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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545155/rapid-diagnostic-tests-for-typhoid-and-paratyphoid-enteric-fever
#1
REVIEW
Lalith Wijedoru, Sue Mallett, Christopher M Parry
BACKGROUND: Differentiating both typhoid (Salmonella Typhi) and paratyphoid (Salmonella Paratyphi A) infection from other causes of fever in endemic areas is a diagnostic challenge. Although commercial point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for enteric fever are available as alternatives to the current reference standard test of blood or bone marrow culture, or to the widely used Widal Test, their diagnostic accuracy is unclear. If accurate, they could potentially replace blood culture as the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended main diagnostic test for enteric fever...
May 26, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542223/measuring-changes-in-transmission-of-neglected-tropical-diseases-malaria-and-enteric-pathogens-from-quantitative-antibody-levels
#2
Benjamin F Arnold, Mark J van der Laan, Alan E Hubbard, Cathy Steel, Joseph Kubofcik, Katy L Hamlin, Delynn M Moss, Thomas B Nutman, Jeffrey W Priest, Patrick J Lammie
BACKGROUND: Serological antibody levels are a sensitive marker of pathogen exposure, and advances in multiplex assays have created enormous potential for large-scale, integrated infectious disease surveillance. Most methods to analyze antibody measurements reduce quantitative antibody levels to seropositive and seronegative groups, but this can be difficult for many pathogens and may provide lower resolution information than quantitative levels. Analysis methods have predominantly maintained a single disease focus, yet integrated surveillance platforms would benefit from methodologies that work across diverse pathogens included in multiplex assays...
May 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541458/microbiome-analysis-of-a-disease-affecting-the-deep-sea-sponge-geodia-barretti
#3
Heidi M Luter, Raymond J Bannister, Steve Whalan, Tina Kutti, Mari-Carmen Pineda, Nicole S Webster
Reports of sponge disease are becoming increasingly frequent, although almost all instances involve shallow-water, tropical species. Here, we describe the first disease affecting the deep-water sponge, Geodia barretti. The disease is characterised by brown/black discolouration of the sponge tissue, extensive levels of tissue disintegration and increased levels of fouling. Disease prevalence was quantified using video survey transects conducted between 100 and 220 meters in Korsfjorden, Norway and the microbial communities of healthy and diseased sponges were compared using 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
May 24, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540757/association-of-tuberculosis-status-with-neurologic-disease-and-immune-response-in-htlv-1-infection
#4
Anselmo Souza, Natália Carvalho, Yuri Neves, Silvane Braga Santos, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Sergio Arruda, Eduardo Martins Netto, Marshall Glesby, Edgar Carvalho
The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). HTLV-1 infected individuals have increased susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection but the influence of tuberculosis on the course of HTLV-1 infection is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of tuberculosis on immunological, virologic, and neurologic features of HTLV-1 infection. This is a retrospective analysis of individuals enrolled in a cohort study from an HTLV-1 clinic who were evaluated for past or latent tuberculosis and classified clinically as HTLV-1 carriers, probable HAM/TSP and definite HAM/TSP...
May 25, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536911/hydrological-connectivity-and-burkholderia-pseudomallei-prevalence-in-wetland-environments-investigating-rice-farming-community-s-risk-of-exposure-to-melioidosis-in-north-east-thailand
#5
C Joon Chuah, Esther K H Tan, Rasana W Sermswan, Alan D Ziegler
In our analysis of 136 water samples from wetland environments (rice paddies, natural wetland sites, man-made water bodies) in rural areas of North-East Thailand, Burkholderia pseudomallei was most prevalent in rice paddies (15 of the 30 positive sites). The high prevalence in the water of rice fields is indicative of the inherent vulnerability of farmers in rural agricultural areas in this area of Thailand and likely other locations in the tropics. Nearly all B. pseudomallei-positive sites were found within the vicinity of a large wetland associated with the Chi River, in the month of July 2014...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536850/effectiveness-of-daily-prednisolone-to-slow-progression-of-human-t-lymphotropic-virus-type-1-associated-myelopathy-tropical-spastic-paraparesis-a-multicenter-retrospective-cohort-study
#6
Ariella L G Coler-Reilly, Tomoo Sato, Toshio Matsuzaki, Masanori Nakagawa, Masaaki Niino, Masahiro Nagai, Tatsufumi Nakamura, Norihiro Takenouchi, Natsumi Araya, Naoko Yagishita, Eisuke Inoue, Yoshihisa Yamano
Millions of people are infected with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) worldwide; notable endemic areas include Brazil, the Caribbean islands, Iran, and Japan. A small number of those infected develop the progressive neurodegenerative disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM), also known as tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP), which is characterized by chronic spinal cord inflammation and accompanying myelopathic symptoms. The corticosteroid prednisolone (PSL) is a classic treatment for HAM/TSP, yet its effectiveness remains controversial owing to insufficient and conflicting studies...
