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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926976/are-cytokines-useful-biomarkers-to-determine-disease-severity-in-neonates-with-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#1
Thomas Schaible, Janine Reineke, Ludwig Gortner, Dominik Monz, Regine Schaffelder, Erol Tutdibi
Background This study investigates plasma cytokine levels in neonates with the more common left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and correlates them with severity of disease indicated by position of the liver. An intrathoracic part of liver is associated with higher need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and higher risk for chronic lung disease (CLD). Methods A total of 28 newborns with CDH were subdivided by their liver position in partially intrathoracic (n = 16) and only abdominal (n = 12) position...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926548/liver-transplantation-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-current-update-on-treatment-and-allocation
#2
Leigh Anne Dageforde, Kathryn J Fowler, William C Chapman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the current imaging modalities and criteria used to diagnose, and the role of liver transplantation as well as nonsurgical hepatic-directed therapies to treat hepatocellular carcinoma in the setting of chronic liver disease. RECENT FINDINGS: There has been continual evolution of guidelines, policies, and algorithms for the imaging diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma, particularly the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System...
December 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925386/interferon-free-therapies-for-patients-with-chronic%C3%A2-hepatitis-c-genotype-3-infection-a-systematic-review
#3
Vicente Gimeno-Ballester, María Buti, Ramón San Miguel, Mar Riveiro, Rafael Esteban
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with genotype 3 remains a challenge. The HCV elimination rate with direct acting antivirals (DAAs) is lower than the values reported for other HCV genotypes. In addition, genotype 3 infected patients have a higher risk of disease progression and hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to review the relevant literature concerning treatment of HCV genotype 3 patients with interferon-free regimens. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A literature search was conducted in the PubMed/Medline, Embase, and Web of Science electronic databases...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924681/factors-associated-with-30-day-mortality-in-elderly-inpatients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-during-two-influenza-seasons
#4
Núria Torner, Conchita Izquierdo, Núria Soldevila, Diana Toledo, Judith Chamorro, Elena Espejo, Amelia Fernández-Sierra, Angela Domínguez
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) refers to pneumonia unrelated to hospitals or extended-care facilities. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with 30-day mortality in patients with CAP aged ≥65 years admitted to 20 hospitals in seven Spanish regions during the 2013-14 and 2014-15 influenza seasons. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with 30-day mortality. The adjusted model included variables selected by backward elimination with a cut off of < 0.02. A total of 1928 CAP cases were recorded; 60...
December 7, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924629/gas6-as-a-putative-noninvasive-biomarker-of-hepatic-fibrosis
#5
Mattia Bellan, Gabriele Pogliani, Cecilia Marconi, Rosalba Minisini, Lisa Franzosi, Federica Alciato, Andrea Magri, Gian Carlo Avanzi, Mario Pirisi, Pier Paolo Sainaghi
AIM: To evaluate serum growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6) concentration as a biomarker of liver fibrosis progression. MATERIALS & METHODS: One hundred and thirteen consecutive patients affected by chronic liver disease underwent transient elastography, Gas6 measurement and, if clinically indicated, liver biopsy. RESULTS: Gas6 concentration was directly correlated to liver stiffness (r = 0.67; p < 0.0001) and was significantly higher in patients with advanced fibrosis (Ishak 4-5; p < 0...
December 7, 2016: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924226/questions-and-controversies-the-role-of-necroptosis-in-liver-disease
#6
REVIEW
Lily Dara, Zhang-Xu Liu, Neil Kaplowitz
Acute and chronic liver injury results in hepatocyte death and turnover. If injury becomes chronic, the continuous cell death and turnover leads to chronic inflammation, fibrosis and ultimately cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Controlling liver cell death both in acute injury, to rescue the liver from acute liver failure, and in chronic injury, to curb secondary inflammation and fibrosis, is of paramount importance as a therapeutic strategy. Both apoptosis and necrosis occur in the liver, but the occurrence of necroptosis in the liver and its contribution to liver disease is controversial...
