 58 337 registered patients from 16 general practices within four areas of England were invited to participate by returning faeces specimens and self-completed questionnaires...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409749/travellers-diarrhoea-impact-of-td-definition-and-control-group-design-on-study-results
#9
Tinja Lääveri, Sari H Pakkanen, Juha Kirveskari, Anu Kantele
BACKGROUND: Travellers' diarrhoea (TD) is a common health problem among visitors to the (sub)tropics. Much research deals with aetiology, prevention, and post-infection sequalae, yet the data may not allow comparisons due to incompatible definitions of TD and No TD control groups. METHOD: The impact of defining TD and No TD control groups was explored by revisiting our recent data. We set up two TD groups: classical TD i.e. ≥3 loose or liquid stools/day and WHO TD (diarrhoea as defined by the WHO) i...
February 2, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394386/multiplex-pcr-for-determining-aetiology-of-travellers-diarrhoea-too-much-information-or-too-little
#10
Davidson H Hamer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344358/the-global-problem-of-childhood-diarrhoeal-diseases-emerging-strategies-in-prevention-and-management
#11
REVIEW
Margaret Mokomane, Ishmael Kasvosve, Emilia de Melo, Jeffrey M Pernica, David M Goldfarb
Acute diarrhoeal diseases remain a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality particularly among young children in resource-limited countries. Recent large studies utilizing case-control design, prospective sampling and more sensitive and broad diagnostic techniques have shed light on particular pathogens of importance and highlighted the previously under recognized impact of these infections on post-acute illness mortality and growth. Vaccination, particularly against rotavirus, has emerged as a key effective means of preventing significant morbidity and mortality from childhood diarrhoeal disease...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272955/laribacter-hongkongensis-clinical-presentation-epidemiology-and-treatment-a-review-of-the-literature-and-report-of-the-first-case-in-denmark
#12
Anne Line Engsbro, Karen Leth Nielsen, Mads Hornum, Leif Percival Andersen
BACKGROUND: Laribacter hongkongensis is an emerging pathogen related to gastroenteritis that can cause invasive and even fatal disease. The aim of this review is to describe the clinical presentation, epidemiology, treatment options and implications for the clinical microbiology laboratory. METHODS: We searched Pubmed using the term Laribacter hongkongensis with limitations human and language English, and identified 35 publications with eight reports on human cases...
December 22, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244123/emergence-and-genomic-analysis-of-mdr-laribacter-hongkongensis-strain-hlgz1-from-guangzhou-china
#13
Hong-Kai Wu, Jian-Huan Chen, Ling Yang, A-Rong Li, Dan-Hong Su, Yong-Ping Lin, Ding-Qiang Chen
Background: Laribacter hongkongensis is a facultative anaerobic, non-fermentative, Gram-negative bacillus associated with community-acquired gastroenteritis and traveller's diarrhoea. No clinical MDR L. hongkongensis isolate has been reported yet. Methods: We performed WGS (PacBio and Illumina) on a clinical L. hongkongensis strain HLGZ1 with an MDR phenotype. Results: HLGZ1 was resistant to eight classes of commonly used antibiotics. Its complete genome was a single circular chromosome of 3 424 272 bp with a G + C content of 62...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232462/incidence-and-spectrum-of-health-problems-among-travellers-to-myanmar
#14
Jutarmas Olanwijitwong, Saranath Lawpoolsri, Thitiya Ponam, Preechapol Puengpholpool, Chollasap Sharma, Lapakorn Chatapat, Vichan Pawan, Chatporn Kittitrakul, Watcharapong Piyaphanee
Background: The number of international travellers visiting Myanmar increases each year. However, information about pre-travel preparation and incidence of health problems among these travellers is limited. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at three international airports in Thailand. Travellers returning from Myanmar completed questionnaires querying demographic profile, pre-travel health preparations and health problems during their stay in Myanmar...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232458/the-effectiveness-of-empirical-anti-parasitic-treatment-in-returning-travellers-with-persistent-abdominal-symptoms
#15
Batel Nissan, Tamar Lachish, Eli Schwartz
