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Anja Zupan Mežnar, Miran Brvar, Gregor Kralj, Dragan Kovačič
There are two main varieties of Cannabis sativa plant, namely, hemp which is cultivated for fiber and seeds and contains low amounts of psychoactive cannabinoids and the other which is cultivated for the drug cannabis or marijuana. Increasing popularity of hemp food products and alleged beneficial effects of cannabinoids in the drug variety of cannabis might lead to confusion in the lay population and unintentional ingestion of marijuana, as described in this case report. During a workshop on the use of hemp for medicinal purposes, there was a degustation of various hemp food products including also cookies that were brought by one of the attendees...
November 29, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Beau Kilmer, Rosalie Liccardo Pacula
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Prohibitions on producing, distributing and selling cannabis are loosening in various jurisdictions around the world. This paper describes the diversification of cannabis supply laws and discusses the challenges to and opportunities for learning from these changes. METHODS: We document changes in cannabis supply laws that de jure legalized cannabis production for medical and/or non-medical purposes (excluding industrial hemp) in Australasia, Europe, North America and South America...
November 27, 2016: Addiction
Sonia Niculina Suvar, R Bleiziffer, P Podea, A Iordache, C Voica, R Zgavarogea, M Culea
A major cause of cardiovascular diseases and cancer is diet content, so the optimization of micronutrients in food is very important. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation for patients had beneficial effects on subjective global assessment score and metabolic profiles. Fatty acids content and the metal ions in different seeds (e.g. linseed, poppy, grape, hemp, nuts, pumpkin, sesame, watermelon, chia) recommended as food supplements, purchased on the Romanian market, were compared. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used as an excellent technique for fatty acids identification and quantitation, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) for analytical measurements of metals...
2016: European Journal of Mass Spectrometry
Tian-Tian Guo, Jian-Chun Zhang, Hai Zhang, Qing-Chao Liu, Yong Zhao, Yu-Fei Hou, Lu Bai, Li Zhang, Xue-Qiang Liu, Xue-Ying Liu, Sheng-Yong Zhang, Nai-Sheng Bai
In this paper, 17 compounds (1-17) were isolated from the leaves of Hemp (Cannabis sativa f. sativa). Among the isolates, two were determined to be new spirans: cannabispirketal (1), and α-cannabispiranol 4'-O-β-D-glucopyranose (2) by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, LC-MS, and HRESIMS. The known compounds 7, 8, 10, 13, 15, and 16 were isolated from Hemp (C. sativa f. sativa) for the first time. Furthermore, compounds 8 and 13 were isolated from the nature for the first time. All isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity on different tissue-derived passage cancer cell lines through cell viability and apoptosis assay...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
Richard Hemp, David Braddock, E Shea Tanis, Martha King
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: NCSL Legisbrief
Ivana M Rivas-Pérez, Manuel Conde-Cid, Juan Carlos Nóvoa-Muñoz, Manuel Arias-Estévez, María J Fernández-Sanjurjo, Esperanza Álvarez-Rodríguez, Avelino Núñez-Delgado
Focusing on simultaneous arsenic and chromium pollution, we used batch-type experiments to study As(V)/Cr (VI) competitive sorption on soil samples, pyritic material, mussel shell, oak ash, pine bark and hemp waste, as well as on binary mixtures (50 % mussel shell and 50 % another material-oak ash, pine bark, or hemp waste), and on forest and vineyard soil samples and pyritic material amended with 48 t ha(-1) of mussel shell, oak ash, pine bark, or hemp waste. Equal As(V) and Cr(VI) concentrations (0 to 6 mmol L(-1)) were added to the individual materials, binary mixtures, and 48 t ha(-1) amended materials...
November 7, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Katalin Solymosi, Attila Köfalvi
Cannabis is one of the earliest cultivated plants. Cannabis of industrial utility and culinary value is generally termed as hemp. Conversely, cannabis that is bred for medical, spiritual and recreational purposes is called marijuana. The female marijuana plant produces a significant quantity of bio- and psychoactive phytocannabinoids, which regained the spotlight with the discovery of the endocannabinoid system of the animals in the early 90's. Nevertheless, marijuana is surrounded by controversies, debates and misconceptions related to its taxonomic classification, forensic identification, medical potential, legalization and its long-term health consequences...
