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Katalin Solymosi, Attila Köfalvi
Cannabis is one of the earliest cultivated plants. Cannabis of industrial utility and culinary value is generally termed as hemp. Conversely, cannabis that is bred for medical, spiritual and recreational purposes is called marijuana. The female marijuana plant produces a significant quantity of bio- and psychoactive phytocannabinoids, which regained the spotlight with the discovery of the endocannabinoid system of the animals in the early 90's. Nevertheless, marijuana is surrounded by controversies, debates and misconceptions related to its taxonomic classification, forensic identification, medical potential, legalization and its long-term health consequences...
October 4, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Guofang Fang, Zihai Ding, Zhihui Song
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) is a standard technique for the treatment of lumbar disc hernia. Thus far, most surgeons have recommended local anesthesia. However, in clinical practice, some patients experience pain and are unable to cooperate with the surgery during intervertebral foramen hemp expansion. The use of general anesthesia may create a greater risk of complications because of nerve root anomalies; thus, intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring should be utilized...
September 2016: Pain Physician
Kelly Yarnell, Melanie Le Bon, Nicholas Turton, Marina Savova, Abigail McGlennon, Stephen Forsythe
AIMS: Compare the rate of growth of four microbial strains that cause disease in the equine, on four commonly used types of bedding. The moisture holding capacity of each bedding type was also tested. METHODS AND RESULTS: Microbial strains included, Streptococcus equi, Streptococcus zooepidemicus, Fusobacterium necrophorum, Dichelobacter nodosus and Dermatophilus congolensis. The bedding types tested were Pinus syvestrus (Scots pine shavings), Pinus nigra (Corsican pine shavings), Picea sitchensis (Sitka spruce shavings), Cannabis sativa (hemp) and chopped wheat straw...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Lauralie Mangeot-Peter, Sylvain Legay, Jean-Francois Hausman, Sergio Esposito, Gea Guerriero
Gene expression profiling via quantitative real-time PCR is a robust technique widely used in the life sciences to compare gene expression patterns in, e.g., different tissues, growth conditions, or after specific treatments. In the field of plant science, real-time PCR is the gold standard to study the dynamics of gene expression and is used to validate the results generated with high throughput techniques, e.g., RNA-Seq. An accurate relative quantification of gene expression relies on the identification of appropriate reference genes, that need to be determined for each experimental set-up used and plant tissue studied...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Chih-Wei Chang, Chun-Wei Tung, Chin-Chuan Tsai, Yu-Tse Wu, Mei-Chich Hsu
Hemp nuts are mature cannabis seeds obtained after hulling and stir-frying that are commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating functional constipation. In this work, we screened hemp nut products, classified them, and verified the legality of consuming them. A total of 18 products were purchased from Taiwan, China and Canada. Validated high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry methods were developed for analyzing the cannabinoid (i.e., Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and cannabinol) content of the products and the concentration of urinary 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC...
September 2, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Katarína Fabičovicová, Martin Lucas, Peter Claus
Organosolv fractionation of barley straw followed by a hydrogenolysis reaction of the resulting organosolv pulp over a heterogeneous catalyst containing ruthenium and tungsten on activated carbon (Ru-W/AC) is a potential pathway to produce valuable chemicals from lignocellulose-based feedstock in a future biorefinery. Polyols, such as ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, or 1,2-butanediol, can be obtained with a very high yield of 70 % using organosolv barley pulp pretreated in a 50:50 wt % ethanol/water solution at 200 °C and a processing time of one hour...
