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Phospholipase c

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108312/ctgf-promotes-osteosarcoma-angiogenesis-by-regulating-mr-543-angiopoietin-2-signaling
#1
Li-Hong Wang, Hsiao-Chi Tsai, Yu-Che Cheng, Chih-Yang Lin, Yuan-Li Huang, Chun-Hao Tsai, Guo-Hong Xu, Shih-Wei Wang, Yi-Chin Fong, Chih-Hsin Tang
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary solid tumor of bone. It has a high metastatic potential and occurs predominantly in adolescents and young adults. Angiopoietin 2 (Angpt2) is a key regulator in tumor angiogenesis, facilitating tumor growth and metastasis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, also known as CCN2), is a cysteine-rich protein that has been reported to promote metastasis of osteosarcoma. However, the effect of CTGF on Angpt2 regulation and angiogenesis in human osteosarcoma remains largely unknown...
January 17, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108057/bani-polymorphism-of-cytosolic-phospholipase-a2-gene-and-somatic-symptoms-in-medication-free-acute-depressed-patients
#2
Jane Pei-Chen Chang, Ta-Wei Guu, Yi-Chih Chen, Piotr Gałecki, Anna Walczewska, Kuan-Pin Su
Somatic symptoms are commonly seen in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and might be associated with inflammatory activation. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) are the key enzymes in the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which in turn may play an important role in inflammation and somatic symptoms in depression. This study investigated the effects of BanI polymorphism of cPLA2 gene and COX-2 rs4648308 genotypes on somatic symptoms and inflammatory marker in patients with MDD...
January 4, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107550/enhanced-trpc-channel-mediated-ca-2-influx-in-the-cells-with-phospholipase-c-%C3%AE-1-overexpression-its-possible-role-in-coronary-artery-spasm
#3
Kazuo Murakami, Tomohiro Osanai, Makoto Tanaka, Kimitaka Nishizaki, Takahiko Kinjo, Tomohiro Tanno, Yuji Ishida, Akiko Suzuki, Tomohide Endo, Hirofumi Tomita, Ken Okumura
We reported that coronary spasm was induced in the transgenic mice with the increased phospholipase C (PLC)-δ1 activity. We investigated the effect of enhanced PLC-δ1 on Ca(2+) influx and its underlying mechanisms. We used human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 and coronary arteries-smooth-muscle cells (CASMC). Intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+) ]i ) (nM) was measured by fura-2, and Ca(2+) influx was evaluated by the increase in [Ca(2+) ]i after addition of extracellular Ca(2+) . Acetylcholine (ACh) was used to induce Ca(2+) influx...
January 20, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106288/nuclear-inositide-signaling-via-phospholipase-c
#4
Stefano Ratti, Sara Mongiorgi, Giulia Ramazzotti, Matilde Y Follo, Giulia A Mariani, Pann-Ghill Suh, James A McCubrey, Lucio Cocco, Lucia Manzoli
The existence of an independent nuclear inositide pathway distinct from the cytoplasmic one has been demonstrated in different physiological systems and in diseases. In this prospect we analyze the role of PI-PLCβ1 nuclear isoform in relation to the cell cycle regulation, the cell differentiation and different physiopathological pathways focusing on the importance of the nuclear localization from both molecular and clinical point of view. PI-PLCβ1 is essential for G1/S transition through DAG and Cyclin D3 and plays also a central role in G2/M progression through Cyclin B1 and PKCα...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105583/trpc3-participates-in-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-dependent-stress-induced-slow-increase-in-intracellular-ca-2-concentration-in-mouse-cardiomyocytes
#5
Yohei Yamaguchi, Gentaro Iribe, Toshiyuki Kaneko, Ken Takahashi, Takuro Numaga-Tomita, Motohiro Nishida, Lutz Birnbaumer, Keiji Naruse
When a cardiac muscle is held in a stretched position, its [Ca(2+)] transient increases slowly over several minutes in a process known as stress-induced slow increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) (SSC). Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) 3 forms a non-selective cation channel regulated by the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R). In this study, we investigated the role of TRPC3 in the SSC. Isolated mouse ventricular myocytes were electrically stimulated and subjected to sustained stretch...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104376/lipidomic-profile-of-gm95-cell-death-induced-by-clostridium-perfringens-alpha-toxin
#6
Marco M Manni, Juan G Valero, Miriam Pérez-Cormenzana, Ainara Cano, Cristina Alonso, Félix M Goñi
Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin (ATX) is considered as a prototype of cytotoxic bacterial phospholipases C, and is the major virulence factor in C. perfringens-induced gas gangrene. It is known that, depending on the dose, ATX causes membrane disruption and cytolysis or only limited hydrolysis of its substrates. In the latter case, toxin activity leads to the unregulated generation of bioactive lipids that can ultimately induce cell death. We have characterized apoptosis and necrosis in highly ATX-sensitive, ganglioside-deficient cells exposed to different concentrations of ATX and we have studied the lipidomic profile of cells treated with ATX as compared to native cells to detect the main changes in the lipidomic profile and the possible involvement of lipid signals in cell death...
