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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891950/impact-of-silicon-in-plant-biomass-production-focus-on-bast-fibres-hypotheses-and-perspectives
#1
REVIEW
Marie Luyckx, Jean-Francois Hausman, Stanley Lutts, Gea Guerriero
Silicon (Si) is an abundant element which, when supplied to plants, confers increased vigor and resistance to exogenous stresses, as well as enhanced stem mechanical strength. Plant species vary in their ability to take Si up and to accumulate it under the form of silicon dioxide (SiO₂) in their tissues: emblematic of this is the example of Poales, among which there is rice, a high Si accumulator. Monocots usually accumulate more Si than dicots; however, the impact that Si has on dicots, notably on economically important dicots, is a subject requiring further study and scientific efforts...
September 9, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888560/unintentional-cannabis-ingestion-in-children-a-systematic-review
#2
John R Richards, Nishelle E Smith, Aimee K Moulin
OBJECTIVE: To analyze published reports of unintentional cannabis ingestions in children to determine presenting signs and symptoms, route of exposure, treatment, and outcome. STUDY DESIGN: PubMed, OpenGrey, and Google Scholar were systematically searched. Articles were selected, reviewed, and graded using Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine guidelines. RESULTS: Of 3316 articles, 44 were included (3582 children age ≤12 years). We found no high quality (Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine level I or II) studies and 10 level III studies documenting lethargy as the most common presenting sign and confirming increasing incidence of unintentional ingestion in states having decriminalized medical and recreational cannabis...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886910/challenges-towards-revitalizing-hemp-a-multifaceted-crop
#3
REVIEW
Craig Schluttenhofer, Ling Yuan
Hemp has been an important crop throughout human history for food, fiber, and medicine. Despite significant progress made by the international research community, the basic biology of hemp plants remains insufficiently understood. Clear objectives are needed to guide future research. As a semi-domesticated plant, hemp has many desirable traits that require improvement, including eliminating seed shattering, enhancing the quantity and quality of stem fiber, and increasing the accumulation of phytocannabinoids...
September 5, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872624/effect-of-silane-coupling-agent-on-tribological-properties-of-hemp-fiber-reinforced-plant-derived-polyamide-1010-biomass-composites
#4
Yosuke Nishitani, Tetsuto Kajiyama, Toshiyuki Yamanaka
We have studied the effects of silane coupling agents used for the surface treatment of fiber on the tribological properties of hemp fiber (HF) reinforced plant-derived polyamide 1010 (PA1010) biomass composites. Hemp fibers were surface-treated by two surface treatment methods: (a) alkali treatment by sodium hydroxide solution and (b) surface treatment by silane coupling agents. Three types of silane coupling agents, namely aminosilane, epoxysilane and ureidosilane were used. These HF/PA1010 biomass composites were extruded using a twin extruder, and injection-molded...
September 5, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866364/development-of-rapid-and-highly-sensitive-detection-of-bean-common-mosaic-necrosis-virus-in-leguminous-crops-using-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay
#5
Siwon Lee, Heejung Kim, Jin-Young Lee, Jae-Young Rho
Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) is a plant pathogenic virus that can infect leguminous crops such as kidney beans, sunn hemp, red beans, and mung beans. BCMNV has not been reported in Korea and is classified as a quarantine plant virus. Currently, the standard diagnostic method for diagnosis of BCMNV is reverse transcription (RT)-nested PCR system. However a more rapid monitoring system is needed to enable the testing of more samples. The use of highly efficient loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for its detection has not yet been reported, and development of LAMP for detecting BCMNV in this study...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861507/a-conversion-of-oral-cannabidiol-to-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-seems-not-to-occur-in-humans
#6
Gerhard Nahler, Franjo Grotenhermen, Antonio Waldo Zuardi, José A S Crippa
Cannabidiol (CBD), a major cannabinoid of hemp, does not bind to CB1 receptors and is therefore devoid of psychotomimetic properties. Under acidic conditions, CBD can be transformed to delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids. It has been argued that this may occur also after oral administration in humans. However, the experimental conversion of CBD to THC and delta8-THC in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) is a highly artificial approach that deviates significantly from physiological conditions in the stomach; therefore, SGF does not allow an extrapolation to in vivo conditions...
