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chronic liver disease

Lamiaa Mobarak, Dalia Omran, Mohammed M Nabeel, Zeinab Zakaria
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: It is well known that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) develops as a consequence of hepatic fibrosis progression. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the inflammatory and fibrosis markers as predictors for HCC development among patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) related chronic liver disease to help in early diagnosis and management of HCC. METHODS: A total of 280 patients with chronic liver disease were included in this retrospective study, out of them 140 had liver cirrhosis with HCC and 140 had cirrhosis without HCC...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Alessandro Mantovani, Lucia Mingolla, Riccardo Rigolon, Isabella Pichiri, Valentina Cavalieri, Giacomo Zoppini, Giuseppe Lippi, Enzo Bonora, Giovanni Targher
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggested that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in type 1 diabetes. We assessed whether NAFLD also predicts the risk of incident CVD events in type 1 diabetic adults. METHODS: We studied a retrospective cohort of 286 type 1 diabetic outpatients (mean age 43±14years; median duration of diabetes 17 [10-30] years) without secondary causes of chronic liver diseases, who were followed for a mean period of 5...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Jiangshan Lian, Xiaofen Li, Yinyin Wang, Jianle Yang, Wei Liu, Jing Ma, Deying Chen, Lanjuan Li, Jianrong Huang
OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to compare serum metabolite alterations between acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) and chronic liver failure (CLF), and find the specific biomarkers associated with the diseases. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from patients with ACLF (n=76) and CLF (n=56) as well as healthy individuals (n=20) and assayed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). The acquired data was analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA)...
October 18, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Manan Jhaveri, Nicholas Procaccini, Kris V Kowdley
Chronic Hepatitis C is a major public health problem. The chronicity of the Hepatitis C can lead to advanced liver disease, cirrhosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma. Chronic hepatitis C is the leading indication of for liver transplantation in the United States. Since the introduction of directly acting antiviral agents (DAAs), there have been there have been dramatic advances in treatment of hepatitis C in terms of tolerability, duration of therapy with significant increases in the rates of sustained virology response (SVR)...
October 21, 2016: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Y-M Chiu, C-H Tang, S-T Hung, Y-W Yang, C-H Fang, H-Y Lin
OBJECTIVES: Few studies on tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor-associated tuberculosis (TB) and hepatic events have been performed in regions where these risks are elevated. This study aimed to provide a direct comparison between adalimumab and etanercept in a high-risk population and to address the implications for physicians working with patients in such an environment. METHOD: Data collected from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan between 2007 and 2011 were analysed retrospectively for incidences of eight adverse events associated with TNF-α inhibitors...
October 21, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
Francesca Guidotti, Gioia Piatti, Alessia Marcon, Elena Cassinerio, Marianna Giuditta, Alberto Roghi, Valter Fasano, Dario Consonni, Maria Domenica Cappellini
Although pulmonary function abnormalities in thalassaemia major (TM) were described in 1980, the pathogenetic mechanism is not clear and data are contradictory, probably because of study heterogeneity and the multifactorial nature of the pathogenesis. We retrospectively analysed 73 adult TM patients to evaluate the prevalence of pulmonary dysfunction in adult TM and investigate relationships with iron load. All patients underwent body plethysmography and carbon monoxide diffusion (DLCO) was assessed in 63, in addition to blood tests, echocardiogram and T2* myocardial and liver magnetic resonance imaging...
October 21, 2016: British Journal of Haematology
Han-Sol Park, Jung Eun Jang, Myoung Seok Ko, Sung Hoon Woo, Bum Joong Kim, Hyun Sik Kim, Hye Sun Park, In-Sun Park, Eun Hee Koh, Ki-Up Lee
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common form of chronic liver disease in industrialized countries. Recent studies have highlighted the association between peroxisomal dysfunction and hepatic steatosis. Peroxisomes are intracellular organelles that contribute to several crucial metabolic processes, such as facilitation of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and removal of reactive oxygen species through catalase or plasmalogen synthesis. Statins are known to prevent hepatic steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but underlying mechanisms of this prevention are largely unknown...
October 2016: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Yoonki Hong, You-Sun Kim, Seok-Ho Hong, Yeon-Mok Oh
There is no therapy currently available that influences the natural history of disease progression in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although stem cell therapy is considered a potential therapeutic option in COPD, there are no clinical trials proving definitive therapeutic effects in patients with COPD. Recently, it was reported that pioglitazone might potentiate the therapeutic effects of stem cells in patients with heart or liver disease. To test the capacity of pioglitazone pretreatment of stem cells for emphysema repair, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of pioglitazone-pretreated human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) on elastase-induced or cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in mice...
October 21, 2016: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Takayuki Koga, Pei-Li Yao, Maryam Goudarzi, Iain A Murray, Gayathri Balandaram, Frank J Gonzalez, Gary H Perdew, Albert J Fornace, Jeffrey M Peters
Alcoholic liver disease is a pathological condition caused by over-consumption of alcohol. Due to the high morbidity and mortality associated with this disease, there remains a need to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying its etiology and to develop new treatments. Since peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) modulates ethanol-induced hepatic effects, the present study examined alterations in gene expression that may contribute to this disease. Chronic ethanol treatment causes increased hepatic CYP2B10 expression in Pparβ/δ+/+ mice, but not in Pparβ/δ-/- mice...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Brian J McMahon, Dana Bruden, Lisa Townshend-Bulson, Brenna Simons, Phillip Spradling, Stephen Livingston, James Gove, Annette Hewitt, Julia Plotnik, Chriss Homan, Hannah Espera, Susan Negus, Mary Snowball, Youssef Barbour, Michael Bruce, Prabhu Gounder
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Few studies have examined factors associated with disease progression in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We examined the association of 11 risk factors with adverse outcomes in a population-based prospective cohort observational study of Alaska Native/American Indian persons with chronic HCV infection. METHODS: We collected data from a population-based cohort study of liver-related adverse outcomes of infection in American Indian/Alaska Native persons with chronic HCV living in Alaska, recruited from 1995 through 2012...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Naga Chalasani, Arie Regev
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Gastroenterology
Pradip B Devhare, Robert Steele, Adrian M Di Bisceglie, David E Kaplan, Ratna B Ray
African Americans (AA) have higher hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and mortality rates than Caucasians Americans (CA). Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to cirrhosis and HCC. HCV infection is highly prevalent in AA population compared to other racial groups. African Americans are also less likely to naturally clear HCV, potentially contributing to higher prevalence of HCV. However, the explanation for this disparity is currently unknown. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in the blood are emerging as biomarkers for pathological conditions...
