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Amanda C Nascimento-Carvalho, Ana-Luisa Vilas-Boas, Maria-Socorro H Fontoura, Tytti Vuorinen, Cristiana M Nascimento-Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) causes a major burden to the health care system among children under-5 years worldwide. Information on respiratory viruses in non-severe CAP cases is scarce. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the frequency of respiratory viruses among non-severe CAP cases. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study conducted in Salvador, Brazil. Out of 820 children aged 2-59 months with non-severe CAP diagnosed by pediatricians (respiratory complaints and radiographic pulmonary infiltrate/consolidation), recruited in a clinical trial (ClinicalTrials...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Stephen Corson, Chris Robertson, Arlene Reynolds, Jim McMenamin
BACKGROUND: For the last 17 years, the UK has employed a routine influenza vaccination programme with the aim of reducing the spread of seasonal influenza. In mid-2000, the programme moved from a purely risk-based approach to a risk and age group targeted approach with all those aged 65+ years being included. To date, there has been no assessment of the population effectiveness of this age targeted policy in Scotland. OBJECTIVES: Statistical modelling techniques were used to determine what impact the routine vaccination of those aged 65+ years has had on influenza related morbidity and mortality in Scotland...
June 16, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Kelvin Kw To, Cyril Cy Yip, Cherie Yw Lai, Carlos Kh Wong, Deborah Ty Ho, Polly Kp Pang, Anthony Ck Ng, Kit-Hang Leung, Rosana Ws Poon, Kwok-Hung Chan, Vincent Cc Cheng, Ivan Fn Hung, Kwok-Yung Yuen
OBJECTIVES: Automated point-of-care molecular assays have greatly shortened the turnaround time of respiratory virus testing. One of the major bottlenecks now lies at the step of the specimen collection especially in a busy clinical setting. Saliva is a convenient specimen type which can be provided easily from adult patients. This study assessed the diagnostic validity, specimen collection time, and cost associated with the use of saliva. METHODS: This was a prospective diagnostic validity study comparing the detection rate of respiratory viruses between saliva and nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) among adult hospitalized patients using Xpert® Xpress Flu/RSV...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Georgina Nakafero, Matthew J Grainge, Puja R Myles, Christian D Mallen, Weiya Zhang, Michael Doherty, Jonathan S Nguyen-Van-Tam, Abhishek Abhishek
Objectives: To examine temporal trend in uptake of seasonal influenza vaccine (SIV) in the UK and explore disease and demographic factors associated with vaccination. Methods: From the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, 32 751 people with auto-immune rheumatic diseases prescribed DMARDs between 2006 and 2016 were identified. The proportion vaccinated between 1 September of one year and 31 March of the next year was calculated and stratified by age, other indications for vaccination, auto-immune rheumatic diseases type and number of DMARDs prescribed...
June 12, 2018: Rheumatology
Hong Zhang, Chiajung Yeh, Zonglian Jin, Liwei Ding, Bryan Y Liu, Li Zhang, H Kathleen Dannelly
The human gut microbiota is an important environmental factor for human health with evolutionarily conserved roles in immunity, metabolism, development, and behavior of the host. Probiotic organisms are claimed to offer several functional properties including stimulation of immune system. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a probiotic supplementation on adult volunteers who have contracted the common cold four or more times in the past year. This study is a single center, double-blind, randomized, controlled, prospective trial...
June 2018: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Kenza A Mansoor, Fadi Qadan, Mathias Schmidt, Nidal A Qinna, Mujtaba Badr, Khalid Z Matalka
Background : Viral influenza infection causes serious health issues especially when an outbreak occurs. Although influenza virus vaccines are available and each year manufactures modify the vaccine depending on the expected mutated strain, it is still far from satisfactory, mainly in young children and older adults. Therefore, a product that can support and shape the immune system to protect against viral flu infections is highly essential. Methods : A functional food water-soluble mixture of pomegranate, red grape, dates, olive fruit, figs, and ginger extracts, termed herein “Protector”, was prepared and tested in stimulating/modulating the production of specific cytokines, and hemagglutinin inhibition (HAI) antibodies following viral flu vaccination in mice...