2017: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846607/green-composites-based-on-blends-of-polypropylene-with-liquid-wood-reinforced-with-hemp-fibers-thermomechanical-properties-and-the-effect-of-recycling-cycles
#7
Gianluca Cicala, Claudio Tosto, Alberta Latteri, Angela Daniela La Rosa, Ignazio Blanco, Ahmed Elsabbagh, Pietro Russo, Gerhard Ziegmann
Green composites from polypropylene and lignin-based natural material were manufactured using a melt extrusion process. The lignin-based material used was the so called "liquid wood". The PP/"Liquid Wood" blends were extruded with "liquid wood" content varying from 20 wt % to 80 wt %. The blends were thoroughly characterized by flexural, impact, and dynamic mechanical testing. The addition of the Liquid Wood resulted in a great improvement in terms of both the flexural modulus and strength but, on the other hand, a reduction of the impact strength was observed...
August 26, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810219/industrial-hemp-as-a-potential-bioenergy-crop-in-comparison-with-kenaf-switchgrass-and-biomass-sorghum
#8
Lalitendu Das, Enshi Liu, Areej Saeed, David W Williams, Hongqiang Hu, Chenlin Li, Allison E Ray, Jian Shi
This study takes combined field trial, lab experiment, and economic analysis approaches to evaluate the potential of industrial hemp in comparison with kenaf, switchgrass and biomass sorghum. Agronomy data suggest that the per hectare yield (5437kg) of industrial hemp stem alone was at a similar level with switchgrass and sorghum; while the hemp plants require reduced inputs. Field trial also showed that ∼1230kg/ha hemp grain can be harvested in addition to stems. Results show a predicted ethanol yield of ∼82gallons/dry ton hemp stems, which is comparable to the other three tested feedstocks...
August 5, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803111/laccase-enzyme-detoxifies-hydrolysates-and-improves-biogas-production-from-hemp-straw-and-miscanthus
#9
Michel Schroyen, Stijn W H Van Hulle, Sander Holemans, Han Vervaeren, Katleen Raes
The impact of various phenolic compounds, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid on anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass (hemp straw and miscanthus) was studied. Such phenolic compounds have been known to inhibit biogas production during anaerobic digestion. The different phenolic compounds were added in various concentrations: 0, 100, 500, 1000 and 2000mg/L. A difference in inhibition of biomethane production between the phenolic compounds was noted. Hydrolysis rate, during anaerobic digestion of miscanthus was inhibited up to 50% by vanillic acid, while vanillic acid had no influence on the initial rate of biogas production during the anaerobic digestion of hemp straw...
July 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772936/chemical-treatment-of-waste-abaca-for-natural-fiber-reinforced-geopolymer-composite
#10
Roy Alvin J Malenab, Janne Pauline S Ngo, Michael Angelo B Promentilla
The use of natural fibers in reinforced composites to produce eco-friendly materials is gaining more attention due to their attractive features such as low cost, low density and good mechanical properties, among others. This work thus investigates the potential of waste abaca (Manila hemp) fiber as reinforcing agent in an inorganic aluminosilicate material known as geopolymer. In this study, the waste fibers were subjected to different chemical treatments to modify the surface characteristics and to improve the adhesion with the fly ash-based geopolymer matrix...
May 25, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772871/composite-materials-based-on-hemp-and-flax-for-low-energy-buildings
#11
Przemysław Brzyski, Danuta Barnat-Hunek, Zbigniew Suchorab, Grzegorz Łagód
The article presents the results obtained in the course of a study on prospective application of flax/hemp wastes as a filling material of lime-based composites in the construction of low-energy buildings. The utilized filler comprised the hydrated lime with clay and Portland cement used as additives. The analysis involved evaluation of such properties as porosity, density, thermal conductivity, absorptivity, permeability, as well as compressive and flexural strength. Depending on the quantity of the filler, the properties of the composite changed...
