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Diacylglycerol lipase

Wei Tuo, Natascha Leleu-Chavain, John Spencer, Supojjanee Sansook, Regis Millet, Philippe Chavatte
Fatty acid ethanolamides (FAEs) and endocannabinoids (ECs) have been shown to alleviate pain and inflammation, regulate motility and appetite, and produce anti-cancer, anxiolytic, and neuroprotective efficacies via cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) or type 2 (CB2), or via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) stimulation. FAEs and ECs are synthesized by a series of endogenous enzymes, including N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD), diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL), or phospholipase C (PLC), and their metabolism is mediated by several metabolic enzymes, including fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), N-acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA), or cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Tomasz Bednarski, Adam Olichwier, Agnieszka Opasinska, Aleksandra Pyrkowska, Ana-Maria Gan, James M Ntambi, Pawel Dobrzyn
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) has recently been shown to be a critical control point in the regulation of cardiac metabolism and function. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is an important regulator of myocardial fatty acid uptake and utilization. The present study used SCD1 and PPARα double knockout (SCD1(-/-)/PPARα(-/-)) mice to test the hypothesis that PPARα is involved in metabolic changes in the heart that are caused by SCD1 downregulation/inhibition. SCD1 deficiency decreased the intracellular content of free fatty acids, triglycerides, and ceramide in the heart of SCD1(-/-) and SCD1(-/-)/PPARα(-/-) mice...
October 15, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Nakyung Choi, Jeom-Sig Lee, Jieun Kwak, Junsoo Lee, In-Hwan Kim
A two-step enzymatic transesterification process in a solvent-free system has been developed as a novel approach to the production of biodiesel using acid oil from rice bran oil soapstock. The acid oil consisted of 53.7 wt% fatty acids, 2.4 wt% monoacylglycerols, 9.1 wt% diacylglycerols, 28.8 wt% triacylglycerols, and 6.0 wt% others. Three immobilized lipases were evaluated as potential biocatalysts, including Novozym 435 from Candida antarctica, Lipozyme RM IM from Rhizomucor miehei, and Lipozyme TL IM from Thermomyces lanuginosus...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Oleo Science
Jung-Ah Shin, Mi-Young Lee, Ki-Teak Lee
The sn-1,3-regiospecific Rhizomucor miehei lipase (Lipozyme RM IM) was employed to produce structured diacylglycerol (SL-DAG), which contained 67.3 mol% DAG with 27.2 area% of C18:3. To investigate the oxidative stability of the SL-DAG in emulsion form, 5% oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions were prepared with 200 and 400 ppm sinapic acid. It was shown that the hydroperoxide values of the control (without any antioxidant) was the highest (117.7 meq/L) on day 43 of storage and thereafter the value decreased. However, the emulsions with 200 and 400 ppm sinapic acid resulted in slow oxidation degree until day 64 of storage (30...
October 2016: Journal of Food Science
Ya Zhou, Fiona V Howell, Oleg O Glebov, David Albrecht, Gareth Williams, Patrick Doherty
Diacylglycerol lipase alpha (DAGLα) generates the endocannabinoid (eCB) 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) that regulates the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells and serves as a retrograde signaling lipid at synapses. Nothing is known about the dynamics of DAGLα expression in cells and this is important as it will govern where 2-AG can be made and released. We have developed a new construct to label DAGLα at the surface of live cells and follow its trafficking. In hippocampal neurons a cell surface pool of DAGLα co-localizes with Homer, a postsynaptic density marker...
October 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Dongjuan Yuan, Zhongdao Wu, Yonghua Wang
Diacylglycerol lipases (DGLs) mainly catalyze "on-demand" biosynthesis of bioactive monoacylglycerols (MAGs) with different long fatty acyl chains, including 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), 2-linoleoylglycerol (2-LG), 2-oleoylglycerol (2-OG) and 2-palmitoylglycerol (2-PG). Enzymatic characterization of DGLs, their expression and distribution, and functional features has been elucidated from microorganisms to mammals in some extent. In mammals, biosynthesis, degradation and metabolism of these bioactive lipids intertwine and form a complicated biochemical pathway to affect the mammal neuromodulation of central nervous system and also other physiological processes in most peripheral organs and non-nervous tissue cells, and yet we still do not know if the neuromodulatory role of mammal DGL and MAGs is similar to invertebrates...
August 26, 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
Dina Navia-Paldanius, Jayendra Z Patel, Miriam López Navarro, Hermina Jakupović, Steffi Goffart, Sanna Pasonen-Seppänen, Tapio J Nevalainen, Tiina Jääskeläinen, Tuomo Laitinen, Jarmo T Laitinen, Juha R Savinainen
ABHD11 (α/β-hydrolase domain containing 11) is a non-annotated enzyme belonging to the family of metabolic serine hydrolases (mSHs). Its natural substrates and products are unknown. Using competitive activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) to identify novel inhibitors of human (h)ABHD11, three compounds from our chemical library exhibited low nanomolar potency towards hABHD11. Competitive ABPP of various proteomes revealed fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) as the sole off-target among the mSHs. Our fluorescent activity assays designed for natural lipase substrates revealed no activity of hABHD11 towards mono- or diacylglycerols...