2016: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923694/neuropsychiatric-performance-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-who-is-normal
#7
REVIEW
Sara Montagnese, Michele De Rui, Paolo Angeli, Piero Amodio
Normal neuropsychiatric performance in cirrhosis has been traditionally defined by the absence of any degree of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and/or the absence of psychometric or neurophysiological abnormalities, by comparison with reference data from the healthy population. It is our impression that as our understanding and management of end-stage liver disease continues to change, the concept of normal neuropsychiatric performance may also need updating. This review explores novel and possibly more pragmatic interpretations of neuropsychiatric "normality" by comparison with top personal performance, in terms of risk of overt HE/brain failure and in relation with events such as liver transplantation, decompensation, acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) and Transjugular Intrahepatic Portal-systemic Shunt (TIPS) placement...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923446/obesity-is-more-closely-related-with-hepatic-steatosis-and-fibrosis-measured-by-transient-elastography-than-metabolic-health-status
#8
Ji Hye Huh, Kwang Joon Kim, Seung Up Kim, Seung Hwan Han, Kwang-Hyub Han, Bong-Soo Cha, Choon Hee Chung, Byung-Wan Lee
OBJECTIVE: The pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) involves multiple concomitant events induced by obesity and metabolic health condition. This study aimed to assess the risk of NAFLD according to metabolic health and obesity status using transient elastography (TE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 2198 asymptomatic adults without chronic liver disease and who underwent a medical health check-up were recruited. Subjects were categorized into four groups according to metabolic health and obesity statuses: metabolically healthy non-obese (MHNO); metabolically unhealthy non-obese (MUNO); metabolically healthy obese (MHO); and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO)...
January 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923259/-established-therapies-and-new-therapeutic-strategies-in-alcoholic-liver-disease
#9
Helmut Karl Seitz, Sebastian Mueller
Chronical alcohol abuse causes more than 200 diseases and/or symptoms and among these alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is of special importance since it occurs frequently and may be life-threatening. In Europe alcohol consumption as well as ALD increased as compared to the rest of the world. It has been estimated that in Europe approximately 500 000 people die every year due to ALD. ALD consists of alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatocellar cancer (HCC ). Alcohol hepatitis (AH) is a clinical feature with jaundice and liver failure and a high mortality...
December 6, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922484/adherence-to-follow-up-and-treatment-recommendations-in-greek-and-immigrant-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-in-greece
#10
Theodoros Voulgaris, John Vlachogiannakos, Panagiota Ioannidou, Maria-Vasiliki Papageorgiou, Evi Zampeli, Dimitrios Karagiannakis, Anastasia Georgiou, Afroditi Papazoglou, George Karamanolis, George V Papatheodoridis
BACKGROUND/AIM: Immigrants have multiple barriers to access to health care systems. We evaluated the adherence to follow-up and treatment recommendations of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) Greek and immigrant patients. METHODS: In total, 1001 consecutive adult patients with chronic HBV infection who visited our clinics for the first time between 2002 and 2011 were included. All patients born outside Greece were considered immigrants. Diagnosis was considered to be complete if patients could be classified into HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB), inactive carriers, HBeAg-negative CHB, or decompensated cirrhosis...
December 2, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921168/the-2016-diagnostic-criteria-for-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#11
Takahiro Nakazawa, Kenji Notohara, Susumu Tazuma, Atsushi Tanaka, Hiroyuki Isayama, Toshio Tsuyuguchi, Toshiyuki Mori, Hajime Takikawa
BACKGROUND: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease of unknown cause that is characterized pathologically by an inflammatory and fibrotic process centered on the epithelium, leading to diffuse biliary stenosis and increased wall thickness throughout the intra- and extra-hepatic biliary trees. A nationwide survey in Japan revealed several differences in the clinical aspects of PSC between Japan and Western countries. PSC was recently designated an intractable hepatobiliary disease in Japan...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921045/clinical-scenario-of-the-metabolic-syndrome
#12
REVIEW
Swantje Brede, Georg Serfling, Johanna Klement, Sebastian M Schmid, Hendrik Lehnert
The term metabolic syndrome (MeS) refers to a cluster of associated symptoms composed of impaired fasting glucose, abdominal obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. MeS is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and diabetes-associated morbidity and mortality. The increased amount of visceral fat together with a chronic inflammatory state predisposes to the development of arteriosclerosis. Furthermore, insulin resistance (IR) and dyslipidemia are associated with fatty liver disease. In addition, MeS is linked to non-cardiovascular diseases such as cancer as well as psychiatric or endocrine disorders...
October 2016: Visceral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921044/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-cause-or-effect-of-metabolic-syndrome
#13
REVIEW
Christoph Grander, Felix Grabherr, Alexander R Moschen, Herbert Tilg
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease throughout the world. Pathophysiological insights into this disease have recently illustrated that various factors such as insulin resistance, innate immunity, metabolic inflammation, and the microbiota are of relevance. NAFLD, metabolic syndrome (MS), and type 2 diabetes (T2D) share many pathophysiological aspects, and inflammatory processes in the adipose tissue, gut, and liver have evolved to be of exceptional importance. Most of NAFLD patients are obese and encounter a high risk of developing MS and T2D...