May 7, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772109/differentiation-of-cannabis-subspecies-by-thca-synthase-gene-analysis-using-rflp
#12
Natasa Cirovic, Miljana Kecmanovic, Dusan Keckarevic, Milica Keckarevic Markovic
Cannabis sativa subspecies, known as industrial hemp (C. sativa sativa) and marijuana (C. sativa indica) show no evident morphological distinctions, but they contain different levels of psychoactive Δ-9-tetrahidrocanabinol (THC), with considerably higher concentration in marijuana than in hemp. C. sativa subspecies differ in sequence of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase gene, responsible for THC production, and only one active copy of the gene, distinctive for marijuana, is capable of producing THC in concentration more then 0,3% in dried plants, usually punishable by the law...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753919/as-v-sorption-desorption-on-different-waste-materials-and-soil-samples
#13
Ana Quintáns-Fondo, David Fernández-Calviño, Juan Carlos Nóvoa-Muñoz, Manuel Arias-Estévez, María J Fernández-Sanjurjo, Esperanza Álvarez-Rodríguez, Avelino Núñez-Delgado
Aiming to investigate the efficacy of different materials as bio-sorbents for the purification of As-polluted waters, batch-type experiments were employed to study As(V) sorption and desorption on oak ash, pine bark, hemp waste, mussel shell, pyritic material, and soil samples, as a function of the As(V) concentration added. Pyritic material and oak ash showed high sorption (90% and >87%) and low desorption (<2% and <7%). Alternatively, hemp waste showed low retention (16% sorption and 100% desorption of the amount previously sorbed), fine shell and pine bark sorbed <3% and desorbed 100%, the vineyard soil sample sorbed 8% and released 85%, and the forest soil sample sorbed 32% and desorbed 38%...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727050/net-energy-of-hemp-hulls-and-processed-hemp-hull-products-fed-to-growing-pigs-and-the-comparison-of-net-energy-determined-via-indirect-calorimetry-and-calculated-from-prediction-equations
#14
J W Kim, C M Nyachoti
An experiment was conducted to determine the NE of hemp hulls (HH), extruded HH (EHH), and a blended product of HH with pea (HHP) fed to growing pigs using indirect calorimetry (IC) and to determine effects of dietary fiber on heat production (HP) and fasting HP (FHP). Twenty-four growing barrows with an average initial BW of 22.9 ± 1.75 kg were individually housed in adjustable metabolism crates. Pigs were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicates per treatment. A corn-soybean meal basal diet was prepared...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723068/biomimetic-hybridization-of-kevlar-into-silk-fibroin-nanofibrous-strategy-for-improved-mechanic-properties-of-flexible-composites-and-filtration-membranes
#15
Lili Lv, Xiangsheng Han, Lu Zong, Mingjie Li, Jun You, Xiaochen Wu, Chaoxu Li
Silk, one of the strongest natural biopolymers, was hybridized with Kevlar, one of the strongest synthetic polymers, through a biomimetic nanofibrous strategy. Regenerated silk materials have outstanding properties in transparency, biocompatibility, biodegradability and sustainability, and promising applications as diverse as in pharmaceutics, electronics, photonic devices and membranes. To compete with super mechanic properties of their natural counterpart, regenerated silk materials have been hybridized with inorganic fillers such as graphene and carbon nanotubes, but frequently lose essential mechanic flexibility...