May 23, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532988/molecular-and-serological-detection-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-in-dogs-canis-lupus-familiaris-suggests-potential-transmission-risk-in-areas-of-recent-acute-chagas-disease-outbreaks-in-colombia
#7
Jeiczon Jaimes-Dueñez, Omar Triana-Chávez, Omar Cantillo-Barraza, Carolina Hernández, Juan David Ramírez, Agustín Góngora-Orjuela
Chagas disease is a zoonotic infection widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of America, including more than 50% of the Colombian territory. In the last years, an increase of outbreaks of acute Chagas disease has been observed in the east of the country due to environmental changes and mammal movements toward human settlements. Given the importance of dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) as reservoir hosts and sentinels of Trypanosoma cruzi infection across different regions of America, in this study we reported a serological and molecular detection of T...
June 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529130/the-future-of-drug-development-for-neglected-tropical-diseases-how-the-european-commission-can-continue-to-make-a-difference
#8
Raymond J Pierce, Jane MacDougall, Rob Leurs, Maria Paola Costi
In this article, the four coordinators of neglected tropical disease (NTD) drug development projects funded under the European Commission (EC) Framework Programme 7 argue that the EC should reassess their funding strategy to cover the steps necessary to translate a lead compound into a drug candidate for testing in clinical trials, and suggest ways in which this might be achieved.
May 18, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529116/italian-consensus-guidelines-for-the-management-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infections-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#9
Marco Sebastiani, Fabiola Atzeni, Laura Milazzo, Luca Quartuccio, Carlo Scirè, Giovanni Battista Gaeta, Giovanni Lapadula, Orlando Armignacco, Marcello Tavio, Ignazio Olivieri, Pierluigi Meroni, Laura Bazzichi, Walter Grassi, Alessandro Mathieu, Claudio Mastroianni, Evangelista Sagnelli, Teresa Santantonio, Caterina Uberti Foppa, Massimo Puoti, Loredana Sarmati, Paolo Airò, Oscar Massimiliano Epis, Rossana Scrivo, Miriam Gargiulo, Agostino Riva, Andreina Manfredi, Giovanni Ciancio, Gianguglielmo Zehender, Gloria Taliani, Luca Meroni, Salvatore Sollima, Piercarlo Sarzi-Puttini, Massimo Galli
OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis B (HBV) infection, which is prevalent worldwide, is also frequently seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR) and the Italian Society of Infectious and Tropical Diseases (SIMIT) endorsed a national consensus process to review the available evidence on HBV management in RA patients and to produce practical, hospital-wide recommendations. METHODS: The consensus panel consisted of infectious disease consultants, rheumatologists and epidemiologists and used the criteria of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine to assess the quality of the evidence and the strength of their recommendations...
May 18, 2017: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523625/identification-of-a-novel-putative-inhibitor-of-the-plasmodium-falciparum-purine-nucleoside-phosphorylase-exploring-the-purine-salvage-pathway-to-design-new-antimalarial-drugs
#10
Luciano Porto Kagami, Gustavo Machado das Neves, Ricardo Pereira Rodrigues, Vinicius Barreto da Silva, Vera Lucia Eifler-Lima, Daniel Fábio Kawano
Malaria, a tropical parasitic disease caused by Plasmodium spp., continues to place a heavy social burden, with almost 200 million cases and more than 580,000 deaths per year. Plasmodium falciparum purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PfPNP) can be targeted for antimalarial drug design since its inhibition kills malaria parasites both in vitro and in vivo. Although the currently known inhibitors of PfPNP, immucillins, are orally available and of low toxicity to animals and humans, to the best of our knowledge, none of these compounds has entered clinical trials for the treatment of malaria...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521698/leishmanicidal-and-trypanocidal-activity-of-metal-complexes-with-1-2-4-triazolo-1-5-a-pyrimidines-insights-on-their-therapeutic-potential-against-leishmaniasis-and-chagas-disease
#11
Juan M Salas, Ana B Caballero, Ginés M Esteban-Parra, José M Méndez-Arriaga
Since their first synthesis back in the early 20th century, 1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines have aroused increasing interest in very diverse areas ranging from chemotherapy to agriculture or even photography. Their similarity to purines confers a potential bioactivity and this feature has been wisely exploited for therapeutic use, including antifungal, antipyretic, analgesic, antiinflammatory, antitumoral and antiparasitic properties. In this review, we focus on the compounds that these nitrogen heterocycles form with metal ions and their antiparasitic activity and therapeutic potential against two neglected diseases of tropical prevalence, leishmaniasis and Chagas disease...