October 4, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Guofang Fang, Zihai Ding, Zhihui Song
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) is a standard technique for the treatment of lumbar disc hernia. Thus far, most surgeons have recommended local anesthesia. However, in clinical practice, some patients experience pain and are unable to cooperate with the surgery during intervertebral foramen hemp expansion. The use of general anesthesia may create a greater risk of complications because of nerve root anomalies; thus, intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring should be utilized...
September 2016: Pain Physician
Kelly Yarnell, Melanie Le Bon, Nicholas Turton, Marina Savova, Abigail McGlennon, Stephen Forsythe
AIMS: Compare the rate of growth of four microbial strains that cause disease in the equine, on four commonly used types of bedding. The moisture holding capacity of each bedding type was also tested. METHODS AND RESULTS: Microbial strains included, Streptococcus equi, Streptococcus zooepidemicus, Fusobacterium necrophorum, Dichelobacter nodosus and Dermatophilus congolensis. The bedding types tested were Pinus syvestrus (Scots pine shavings), Pinus nigra (Corsican pine shavings), Picea sitchensis (Sitka spruce shavings), Cannabis sativa (hemp) and chopped wheat straw...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Lauralie Mangeot-Peter, Sylvain Legay, Jean-Francois Hausman, Sergio Esposito, Gea Guerriero
Gene expression profiling via quantitative real-time PCR is a robust technique widely used in the life sciences to compare gene expression patterns in, e.g., different tissues, growth conditions, or after specific treatments. In the field of plant science, real-time PCR is the gold standard to study the dynamics of gene expression and is used to validate the results generated with high throughput techniques, e.g., RNA-Seq. An accurate relative quantification of gene expression relies on the identification of appropriate reference genes, that need to be determined for each experimental set-up used and plant tissue studied...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Chih-Wei Chang, Chun-Wei Tung, Chin-Chuan Tsai, Yu-Tse Wu, Mei-Chich Hsu
Hemp nuts are mature cannabis seeds obtained after hulling and stir-frying that are commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating functional constipation. In this work, we screened hemp nut products, classified them, and verified the legality of consuming them. A total of 18 products were purchased from Taiwan, China and Canada. Validated high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry methods were developed for analyzing the cannabinoid (i.e., Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and cannabinol) content of the products and the concentration of urinary 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC...
September 2, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Katarína Fabičovicová, Martin Lucas, Peter Claus
Organosolv fractionation of barley straw followed by a hydrogenolysis reaction of the resulting organosolv pulp over a heterogeneous catalyst containing ruthenium and tungsten on activated carbon (Ru-W/AC) is a potential pathway to produce valuable chemicals from lignocellulose-based feedstock in a future biorefinery. Polyols, such as ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, or 1,2-butanediol, can be obtained with a very high yield of 70 % using organosolv barley pulp pretreated in a 50:50 wt % ethanol/water solution at 200 °C and a processing time of one hour...
October 6, 2016: ChemSusChem
Sarita Singhal, Robert D Baker, Susan S Baker
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Non-dairy beverages are advertised as a healthy alternative to cow's milk. There is an increased availability and consumption of non-dairy beverages and a decrease in consumption of cow's milk. The aim of this study is to review and compare the contents and nutritional value of non-dairy beverages to cow's milk. METHODS: Information about the non-dairy beverages on the shelves at stores in Buffalo, New York was collected. The web pages of several manufacturers were assessed for product contents...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Magali De la Cruz-Barrón, Alejandra Cruz-Mendoza, Yendi E Navarro-Noya, Victor M Ruiz-Valdiviezo, Daniel Ortíz-Gutiérrez, Daniel A Ramírez-Villanueva, Marco Luna-Guido, Cristian Thierfelder, Patrick C Wall, Nele Verhulst, Bram Govaerts, Luc Dendooven
Water infiltration, soil carbon content, aggregate stability and yields increased in conservation agriculture practices compared to conventionally ploughed control treatments at the Henderson research station near Mazowe (Zimbabwe). How these changes in soil characteristics affect the bacterial community structure and the bacteria involved in the degradation of applied organic material remains unanswered. Soil was sampled from three agricultural systems at Henderson, i.e. (1) conventional mouldboard ploughing with continuous maize (conventional tillage), (2) direct seeding with a Fitarelli jab planter and continuous maize (direct seeding with continuous maize) and (3) direct seeding with a Fitarelli jab planter with rotation of maize sunn hemp (direct seeding with crop rotation)...