October 10, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Daoming Li, Weifei Wang, Xiaoli Qin, Xingxing Li, Bo Yang, Yonghua Wang
In this study, a novel two-step enzymatic reaction was developed for the synthesis of highly pure triacylglycerols (TAGs) with a high content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Glyceride mixtures were primarily synthesized by Novozym 435-catalyzed transesterification of glycerol and DHA/EPA-rich ethyl esters (EEs), followed by removal of partial glycerides, for the first time, by immobilized mono- and diacylglycerol lipase SMG1-F278N-catalyzed ethanolysis. TAG yield as high as 98.66% was achieved under the optimized conditions, and highly pure (98...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Yi Kong, Yan Zheng, Yanfei Jia, Ping Li, Yunshan Wang
Gastric cancer (GC) is a common and deadly digestive tract tumor worldwide. Unfortunately, diagnosis of GC is usually confused and misleading because of atypical symptoms or incomplete complaints. Accordingly, exploring gene expression profile and identifying genes with analogical variance trend will bring new perspective into the diagnosis and treatment of GC. Herein, a RNA‑Seq dataset from Caucasian GC and their matched non‑cancerous samples [Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO): SRP049809] and datasets from four microarrays constituted with tumor and non‑tumor tissues (GEO: GSE13911, GSE19826, GSE29272, GSE33335) were analyzed to explore the differentially expressed genes (DGEs)...
October 2016: Oncology Reports
Annette Karen Serup, Thomas Junker Alsted, Andreas Børsting Jordy, Peter Schjerling, Cecilia Holm, Bente Kiens
Type 2 diabetes and skeletal muscle insulin resistance have been linked to accumulation of the intramyocellular lipid-intermediate diacylglycerol (DAG). However, recent animal and human studies have questioned such an association. Given that DAG appears in different stereoisomers and has different reactivity in vitro, we investigated whether the described function of DAGs as mediators of lipid-induced insulin resistance was dependent on the different DAG isomers. We measured insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) knockout (KO) mice after treadmill exercise to stimulate the accumulation of DAGs in skeletal muscle...
October 2016: Diabetes
Yuki Sugaya, Maya Yamazaki, Motokazu Uchigashima, Kenta Kobayashi, Masahiko Watanabe, Kenji Sakimura, Masanobu Kano
Endocannabinoid signaling is considered to suppress excessive excitability of neural circuits and to protect the brain from seizures. However, the precise mechanisms of this effect are poorly understood. Here, we report that 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), one of the two major endocannabinoids, is crucial for suppressing seizures. We found that kainate-induced seizures in mice lacking the 2-AG synthesizing enzyme, diacylglycerol lipase α, were much more severe compared with those in cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout mice and were comparable to those in mice lacking both CB1- and CB2-receptor-mediated signaling...
August 2, 2016: Cell Reports
Li-Wei Tung, Guan-Ling Lu, Yen-Hsien Lee, Lung Yu, Hsin-Jung Lee, Emma Leishman, Heather Bradshaw, Ling-Ling Hwang, Ming-Shiu Hung, Ken Mackie, Andreas Zimmer, Lih-Chu Chiou
Orexins are associated with drug relapse in rodents. Here, we show that acute restraint stress in mice activates lateral hypothalamic (LH) orexin neurons, increases levels of orexin A and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and reinstates extinguished cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP). This stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine CPP depends on type 1 orexin receptors (OX1Rs), type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs) and diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL) in the VTA. In dopaminergic neurons of VTA slices, orexin A presynaptically inhibits GABAergic transmission...
2016: Nature Communications
James Backes, Deborah Anzalone, Daniel Hilleman, Julia Catini
Hypertriglyceridemia (triglycerides > 150 mg/dL) affects ~25 % of the United States (US) population and is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Severe hypertriglyceridemia (≥ 500 mg/dL) is also a risk factor for pancreatitis. Three omega-3 fatty acid (OM3FA) prescription formulations are approved in the US for the treatment of adults with severe hypertriglyceridemia: (1) OM3FA ethyl esters (OM3EE), a mixture of OM3FA ethyl esters, primarily eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (Lovaza®, Omtryg™, and generics); (2) icosapent ethyl (IPE), EPA ethyl esters (Vascepa®); and (3) omega-3 carboxylic acids (OM3CA), a mixture of OM3FAs in free fatty acid form, primarily EPA, DHA, and docosapentaenoic acid (Epanova®)...