May 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521385/-ziziphus-oxyphylla-ethnobotanical-ethnopharmacological-and-phytochemical-review
#12
REVIEW
Rizwan Ahmad, Niyaz Ahmad, Atta Abbas Naqvi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ziziphus oxyphylla (ZO) is distributed mainly in tropic and warm temperate regions in the world. Pakistan owns six (06) indigenous species of genus Ziziphus out of which ZO is widely used for traditional treatment of different ailments such as diabetes, jaundice and liver diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present review aims to provide in-depth and comprehensive literature overview, regarding botanical, chemical and biological characteristics of the plant alongwith phytochemical isolation and mechanistic studies to support its folklore and traditional uses...
May 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520869/comparative-pathogenomic-characterization-of-a-non-invasive-serotype-m71-strain-streptococcus-pyogenes-ns53-reveals-incongruent-phenotypic-implications-from-distinct-genotypic-markers
#13
Yun-Juan Bao, Yang Li, Zhong Liang, Garima Agrahari, Shaun W Lee, Victoria A Ploplis, Francis J Castellino
The strains serotyped as M71 from group A Streptococcus are common causes of pharyngeal and skin diseases worldwide. Here we characterize the genome of a unique non-invasive M71 human isolate, NS53. The genome does not contain structural rearrangements or large-scale gene gains/losses, but encodes a full set of non-truncated known virulence factors, thus providing an ideal reference for comparative studies. However, the NS53 genome showed incongruent phenotypic implications from distinct genotypic markers. NS53 is characterized as an emm pattern D and FCT (fibronectin-collagen-T-antigen) type-3 strain, typical of skin tropic strains, but is phylogenetically close to emm pattern E strains with preference for both skin and pharyngeal infections...
May 17, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520817/heat-in-the-southeastern-united-states-characteristics-trends-and-potential-health-impact
#14
Jeremy E Diem, Christine E Stauber, Richard Rothenberg
High summer temperatures in extratropical areas have an impact on the public's health, mainly through heat stress, high air pollution concentrations, and the transmission of tropical diseases. The purpose of this study is to examine the current characteristics of heat events and future projections of summer apparent temperature (AT)-and associated health concerns-throughout the southeastern United States. Synoptic climatology was used to assess the atmospheric characteristics of extreme heat days (EHDs) from 1979-2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517033/high-throughput-sequencing-of-transposable-element-insertions-suggests-adaptive-evolution-of-the-invasive-asian-tiger-mosquito-towards-temperate-environments
#15
Clément Goubert, Hélène Henri, Guillaume Minard, Claire Valiente Moro, Patrick Mavingui, Cristina Vieira, Matthieu Boulesteix
Invasive species represent unique opportunities to evaluate the role of local adaptation during colonization of new environments. Among these species, the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a threatening vector of several human viral diseases, including dengue and chikungunya, and raises concerns about the Zika fever. Its broad presence in both temperate and tropical environments has been considered the reflection of great "ecological plasticity". However, no study has been conducted to assess the role of adaptive evolution in the ecological success of Ae...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516869/recommendations-for-infectious-disease-screening-in-migrants-to-western-europe-with-inflammatory-arthropathies-before-starting-biologic-agents-results-from-a-multidisciplinary-task-force-of-four-european-societies-sir-ser-simet-semtsi-facing-the-lar
#16
Filippo Bartalesi, Carlo Scirè, Ana Requena-Méndez, Miguel Angel Abad, Dora Buonfrate, Roberto Caporali, Fabrizio Conti, Federico Diaz-Gonzalez, Cruz Fernández-Espartero, Carmen Martinez-Fernandez, Marta Mascarello, Elena Generali, Giovanni Minisola, Aldo Morrone, Jose Muñoz, Patricia Richi, Gariffalia Sakellariou, Joaquin Salas Coronas, Michele Spinicci, Francesco Castelli, Alessandro Bartoloni, Zeno Bisoffi, Francisco Gimenez-Sanchez, Santiago Muñoz-Fernandez, Marco Matucci-Cerinic
OBJECTIVES: Inflammatory arthritis needs infectious disease screening before starting a biologic agent, however, few data are known about migrant patients, who represent a peculiar population which requires a multidisciplinary approach among international health specialists and should also be considered by health authorities. For this reason, the Italian and Spanish Societies of Rheumatology (SIR and SER) and Tropical Medicine (SIMET and SEMTSI) promoted a multidisciplinary task force in order to produce specific recommendations about screening and advices to be considered in migrant patients with inflammatory arthritis candidate to receive biological therapy, according to their geographical origin...