August 22, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694530/transcriptomic-profiling-of-hemp-bast-fibres-at-different-developmental-stages
#16
Gea Guerriero, Marc Behr, Sylvain Legay, Lauralie Mangeot-Peter, Simone Zorzan, Mohammad Ghoniem, Jean-Francois Hausman
Bast fibres are long extraxylary cells which mechanically support the phloem and they are divided into xylan- and gelatinous-type, depending on the composition of their secondary cell walls. The former, typical of jute/kenaf bast fibres, are characterized by the presence of xylan and a high degree of lignification, while the latter, found in tension wood, as well as flax, ramie and hemp bast fibres, have a high abundance of crystalline cellulose. During their differentiation, bast fibres undergo specific developmental stages: the cells initially elongate rapidly by intrusive growth, subsequently they cease elongation and start to thicken...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664608/intima-media-thickness-at-different-arterial-segments-in-pediatric-type-1-diabetes-patients-and-its-relationship-with-advanced-glycation-end-products
#17
Christian Lilje, Julie C Cronan, Elridge J Schwartzenburg, Elizabeth M Owers, Patrice Clesi, Ricardo Gomez, Sarah Stender, James Hempe, Stuart A Chalew, Jeffrey P Cardinale
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are at risk for premature atherosclerosis (AS), which has its origin in childhood. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is an established surrogate marker for subclinical AS in adults. The first macroscopically detectable AS changes, however, begin in the abdominal aorta. Advanced glycation end products (AGE) predict microvascular complications in diabetes. OBJECTIVES: To assess the sensitivity for early macrovascular changes of brachial, femoral, and aortic IMT compared to conventional carotid IMT in pediatric T1DM patients ; and the relationship of IMT with AGE...
June 30, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662388/white-rot-fungi-pretreatment-combined-with-alkaline-oxidative-pretreatment-to-improve-enzymatic-saccharification-of-industrial-hemp
#18
Chunliang Xie, Wenbing Gong, Qi Yang, Zuohua Zhu, Li Yan, Zhenxiu Hu, Yuande Peng
White-rot fungi combined with alkaline/oxidative (A/O) pretreatments of industrial hemp woody core were proposed to improve enzymatic saccharification. In this study, hemp woody core were treated with only white rot fungi, only A/O and combined with the two methods. The results showed that Pleurotus eryngii (P. eryngii) was the most effective fungus for pretreatment. Reducing sugars yield was 329mg/g with 30 Filter Paper Unit (FPU)/g cellulase loading when treated 21day. In the A/O groups, the results showed that when treated with 3% NaOH and 3% H2O2, the yield of reducing sugars was 288mg/g with 30FPU/g cellulase loading...
June 17, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640922/changes-in-hemp-secondary-fiber-production-related-to-technical-fiber-variability-revealed-by-light-microscopy-and-attenuated-total-reflectance-fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopy
#19
Eva Fernandez-Tendero, Arnaud Day, Sandrine Legros, Anouck Habrant, Simon Hawkins, Brigitte Chabbert
Interest in hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is increasing due to the development of a new range of industrial applications based on bast fibers. However the variability of bast fiber yield and quality represents an important barrier to further exploitation. Primary and secondary fiber content was examined in two commercial hemp varieties (Fedora 17, Santhica 27) grown under contrasted sowing density and irrigation conditions. Both growing conditions and hemp varieties impact stem tissue architecture with a large effect on the proportion of secondary fibers but not primary fibers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636437/tobacco-rattle-virus-trv-mediated-silencing-of-nicotiana-benthamiana-argonautes-nbagos-reveals-new-antiviral-candidates-and-dominant-effects-of-trv-nbago1
#20
Denis Odokonyero, Maria R Mendoza, Peter Moffett, Herman B Scholthof
The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of different ARGONAUTE proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana (NbAGOs) to the defense against silencing sensitive GFP-expressing viral constructs based on Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) (Tombusvirus), Sunn-hemp mosaic virus (Tobamovirus), and Foxtail mosaic virus (Potexvirus). Upon Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-mediated down-regulation of NbAGO1, 4, 5, or 6, no effects were noted on susceptibility to any virus construct, whereas knockdown of NbAGO2 specifically prevented silencing of P19-defective TBSV (TGdP19)...
August 2017: Phytopathology
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