January 16, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102910/arabidopsis-phosphoinositide-specific-phospholipase-c-4-negatively-regulates-seedling-salt-tolerance
#7
Keke Xia, Bo Wang, Jiewei Zhang, Yuan Li, Hailian Yang, Dongtao Ren
Previous physiological and pharmacological studies have suggested that the activity of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) plays an important role in regulating plant salt stress responses by altering the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. However, the individual members of plant PLCs involved in this process need to be identified. Here, the function of AtPLC4 in the salt stress response of Arabidopsis seedlings was analyzed. plc4 mutant seedlings showed hyposensitivity to salt stress compared with Col-0 wild-type seedlings, and the salt hyposensitive phenotype could be complemented by the expression of native promoter-controlled AtPLC4...
January 19, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101851/importance-of-radioactive-labelling-to-elucidate-inositol-polyphosphate-signalling
#8
REVIEW
Miranda S C Wilson, Adolfo Saiardi
Inositol polyphosphates, in their water-soluble or lipid-bound forms, represent a large and multifaceted family of signalling molecules. Some inositol polyphosphates are well recognised as defining important signal transduction pathways, as in the case of the calcium release factor Ins(1,4,5)P3, generated by receptor activation-induced hydrolysis of the lipid PtdIns(4,5)P2 by phospholipase C. The birth of inositol polyphosphate research would not have occurred without the use of radioactive phosphate tracers that enabled the discovery of the "PI response"...
February 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100502/rack1-regulates-angiotensin-ii-induced-contractions-of-shr-preglomerular-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#9
Xiao Zhu, Edwin K Jackson
The preglomerular microcirculation of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) is hypersensitive to angiotensin II, and studies show that this is likely due to enhanced convergent signaling between G-protein subunits αq (Gαq; released by angiotensin II) and G-protein subunits βγ (Gβγ; released by Gi-coupled receptors) to active phospholipase C (PLC). Here we investigated the molecular basis for the enhanced convergent signaling between Gβγ and Gαq in SHR preglomerular vascular smooth muscle cells (PGVSMCs)...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100486/c-jun-enhances-intestinal-epithelial-restitution-after-wounding-by-increasing-phospholipase-c-%C3%AE-1-transcription
#10
Peng-Yuan Wang, Shelley R Wang, Lan Xiao, Jie Chen, Jian-Ying Wang, Jaladanki N Rao
c-Jun is an AP-1 transcription factor and implicated in many aspects of cellular functions, but its exact role in the regulation of early intestinal epithelial restitution after injury remains largely unknown. Phospholipase C-γ1 (PLCγ1) catalyzes hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5 biphosphate into the second messenger diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate, and coordinates Ca(2+) stores mobilization, and regulates cell migration and proliferation in response to stress. Here we reported that c-Jun up-regulates PLCγ1 expression and enhances PLCγ1-induced Ca(2+) signaling, thus promoting intestinal epithelial restitution after wounding...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097830/plant-phosphatidylinositol-specific-phospholipase-cat-the-center-of-plant-innate-immunity
#11
Ahmed M AbdEl-Haliem, Matthieu H A J Joosten
Understanding plant resistance to pathogenic microbes requires detailed information on the molecular mechanismscontrolling the execution of plant innate immune-responses.A growing body of evidence places phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) enzymes immediately downstream of activated immune receptors,well upstream of the initiation of early defense responses. An increase of the cytoplasmic levels of free Ca(2+) , lowering of the intercellular pH andthe oxidative burst are a few examples ofsuch responses and these are regulated by PI-PLCs...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097390/a-role-of-plc-pkc-dependent-pathway-in-glp-1-stimulated-insulin-secretion