June 8, 2018: Nutrients
Sha Dong, Hui-Li Jiang, Yu Wang, Jun Lu, Lei Chang, Peng Zhang, Sui-Cheng Xin, Ya Tu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of acupuncture on the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex and the level of serum interleukin 10 (IL-10) in rats with depression, so as to explore its mechanism underlying improvement of depression. METHODS: Thirty-two male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, model, acupuncture, and medication (Fluoxetine, Flu) ( n =8 rats in each). The depression model was established by using chronic restraint stress (constraint, fasting, water deprivation, etc...
April 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Laura Gimferrer, Cristina Andrés, Ariadna Rando, Maria Piñana, Maria Gema Codina, Maria Del Carmen Martin, Francisco Fuentes, Susana Rubio, Pilar Alcubilla, Tomàs Pumarola, Andrés Antón
BACKGROUND: Influenza (FLUV) and human respiratory syncytial (HRSV) viruses are etiological agents of respiratory infections that cause a significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. A rapid and accurate diagnosis of these respiratory viruses is essential for an appropriate patient management. Molecular tests are the best detection option due to their high sensitivity and specificity. Seegene's Allplex™ Respiratory Panel 1 (Allplex RP1) is a real-time one-step RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of FLUAV, FLUBV, HRSV-A and HRSV-B...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Geneviève Baron, Virginie Gosselin, Geneviève Petit, Maryse Guay, Arnaud Gagneur
OBJECTIVES: Very low uptake has been noted for influenza vaccination in the province of Quebec. This study aimed to identify the determinants of influenza vaccination among a large regional population. METHODS: A telephone survey was administered to a random digit sample in the Eastern Townships region (Quebec, Canada). Respondents were asked questions on several health topics such as perceived knowledge and beliefs about influenza immunization, medical consultations, perceived health status and life habits...
June 8, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Laurent Boucontet, Gabriella Passoni, Valéry Thiry, Ludovico Maggi, Philippe Herbomel, Jean-Pierre Levraud, Emma Colucci-Guyon
Enhanced susceptibility to bacterial infection in the days following an acute virus infection such as flu is a major clinical problem. Mouse models have provided major advances in understanding viral-bacterial superinfections, yet interactions of the anti-viral and anti-bacterial responses remain elusive. Here, we have exploited the transparency of zebrafish to study how viral infections can pave the way for bacterial co-infections. We have set up a zebrafish model of sequential viral and bacterial infection, using sublethal doses of Sindbis virus and Shigella flexneri bacteria...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Tomoha Odagiri, Hiroho Ishida, Jun-You Li, Maiko Endo, Tomoya Kobayashi, Haruhiko Kamiki, Hiromichi Matsugo, Akiko Takenaka-Uema, Shin Murakami, Taisuke Horimoto
Influenza (flu) D virus, a possible causative agent of bovine respiratory disease, is genetically classified into three clusters: D/OK-, D/660-, and D/Japan-lineages. To evaluate antigenic heterogeneity among these clusters, we compared antibody titers to each lineage virus using bovine sera collected over time following virus infection. Antibody titers to D/Japan-lineage virus rose rapidly in the acute phase of infection, and were 4 times higher than those to the other clustered viruses. In the later phase of infection, titers to D/Japan-lineage virus were equivalent to those to D/OK-lineage virus, and still higher than those to D/660-lineage virus...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
K Hager, T Temps, O Krause
BACKGROUND: Antidementia drugs, antidepressants and antipsychotics are among the most frequently prescribed medication in old and multimorbid patients. Due to side effects (e. g. prolonged QTc interval) in emergency medicine/intensive care unit or patients' wishes the question is often raised whether these drugs can be stopped and how this may be done. ANTIDEMENTIA DRUGS: If the cognition is stable under antidementia drugs or if the patient is in favour of the medication, it should be continued...
June 6, 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Kazutoshi Fujibayashi, Hiromizu Takahashi, Mika Tanei, Yuki Uehara, Hirohide Yokokawa, Toshio Naito
BACKGROUND: Influenza infections can spread rapidly, and influenza outbreaks are a major public health concern worldwide. Early detection of signs of an influenza pandemic is important to prevent global outbreaks. Development of information and communications technologies for influenza surveillance, including participatory surveillance systems involving lay users, has recently increased. Many of these systems can estimate influenza activity faster than the conventional influenza surveillance systems...