October 2016: Visceral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920470/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-multisystem-disease
#14
REVIEW
Ivana Mikolasevic, Sandra Milic, Tamara Turk Wensveen, Ivana Grgic, Ivan Jakopcic, Davor Stimac, Felix Wensveen, Lidija Orlic
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common comorbidities associated with overweight and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Importantly, NAFLD is one of its most dangerous complications because it can lead to severe liver pathologies, including fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatic cellular carcinoma. Given the increasing worldwide prevalence of obesity, NAFLD has become the most common cause of chronic liver disease and therefore is a major global health problem. Currently, NAFLD is predominantly regarded as a hepatic manifestation of MetS...
November 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919960/dancr-acts-as-a-diagnostic-biomarker-and-promotes-tumor-growth-and-metastasis-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#15
Xiang Ma, Xin Wang, Chao Yang, Zusen Wang, Bing Han, Liqun Wu, Likun Zhuang
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNA differentiation antagonizing non-protein coding RNA (DANCR) is considered to be an oncogene in many cancer types. However, the role of DANCR in diagnosis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this study, 146 participants including healthy volunteers (HVs) and patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), cirrhosis and HCC were recruited. RESULTS: Firstly, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that DANCR was up-regulated in tumor tissues and plasma of patients with HCC, and its expression was highly correlated with microvascular and liver capsule invasion of HCC...
December 2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918312/physician-patient-communication-is-associated-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-screening-in-chronic-liver-disease-patients
#16
Deborah J Li, Yikyung Park, Neeta Vachharajani, Wint Yan Aung, Jacqueline Garonzik-Wang, William C Chapman
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic liver disease are at high risk for developing liver cancer. Factors associated with screening awareness and doctor-patient communication regarding liver cancer were examined. STUDY: Four hundred sixty-seven patients with chronic liver disease at a tertiary-care clinic participated in a phone survey regarding awareness of cancer screening, doctor-patient communication, and health behaviors. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for data on liver disease etiology and dates of liver imaging tests...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917600/determination-of-hepatitis-b-phenotype-using-biochemical-and%C3%A2-serological-markers
#17
A M Di Bisceglie, M Lombardero, J Teckman, L Roberts, H L A Janssen, S H Belle, J H Hoofnagle
The aim of this study was to assess the validity of categorization of chronic hepatitis B viral infection into stages or phases based upon measures of disease activity and viral load, assuming these phenotypes will be useful for prognostication and determining the need for antiviral therapy. We assessed the phenotype of hepatitis B of 1,390 adult participants enrolled in the Hepatitis B Research Network Cohort Study, using a computer algorithm. Only 4% were immune tolerant, while 35% had chronic hepatitis B (18% e antigen positive and 17% e antigen negative) while 23% were inactive carriers...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917597/chronic-hepatitis-c-infection-and-liver-disease-in-hiv-coinfected-patients-in-asia
#18
N Durier, E Yunihastuti, K Ruxrungtham, N V Kinh, A Kamarulzaman, D Boettiger, A Widhani, A Avihingsanon, B V Huy, S F B Syed Omar, A Sanityoso, S Chittmittrapap, N T H Dung, V Pillai, T Suwan-Ampai, M Law, A H Sohn, G Matthews
Data on markers of hepatitis C virus (HCV) disease in HIV-HCV-coinfected patients in resource-limited settings are scarce. We assessed HCV RNA, HCV genotype (GT), IL28B GT and liver fibrosis (FibroScan(®) ) in 480 HIV-infected patients with positive HCV antibody in four HIV treatment centres in South-East Asia. We enrolled 165 (34.4%) patients in Jakarta, 158 (32.9%) in Bangkok, 110 (22.9%) in Hanoi and 47 (9.8%) in Kuala Lumpur. Overall, 426 (88.8%) were male, the median (IQR) age was 38.1 (34.7-42.5) years, 365 (76...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917262/toll-like-receptors-in-pathophysiology-of-liver-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Safak Kiziltas
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors that participate in host defense by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns alongside inflammatory processes by recognizing damage associated molecular patterns. Given constant exposure to pathogens from gut, strict control of TLR-associated signaling pathways is essential in the liver, which otherwise may lead to inappropriate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and interferons and may generate a predisposition to several autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases...
November 18, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917261/anti-hepatitis-c-virus-drugs-and-kidney
#20
REVIEW
Paul Carrier, Marie Essig, Marilyne Debette-Gratien, Denis Sautereau, Annick Rousseau, Pierre Marquet, Jérémie Jacques, Véronique Loustaud-Ratti
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) mainly targets the liver but can also induce extrahepatic manifestations. The kidney may be impacted via an immune mediated mechanism or a cytopathic effect. HCV patients are clearly at a greater risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) than uninfected patients are, and the presence of CKD increases mortality. Interferon-based therapies and ribavirin are difficult to manage and are poorly effective in end-stage renal disease and hemodialysis. These patients should be given priority treatment with new direct anti-viral agents (DAAs) while avoiding peginterferon and ribavirin...
November 18, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
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