October 6, 2016: ChemSusChem
Sarita Singhal, Robert D Baker, Susan S Baker
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Non-dairy beverages are advertised as a healthy alternative to cow's milk. There is an increased availability and consumption of non-dairy beverages and a decrease in consumption of cow's milk. The aim of this study is to review and compare the contents and nutritional value of non-dairy beverages to cow's milk. METHODS: Information about the non-dairy beverages on the shelves at stores in Buffalo, New York was collected. The web pages of several manufacturers were assessed for product contents...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Magali De la Cruz-Barrón, Alejandra Cruz-Mendoza, Yendi E Navarro-Noya, Victor M Ruiz-Valdiviezo, Daniel Ortíz-Gutiérrez, Daniel A Ramírez-Villanueva, Marco Luna-Guido, Cristian Thierfelder, Patrick C Wall, Nele Verhulst, Bram Govaerts, Luc Dendooven
Water infiltration, soil carbon content, aggregate stability and yields increased in conservation agriculture practices compared to conventionally ploughed control treatments at the Henderson research station near Mazowe (Zimbabwe). How these changes in soil characteristics affect the bacterial community structure and the bacteria involved in the degradation of applied organic material remains unanswered. Soil was sampled from three agricultural systems at Henderson, i.e. (1) conventional mouldboard ploughing with continuous maize (conventional tillage), (2) direct seeding with a Fitarelli jab planter and continuous maize (direct seeding with continuous maize) and (3) direct seeding with a Fitarelli jab planter with rotation of maize sunn hemp (direct seeding with crop rotation)...
August 18, 2016: Microbial Ecology
Margriet Van Laar, Peggy Van Der Pol, Raymond Niesink
The Netherlands has seen an increase in Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations from approximately 8% in the 1990s up to 20% in 2004. Increased cannabis potency may lead to higher THC-exposure and cannabis related harm. The Dutch government officially condones the sale of cannabis from so called 'coffee shops', and the Opium Act distinguishes cannabis as a Schedule II drug with 'acceptable risk' from other drugs with 'unacceptable risk' (Schedule I). Even in 1976, however, cannabis potency was taken into account by distinguishing hemp oil as a Schedule I drug...
August 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
M J Lynch, M J Mulvaney, S C Hodges, T L Thompson, W E Thomason
Cover crops are a major focus of conservation agriculture efforts because they can provide soil cover and increase nutrient availability after their mineralization in cropping systems. To evaluate the effect of residue type and placement on rate of decomposition and carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) mineralization, residues from two food crops, maize (Zea mays L.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and two promising cover crops, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) and sorghum sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench x S...
2016: SpringerPlus
Salvador Soler, Dionís Borràs, Santiago Vilanova, Alicia Sifres, Isabel Andújar, Maria R Figàs, Ernesto R Llosa, Jaime Prohens
Legal limits on the psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content in Cannabis sativa plants have complicated genetic and forensic studies in this species. However, Cannabis seeds present very low THC levels. We developed a method for embryo extraction from seeds and an improved protocol for DNA extraction and tested this method in four hemp and six marijuana varieties. This embryo extraction method enabled the recovery of diploid embryos from individual seeds. An improved DNA extraction protocol (CTAB3) was used to obtain DNA from individual embryos at a concentration and quality similar to DNA extracted from leaves...
March 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Claudia Hemp
A new genus of Pseudophyllinae restricted to East Africa is described. Data on the ecology, and the habitat are provided. The biogeographical pattern and morphology suggests an old radiation since Tomias from Central and West Africa is the closest relative to Pseudotomias. The old forests of East Africa could hereby be the source of representatives of this old radiation since venation is less reduced in East African taxa of Phyllomimini.
2016: Zootaxa
P M Shih, J Hemp, L M Ward, N J Matzke, W W Fischer
The rise of oxygen ca. 2.3 billion years ago (Ga) is the most distinct environmental transition in Earth history. This event was enabled by the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis in the ancestors of Cyanobacteria. However, long-standing questions concern the evolutionary timing of this metabolism, with conflicting answers spanning more than one billion years. Recently, knowledge of the Cyanobacteria phylum has expanded with the discovery of non-photosynthetic members, including a closely related sister group termed Melainabacteria, with the known oxygenic phototrophs restricted to a clade recently designated Oxyphotobacteria...
July 8, 2016: Geobiology
Ana Quintáns-Fondo, Gustavo Ferreira-Coelho, Remigio Paradelo-Núñez, Juan Carlos Nóvoa-Muñoz, Manuel Arias-Estévez, María José Fernández-Sanjurjo, Esperanza Álvarez-Rodríguez, Avelino Núñez-Delgado
We study As(V)/Cr(VI) competitive sorption on a forest soil, a vineyard soil, pyritic material, mussel shell, pine bark, oak ash, and hemp waste, adding variable As(V) and Cr(VI) concentrations or displacing each pollutant with the same concentration of the other. When using variable concentrations, As(V) showed more affinity than Cr(VI) for sorption sites on most materials (sorption up to >84 % on oak ash and pyritic material). The only exception was pine bark, with clearly higher Cr(VI) sorption (>90 %) for any Cr(VI)/As(V) concentration added...