#12
REVIEW
Makoto Shigeto, Chae Young Cha, Patrik Rorsman, Kohei Kaku
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an endogenous glucose-lowering hormone and GLP-1 receptor agonists are currently being used as antidiabetic drugs clinically. The canonical signalling pathway (including cAMP, Epac2, protein kinase A (PKA) and KATP channels) is almost universally accepted as the main mechanism of GLP-1-stimulated insulin secretion. This belief is based on in vitro studies that used nanomolar (1-100 nM) concentrations of GLP-1. Recently, it was found that the physiological concentrations (1-10 pM) of GLP-1 also stimulate insulin secretion from isolated islets, induce membrane depolarization and increase of intracellular [Ca(2+)] in isolated β cells/pancreatic islets...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093232/phospholipase-c%C3%AE%C2%B5-deficiency-delays-the-early-stage-of-cutaneous-wound-healing-and-attenuates-scar-formation-in-mice
#13
Xiaolong Zhu, Yue Sun, Xin Mu, Pan Guo, Fei Gao, Jing Zhang, Yunjuan Zhu, Xianzhi Zhang, Lingling Chen, Zhiwei Ning, Yunfeng Bai, Jiling Ren, Maoqiang Man, Peimei Liu, Lizhi Hu
This study aimed to investigate the role of phospholipase Cε (PLCε) in the skin wound healing process. PLCε, an effect factor of Ras/Rap small G protein, plays a crucial role in skin inflammation by regulating inflammatory cytokines. Inflammatory responses are closely associated with wound healing. Full-thickness skin wounds were made in the PLCε knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice, and the healing process was analyzed. The macroscopic wound closure rate declined in the PLCε KO mice on days 3, 4, and 5 after wounding, following the decreased expression of interleukin (IL)-6, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (Cxcl)-1, Cxcl-2, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (Ccl) 20...
January 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079896/impaired-embryonic-development-in-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficient-caenorhabditis-elegans-due-to-abnormal-redox-homeostasis-induced-activation-of-calcium-independent-phospholipase-and-alteration-of-glycerophospholipid-metabolism
#14
Tzu-Ling Chen, Hung-Chi Yang, Cheng-Yu Hung, Meng-Hsin Ou, Yi-Yun Pan, Mei-Ling Cheng, Arnold Stern, Szecheng J Lo, Daniel Tsun-Yee Chiu
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a commonly pervasive inherited disease in many parts of the world. The complete lack of G6PD activity in a mouse model causes embryonic lethality. The G6PD-deficient Caenorhabditis elegans model also shows embryonic death as indicated by a severe hatching defect. Although increased oxidative stress has been implicated in both cases as the underlying cause, the exact mechanism has not been clearly delineated. In this study with C. elegans, membrane-associated defects, including enhanced permeability, defective polarity and cytokinesis, were found in G6PD-deficient embryos...
January 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070992/molecular-signal-networks-and-regulating-mechanisms-of-the-unfolded-protein-response
#15
Jing Gong, Xing-Zhi Wang, Tao Wang, Jiao-Jiao Chen, Xiao-Yuan Xie, Hui Hu, Fang Yu, Hui-Lin Liu, Xing-Yan Jiang, Han-Dong Fan
Within the cell, several mechanisms exist to maintain homeostasis of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). One of the primary mechanisms is the unfolded protein response (UPR). In this review, we primarily focus on the latest signal webs and regulation mechanisms of the UPR. The relationships among ER stress, apoptosis, and cancer are also discussed. Under the normal state, binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) interacts with the three sensors (protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK), activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), and inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α))...