August 18, 2016: Microbial Ecology
Margriet Van Laar, Peggy Van Der Pol, Raymond Niesink
The Netherlands has seen an increase in Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations from approximately 8% in the 1990s up to 20% in 2004. Increased cannabis potency may lead to higher THC-exposure and cannabis related harm. The Dutch government officially condones the sale of cannabis from so called 'coffee shops', and the Opium Act distinguishes cannabis as a Schedule II drug with 'acceptable risk' from other drugs with 'unacceptable risk' (Schedule I). Even in 1976, however, cannabis potency was taken into account by distinguishing hemp oil as a Schedule I drug...
August 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
M J Lynch, M J Mulvaney, S C Hodges, T L Thompson, W E Thomason
Cover crops are a major focus of conservation agriculture efforts because they can provide soil cover and increase nutrient availability after their mineralization in cropping systems. To evaluate the effect of residue type and placement on rate of decomposition and carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) mineralization, residues from two food crops, maize (Zea mays L.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and two promising cover crops, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) and sorghum sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench x S...
2016: SpringerPlus
Salvador Soler, Dionís Borràs, Santiago Vilanova, Alicia Sifres, Isabel Andújar, Maria R Figàs, Ernesto R Llosa, Jaime Prohens
Legal limits on the psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content in Cannabis sativa plants have complicated genetic and forensic studies in this species. However, Cannabis seeds present very low THC levels. We developed a method for embryo extraction from seeds and an improved protocol for DNA extraction and tested this method in four hemp and six marijuana varieties. This embryo extraction method enabled the recovery of diploid embryos from individual seeds. An improved DNA extraction protocol (CTAB3) was used to obtain DNA from individual embryos at a concentration and quality similar to DNA extracted from leaves...
March 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Claudia Hemp
A new genus of Pseudophyllinae restricted to East Africa is described. Data on the ecology, and the habitat are provided. The biogeographical pattern and morphology suggests an old radiation since Tomias from Central and West Africa is the closest relative to Pseudotomias. The old forests of East Africa could hereby be the source of representatives of this old radiation since venation is less reduced in East African taxa of Phyllomimini.
2016: Zootaxa
P M Shih, J Hemp, L M Ward, N J Matzke, W W Fischer
The rise of oxygen ca. 2.3 billion years ago (Ga) is the most distinct environmental transition in Earth history. This event was enabled by the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis in the ancestors of Cyanobacteria. However, long-standing questions concern the evolutionary timing of this metabolism, with conflicting answers spanning more than one billion years. Recently, knowledge of the Cyanobacteria phylum has expanded with the discovery of non-photosynthetic members, including a closely related sister group termed Melainabacteria, with the known oxygenic phototrophs restricted to a clade recently designated Oxyphotobacteria...
July 8, 2016: Geobiology
Ana Quintáns-Fondo, Gustavo Ferreira-Coelho, Remigio Paradelo-Núñez, Juan Carlos Nóvoa-Muñoz, Manuel Arias-Estévez, María José Fernández-Sanjurjo, Esperanza Álvarez-Rodríguez, Avelino Núñez-Delgado
We study As(V)/Cr(VI) competitive sorption on a forest soil, a vineyard soil, pyritic material, mussel shell, pine bark, oak ash, and hemp waste, adding variable As(V) and Cr(VI) concentrations or displacing each pollutant with the same concentration of the other. When using variable concentrations, As(V) showed more affinity than Cr(VI) for sorption sites on most materials (sorption up to >84 % on oak ash and pyritic material). The only exception was pine bark, with clearly higher Cr(VI) sorption (>90 %) for any Cr(VI)/As(V) concentration added...
October 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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