May 8, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513816/italian-guidelines-for-the-use-of-antiretroviral-agents-and-the-diagnostic-clinical-management-of-hiv-1-infected-persons-update-2016
#17
Andrea Antinori, Antonio Di Biagio, Simone Marcotullio, Massimo Andreoni, Antonio Chirianni, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Massimo Galli, Francesco Mazzotta, Cristina Mussini, Massimo Puoti, Adriano Lazzarin
The Italian Society of Infectious and Tropical Diseases (SIMIT) of the Technical Health Committee, Ministry of Health (Sections L and M) of Italy have supported recommendations for the Italian guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents and the diagnostic-clinical management of HIV-1 infected persons. This publication summarizes the latest updates to the 2016 version of the Italian Guidelines for the management of HIV-1 infected patients and the use of antiretroviral drugs. In particular, new recommendations were released concerning the following topics: estimate of the HIV continuum of care in Italy, optimal timing and preferred drug combinations for starting antiretroviral therapy, treatment optimization, and pre-exposure prophilaxis (PrEP)...
April 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513629/post-infectious-ibs-tropical-sprue-and-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-the-missing-link
#18
REVIEW
Uday C Ghoshal, Kok-Ann Gwee
Evidence is emerging that IBS, a hitherto enigmatic disorder thought to be predominantly related to psychological factors, has a microorganic basis in a subset of patients with the disease. Post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS), commonly of the diarrhoea-predominant subtype (defined as new development of IBS following acute infectious diarrhoea), is one such condition known to occur in up to 10-30% individuals after acute gastroenteritis. However, following acute infectious gastroenteritis, patients can also develop post-infectious malabsorption syndrome (PI-MAS), popularly known as tropical sprue...
May 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512406/a-case-of-subcutaneous-sarcoidosis-occurring-along-the-superficial-veins-of-the-forearms-a-distinctive-cutaneous-manifestation-masquerading-venous-tropic-action-in-the-underlying-systemic-disease
#19
Haruka Koizumi, Noritaka Oyama, Yukinori Hayakawa, Minoru Hasegawa
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease of unknown etiology, developing granulomas in any tissues and organs. Approximately 25% of sarcoidosis patients have cutaneous involvement with various clinical manifestations, which are categorized into specific or nonspecific diseases based on the histopathology; the former represents the typical sarcoid granulomas. Subcutaneous sarcoidosis is one of the specific skin lesions and often affects extremities, to a much lesser extent with other anatomical sites. Herein, we report the case of an 82-year-old Japanese man with subcutaneous sarcoidosis whose skin nodules exclusively overlay the lines of superficial veins on the forearms...
January 2017: Case Reports in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511559/migrating-microbes-what-pathogens-can-tell-us-about-population-movements-and-human-evolution
#20
Charlotte J Houldcroft, Jean-Baptiste Ramond, Riaan F Rifkin, Simon J Underdown
BACKGROUND: The biology of human migration can be observed from the co-evolutionary relationship with infectious diseases. While many pathogens are brief, unpleasant visitors to human bodies, others have the ability to become life-long human passengers. The story of a pathogen's genetic code may, therefore, provide insight into the history of its human host. The evolution and distribution of disease in Africa is of particular interest, because of the deep history of human evolution in Africa, the presence of a variety of non-human primates, and tropical reservoirs of emerging infectious diseases...
May 16, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
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