June 6, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Magdolna Simó, Anna Iljicsov
The subcutaneous peginterferon-b-1a is recently introduced in the therapy of relapsing-remitting multiplex sclerosis (RRMS) patients. Pegylation of IFN b-1a improved pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, resulting in, increased biologic activity and a longer half-life. The efficacy of peginterferon-b-1a was proved by the ADVANCE study - a 2-year Phase 3, multicenter, randomized, double-blind study with a 1-year placebocontrolled period evaluating the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous peginterferon-b-1a administered every 2 or 4 weeks in patients with RRMS...
November 30, 2017: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
Ling Qin, Dayan Wang, Dongfu Li, Yan Zhao, Yanchun Peng, Dannielle Wellington, Yanchao Dai, Huanqin Sun, Jinping Sun, Guihai Liu, Andrew McMichael, Tao Dong, Yonghong Zhang
Background: The C allele of the interferon-induced transmembrane protein-3 ( IFITM3 ) SNP rs12252, a common allele in South East Asia and China, is strongly associated with severe influenza infection. However, despite the high occurrence of rs12252-CC genotype in Chinese population (~25%), severe influenza infection is rare. The aim of study is to determine whether rs12252-CC individuals have pre-existing antibody responses to previous seasonal influenza infections. Cohort and Method: A total 99 young healthy volunteers (18-20 years) were recruited and received an influenza seasonal Vaccination [A/Switzerland/9715293/2013(H3N2), A/California/7/2009 (pdm09H1N1) and B/Jeep/3073/2013-like virus (Flu-B)]...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Jiangan Xie, Jessica Wang, Zhangyong Li, Wei Wang, Yu Pang, Yongqun He
Brucella abortus strain 19 (S19), Brucella melitensis Rev 1 (Rev1), and B. abortus strain RB51 (RB51) are the three licensed animal brucellosis vaccines, and they have been most commonly and successfully used in prevent brucellosis in animals. However, many adverse events (AEs) have been associated with these three vaccines after their administering to animals or being accidentally exposed to humans. In this study, 27 peer-reviewed publications containing animal and human AE reports associated with these three brucellosis vaccines were manually annotated from the PubMed database...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Barak Zafrir, Ayman Jubran
AIM: PCSK9 inhibitors (PCSK9i) effectively lower cholesterol levels in randomized trials with reduction in cardiovascular outcomes and favorable safety profile. However, the access to PCSK9i is limited due to high cost and data regarding the use of PCSK9i in real-world practice is limited. METHODS: Data on all patients submitted for approval of PCSK9i at a regional lipid clinic, outside of clinical trials. Patients' profile, approval rates, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction rates and adverse events were evaluated...
June 4, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Hillary A Vanderven, Kathleen Wragg, Fernanda Ana-Sosa-Batiz, Anne B Kristensen, Sinthujan Jegaskanda, Adam K Wheatley, Deborah Wentworth, Bruce D Wines, P Mark Hogarth, Steve Rockman, Stephen J Kent
Background: New treatments for severe influenza are needed. Passive transfer of influenza-specific hyperimmune pooled immunoglobulin (Flu-IVIG) boosts neutralising antibody responses to past strains in influenza-infected subjects. The effect of Flu-IVIG on antibodies with Fc-mediated functions, which may target diverse influenza strains, is unclear. Methods: We studied the capacity of Flu-IVIG, relative to standard IVIG, to bind to Fc receptors and mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in vitro...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Souha H Youssef, Maha Abdel-Monem Hegazy, Dalia Mohamed, Amr Mohamed Badawey
Paracetamol (PAR), Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (PSE) and cetirizine dihydrochloride (CET) is a ternary mixture that composes tablets which are popular for the relief of flu in Egypt. The spectra of the drugs were overlapped and no spectrophotometric methods were reported to resolve the mixture. This research proposes four spectrophotometric methods that are efficient and require water only as a solvent. The first method was ratio subtraction-ratio difference method (RSDM) where PAR was initially removed from the mixture by ratio subtraction and determined at 292...
June 1, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
Frank O'Reilly, Peter Noone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
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