October 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Salvatore Multari, Madalina Neacsu, Lorraine Scobbie, Louise Cantlay, Gary Duncan, Nicholas Vaughan, Derek Stewart, Wendy R Russell
Sustainable sources of high-protein plants could help meet future protein requirements. Buckwheat, green pea, fava bean, hemp and lupin were analyzed by proximate analysis and ICP-MS to determine the macro- and micronutrient content and LC-MS to elucidate the phytochemical profiles. The protein content ranged from 20-43 % (w/w) and all were found to be rich in insoluble fibre; 9-25 % (w/w). The selected crops had a favourable micronutrient profile with phosphorous levels ranging from 2.22 ± 0.05 g kg-1 to 9...
June 14, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Matteo Chinello, Salvatore Scommegna, Alison Shardlow, Francesca Mazzoli, Nadia De Giovanni, Nadia Fucci, Paola Borgiani, Cinzia Ciccacci, Anna Locasciulli, Mauro Calvani
We report a case of mild cannabinoid poisoning in a preschool child, after 3-week ingestion of hemp seed oil prescribed by his pediatrician to strengthen his immune system. The patient presented neurological symptoms that disappeared after intravenous hydration. A possible mild withdrawal syndrome was reported after discharge. The main metabolite of Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol was detected in urine, and very low concentration of Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol was detected in the ingested product. This is, as far as we know, the first report of cannabinoid poisoning after medical prescription of hemp seed oil in a preschool child...
June 14, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Incoronata Galasso, Roberto Russo, Sergio Mapelli, Elena Ponzoni, Ida M Brambilla, Giovanna Battelli, Remo Reggiani
The seed of Cannabis sativa L. is an expanding source of proteins and oil for both humans and animals. In this study, the proximate composition of a collection of hemp cultivars and accessions of different geographical origins grown under the same conditions for 1 year was analyzed in order to identify potential accessions to improve hemp cultivars. Fatty acids, tocopherols, and antinutritional components, as well as concentrations of crude protein and oil were quantified. The seed oil concentrations varied between 285 and 360 g kg(-1) dry seed (DS), while crude protein ranged between 316 and 356 g kg(-1) dry matter (DM)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Swarupa Rani Chiliveri, Sravanthi Koti, Venkateswar Rao Linga
The present study demonstrated the simultaneous production and optimization of pectinolytic enzymes (pectate lyase and polygalacturonase) under SSF from Bacillus tequilensis SV11-UV37 using wheat bran as a substrate, which is commercially viable and cost-effective. Optimization by one variable-at-a-time-approach showed a maximum yield of pectate lyase (1371.25 U/gds) and polygalacturonase (85.45 U/gds) with wheat bran using 80 % (v/w) moisture, 0.7 mm particle size, 20 % (v/w) inoculum, 1 % (w/w) pectin at 37 °C, pH 6 and 72 h of incubation...
2016: SpringerPlus
Mahmoud Adeeb Ahmad Hamdan, James M Hempe, Cruz Velasco-Gonzalez, Ricardo Gomez, Alfonso Vargas, Stuart Chalew
We assessed the association of erythrocyte indices on mean blood glucose-independent racial disparity in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in youth with type 1 diabetes. Blacks still had higher HbA1c after adjustment for mean blood glucose, red blood cell indices, age, and sex. Such differences need to be taken into account when interpreting HbA1c in Black patients.
September 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Gemma Rutten, Daniel Prati, Andreas Hemp, Markus Fischer
Research in savannas has focused on tree-grass interactions, whereas tree species coexistence received little attention. A leading hypothesis to explain tree coexistence is the Janzen-Connell model, which proposes an accumulation of host-specific enemies, e.g., soil organisms. While it has been shown in several non-savanna case studies that seedlings dispersed away from the mother perform better than seedlings that stay close (home-away effect), few studies tested whether foreign seedling species can replace own seedlings under conspecific adults (replacement effect)...
February 2016: Ecology
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