October 19, 2016: Gene Expression
Chunfeng Lu, Wenxuan Xu, Feng Zhang, Jiangjuan Shao, Shizhong Zheng
It has emerged that hepatocyte necroptosis plays a critical role in chronic alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Our previous study has identified that the beneficial therapeutic effect of curcumin on alcohol-caused liver injury might be attributed to activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), whereas the role of curcumin in regulating necroptosis and the underlying mechanism remain to be determined. We firstly found that chronic alcohol consumption triggered obvious hepatocyte necroptosis, leading to increased expression of receptor-interacting protein 1, receptor-interacting protein 3, high-mobility group box 1, and phosphorylated mixed lineage kinase domain-like in murine livers...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Su Jin Lee, Jeong Han Kang, Da Eun Lee, Min Jeong Nam, Hyun-Shik Lee, Oh-Shin Kwon
Chronic alcohol consumption causes hepatic steatosis, which is characterized by a considerable increase in free fatty acid (FFA) and triglyceride levels. To identify the possible proteins involved in the progression to alcoholic hepatosteatosis, we performed proteomic analysis on livers of mice exposed to alcohol. 2D-based proteomic analysis revealed that EtOH exposure in mice changed the expression of 43 proteins compared with that in mice fed a normal diet (ND). The most notable protein changes were proteins involved in Met metabolism and oxidative stress, most of which were significantly downregulated in alcohol-exposed animals...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Walter Young, Shelley Karp, Peter Bialick, Cindy Liverance, Ashley Seder, Erica Berg, Liberty Karp
INTRODUCTION: Exposure to secondhand smoke is problematic for residents living in multiunit housing, as the smoke migrates through shared ventilation systems, unsealed cracks, and door spaces. The objective of our research was to assess resident exposure to secondhand smoke, support for no-smoking policies, and the health impacts of no-smoking policies in multiunit housing. METHODS: Surveys of 312 heads of households who resided in 1 of 3 multiunit buildings managed by a Colorado public housing authority were administered before and after implementation of a no-smoking policy that prohibited smoking in all resident apartments and all indoor common areas...
October 20, 2016: Preventing Chronic Disease
Adil El Taghdouini, Leo A van Grunsven
Chronic liver injury to hepatocytes or cholangiocytes, when left unmanaged, leads to the development of liver fibrosis, a condition characterized by the excessive intrahepatic deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. Activated hepatic stellate cells constitute the predominant source of extracellular matrix in fibrotic livers and their transition from a quiescent state during fibrogenesis is associated with important alterations in their transcriptional and epigenetic landscape. Areas covered: We briefly describe the processes involved in hepatic stellate cell activation and discuss our current understanding of alterations in the epigenetic landscape, i...
October 20, 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Shinichi Hikasa, Megumi Yasuda, Kyoko Hideta, Mai Kawakami, Satoshi Higasa, Akihiro Sawada, Tazuko Tokugawa, Takeshi Kimura
BACKGROUND: Renal dysfunction is recognized with increasing frequency among the noninfectious comorbidities associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) has been shown to be a new biomarker to screen for not only tubulointerstitial damage but also kidney dysfunction. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study to determine the association between the urinary L-FABP and chronic kidney disease (CKD) among 77 HIV-infected Japanese patients by backward-stepwise multivariable logistic regression...
October 19, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Abdulmoein E Al-Agha, Abrar M Alnawab, Tala M Hejazi
To determine the various etiologies of primary and secondary hyperlipidemia among children visiting the pediatric endocrine clinic. Methods: This is a retrospective, cross-sectional, cohort study conducted at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from January 2010 to 2015 that included 253 children aged from birth to 12 years old. Data were obtained by reviewing medical reports of patients who presented with hyperlipidemia to the clinic, and their laboratory investigation results using KAUH electronic "Phoenix" system...
November 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
Jeong Eun Song, Do Young Kim
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global health problems leading to severe liver disease such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBV is a circular, partly double-stranded DNA virus with various serological markers: hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HBs, anti-HBc IgM and IgG, and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and anti-HBe. It is transmitted by sexual, parenteral and vertical route. One significant method to diminish the burden of this disease is timely diagnosis of acute, chronic and occult cases of HBV...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Kenichi Morikawa, Tomoe Shimazaki, Rei Takeda, Takaaki Izumi, Machiko Umumura, Naoya Sakamoto
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious health threat around the world. Despite the availability of an effective hepatitis B vaccine, the number of HBV carriers is estimated to be as high as 240 million worldwide. Global mortality due to HBV-related liver diseases such as chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may be as high as 1 million deaths per year. HBV is transmitted via blood and body fluids, and is much more infectious than both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
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