Background: Persistent abdominal symptoms (PAS) are common among returning-travellers. In the absence of sensitive tests to identify intestinal parasites, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms often remain a diagnostic challenge. In this study we examined the effectiveness of empirical anti-parasitic treatment in returning-travellers with PAS despite no positive stool-test. Methods: A retrospective study among returning travellers who approached the clinic between the years 2014 and 2016 with GI complaints without a positive stool-test...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209121/fatal-gastrointestinal-histoplasmosis-15-years-after-orthotopic-liver-transplantation
#16
Nikita Agrawal, David Ej Jones, Jessica K Dyson, Tim Hoare, Sharon A Melmore, Stephanie Needham, Nick P Thompson
We report a case of ileo-colonic Histoplasmosis without apparent respiratory involvement in a patient who had previously undergone an orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) for primary biliary cholangitis 15 years earlier. The recipient lived in the United Kingdom, a non-endemic region for Histoplasmosis. However, she had previously lived in rural southern Africa prior to her OLT. The patient presented with iron deficiency anaemia, diarrhoea, abdominal pain and progressive weight loss. She reported no previous foreign travel, however, it later became known that following her OLT she had been on holiday to rural southern Africa...
November 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185342/comparative-proteomics-of-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-reveals-differences-in-surface-protein-production-and-similarities-in-metabolism
#17
Veronika Kuchařová Pettersen, Hans Steinsland, Harald G Wiker
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections are an important cause of diarrhea among young children living in low- and middle-income countries and visiting travelers. The development of effective vaccines is complicated by substantial genomic diversity that exists among ETEC isolates. To investigate how ETEC genomic variation is reflected at expressed proteome level, we applied label-free quantitative proteomics to seven human ETEC strains representing five epidemiologically important lineages. We further determined the proteome profile of the nonpathogenic E...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155322/digestive-tract-colonization-by-multidrug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-in-travellers-an-update
#18
REVIEW
Etienne Ruppé, Antoine Andremont, Laurence Armand-Lefèvre
BACKGROUND: Enterobacteriaceae have become increasingly resistant, especially due to the acquisition and spread of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), which confer resistance to the majority of beta-lactams. Multi-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MRE) were first isolated in hospitals, but now they are disseminating in the community setting, mostly in low and middle income countries. Consequently, the increasing number of international travels leads to the importation of MRE from high-prevalence to low-prevalence countries...
November 17, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133155/a-prospective-study-of-travellers-diarrhoea-analysis-of-pathogen-findings-by-destination-in-various-sub-tropical-regions
#19
T Lääveri, K Vilkman, S H Pakkanen, J Kirveskari, A Kantele
OBJECTIVES: Eighty million travellers visiting (sub)tropical regions contract travellers' diarrhoea (TD) each year, yet prospective data comparing the prevalence of TD pathogens in various geographical regions are scarce. Our recent study using modern molecular methods found enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enteroaggregative (EAEC) Escherichia coli to be the most frequent pathogens, followed by enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and Campylobacter. We revisited our data to compare the findings by geographical region...
November 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114400/an-untypeable-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-represents-one-of-the-dominant-types-causing-human-disease
#20
Atsushi Iguchi, Astrid von Mentzer, Taisei Kikuchi, Nicholas R Thomson
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of diarrhoea in children below 5 years of age in endemic areas, and is a primary cause of diarrhoea in travellers visiting developing countries. Epidemiological analysis of E. coli pathovars is traditionally carried out based on the results of serotyping. However, genomic analysis of a global ETEC collection of 362 isolates taken from patients revealed nine novel O-antigen biosynthesis gene clusters that were previously unrecognized, and have collectively been called unclassified...
September 2017: Microbial Genomics
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