2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
Shaohua Guo, Grzegorz Maria Popowicz, Daoming Li, Dongjuan Yuan, Yonghua Wang
Most lipases possess a lid domain above the catalytic site that is responsible for their activation. Lipase SMG1 from Malassezia globose CBS 7966 (Malassezia globosa LIP1), is a mono- and diacylglycerol lipase with an atypical loop-like lid domain. Activation of SMG1 was proposed to be solely through a gating mechanism involving two residues (F278 and N102). However, through disulfide bond cross-linking of the lid, this study shows that full activation also requires mobility of the lid domain, contrary to a previous proposal...
May 2016: FEBS Open Bio
Caleb C Lord, Daniel Ferguson, Gwynneth Thomas, Amanda L Brown, Rebecca C Schugar, Amy Burrows, Anthony D Gromovsky, Jenna Betters, Chase Neumann, Jessica Sacks, Stephanie Marshall, Russell Watts, Martina Schweiger, Richard G Lee, Rosanne M Crooke, Mark J Graham, Justin D Lathia, Takuya F Sakaguchi, Richard Lehner, Guenter Haemmerle, Rudolf Zechner, J Mark Brown
Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and comparative gene identification 58 (CGI-58) are critical regulators of triacylglycerol (TAG) turnover. CGI-58 is thought to regulate TAG mobilization by stimulating the enzymatic activity of ATGL. However, it is not known whether this coactivation function of CGI-58 occurs in vivo. Moreover, the phenotype of human CGI-58 mutations suggests ATGL-independent functions. Through direct comparison of mice with single or double deficiency of CGI-58 and ATGL, we show here that CGI-58 knockdown causes hepatic steatosis in both the presence and absence of ATGL...
July 26, 2016: Cell Reports
Freek J Janssen, Mario van der Stelt
2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is an endocannabinoid that activates the cannabinoid receptors type 1 and 2. It also serves as an important lipid precursor for the eicosanoid signaling pathway. Consequently, 2-AG is involved in many physiological functions, including anxiety, food intake, inflammation, memory, pain sensation and neurotransmission. Diacylglycerol lipases (DAGLs) are the main biosynthetic enzymes for 2-AG and their role in several pathophysiological conditions is currently under investigation. In this Digest we review all DAGL inhibitors reported to date and their effects in preclinical models of neurodegeneration and metabolic disorders...
August 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Chunsheng Cai, Yongqing Gao, Yan Liu, Nanjing Zhong, Ning Liu
In this study, Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) was immobilized on SBA-15 with three pore diameters. CALB loading was found increased with CALB concentration increasing from 20.3 to 80.12μg/ml. Higher CALB loading was observed from SBA-15 with pore diameters at 8.1nm (SBA-15(8.1)), yet highest hydrolytic activity was found at SBA-15(12.5). Thermal stability of the immobilized CALB (SBA-15-CALB) samples was greatly influenced by their water content, after 4h storage at 70°C, 8.93 and 67.4% of the initial activity was observed from SBA-15-CALB samples with water content at 9...
December 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
Virginia L Gaveglio, Ana C Pascual, Norma M Giusto, Susana J Pasquaré
The aim of this work was to study how age-related changes could modify several enzymatic activities that regulate lipid mediator levels in nuclei from rat cerebellum and how these changes are modulated by all-trans retinoic acid (RA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA). The higher phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity and lower diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL) activity observed in aged animals compared with adults could augment diacylglycerol (DAG) availability in the former. Additionally, monoacylglycerol (MAG) availability could be high due to an increase in lysophosphatidate phosphohydrolase (LPAPase) activity and a decrease in monocylglycerol lipase activity...
August 15, 2016: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Dorota Harasiuk, Marcin Baranowski, Piotr Zabielski, Adrian Chabowski, Jan Górski
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Liver X receptors (LXRα and LXRβ) are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate expression of genes involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolism. LXR expression has been identified in the heart, and enhanced LXR activity in the streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic myocardium was reported recently. The aim of this study was to investigate effect of in vivo LXR activation on myocardial lipid metabolism under conditions of STZ-induced diabetes. METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups: non-diabetic control, treated with STZ, and treated with STZ and LXR agonist - TO901317...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Mira Rosenblat, Oren Rom, Nina Volkova, Michael Aviram
Nitro-fatty acids possess anti-atherogenic properties, but their effects on macrophage oxidative status and lipid metabolism that play important roles in atherosclerosis development are unclear. This study compared the effects of nitro-oleic acid (OLA-NO2) with those of native oleic acid (OLA) on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, anti-oxidants and metabolism of triglycerides and cholesterol in J774A.1 macrophages. Upon incubating the cells with physiological concentrations of OLA-NO2 (0-1 µM) or with equivalent levels of OLA, ROS levels measured by 2, 7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, decreased dose-dependently, but the anti-oxidative effects of OLA-NO2 were significantly augmented...
August 2016: Lipids
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