2017: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069812/cooperative-substrate-cofactor-interactions-and-membrane-localization-of-the-bacterial-pla2-enzyme-exou
#16
Maxx H Tessmer, David M Anderson, Adam Buchaklian, Dara W Frank, Jimmy B Feix
The ExoU type III secretion enzyme is a potent phospholipase A2 secreted by the Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Activation of phospholipase activity is induced by protein-protein interactions with ubiquitin in the cytosol of a targeted eukaryotic cell, leading to destruction of host cell membranes. Previous work in our laboratory suggested that conformational changes within a C-terminal domain of the toxin might be involved in the activation mechanism. In this study, we use site-directed spin labeling electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate conformational changes in a C-terminal four-helical bundle region of ExoU as it interacts with lipid substrates and ubiquitin, and to examine the localization of this domain with respect to the lipid bilayer...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065518/membranous-nephropathy-integrating-basic-science-into-improved-clinical-management
#17
REVIEW
Daniel C Cattran, Paul E Brenchley
Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (INM) remains a common cause of the nephrotic syndrome in adults. The autoimmune nature of IMN was clearly delineated in 2009 with the identification of the glomerular-deposited IgG to be a podocyte receptor, phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) in 70% to 75% of cases. This anti-PLA2R autoantibody, predominantly the IgG4 subclass, has been quantitated in serum using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and has been used to aid diagnosis and monitor response to immunosuppressive therapy...
January 5, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063838/exploring-and-understanding-the-functional-role-and-biochemical-and-structural-characteristics-of-an-acidic-phospholipase-a2-apltx-i-purified-from-agkistrodon-piscivorus-leucostoma-snake-venom
#18
L M Resende, J R Almeida, R Schezaro-Ramos, R C O Collaço, L R Simioni, D Ramírez, W González, A M Soares, L A Calderon, S Marangoni, S L da Silva
Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) constitute a class of extensively studied toxins, isolated from snake venoms. Basic PLA2 isoforms mediate various toxicological effects, while the acidic isoforms generally have higher enzymatic activities, but do not promote evident toxic effects. The functions of these acidic isoforms in snake venoms are still not completely understood and more studies are needed to characterize the biological functions and diversification of acidic toxins in order to justify their abundant presence in these secretions...
January 4, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063500/cellular-assays-for-evaluating-calcium-dependent-translocation-of-cpla2%C3%AE-to-membrane
#19
B Yun, C C Leslie
The group IVA phospholipase A2, commonly called cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α), is a widely expressed enzyme that hydrolyzes membrane phospholipid to produce arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids, which are precursors for a number of bioactive lipid mediators. Arachidonic acid is metabolized through the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways for production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes that regulate normal physiological processes and contribute to disease pathogenesis. cPLA2α is composed of an N-terminal C2 domain and a C-terminal catalytic domain that contains the Ser-Asp catalytic dyad...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063498/preparation-of-the-full-set-of-recombinant-mouse-and-human-secreted-phospholipases-a2
#20
F Ghomashchi, V Brglez, C Payré, L Jeammet, S Bezzine, M H Gelb, G Lambeau
A family of 14-20kDa, disulfide-rich, calcium-dependent secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) that release fatty acids from the sn-2 position of glycerophospholipids can be found in mammals. They have a diverse array of tissue distribution and biological functions. In this chapter we provide detailed protocols for production of nearly all of the mouse and human sPLA2s mainly by expression in bacteria and in vitro refolding or by expression in insect cells. High-resolution mass spectrometry and enzymatic assays were, respectively, used to show that all disulfides are formed and that the enzymes are active, strongly suggesting that each sPLA2 was prepared in the structurally native form...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
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