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Diacylglycerol lipase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081221/dietary-lipid-sources-influence-fatty-acid-composition-in-tissue-of-large-yellow-croaker-larmichthys-crocea-by-regulating-triacylglycerol-synthesis-and-catabolism-at-the-transcriptional-level
#1
Hong Qiu, Min Jin, Yi Li, You Lu, Yingmei Hou, Qicun Zhou
An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid sources on growth performance, fatty acid composition, rate-limiting enzyme activities and gene expression related to lipid metabolism in large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea). Five iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipidic experimental diets were formulated to contain different lipid sources, such as fish oil (FO), soybean oil (SO), linseed oil (LO), rapeseed oil (RO) and peanut oil (PO), respectively. Triplicate groups of 50 fish (initial weight 13...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002563/subcellular-localization-of-a-2-arachidonoyl-glycerol-signaling-cassette-in-retinal-ganglion-cell-axonal-growth-in-vitro
#2
David T Stark, Joseph Caprioli
Purpose: To investigate whether the subcellular distribution of endocannabinoid (eCB) system (ECS) components in growing RGC axons is consistent with the formation of eCB-enriched "hotspots" and the role of the ECS in RGC axonal growth. Methods: We used immunocytochemistry and image analysis to quantify axonal expression of the ECS components diacylglycerol lipase alpha (DGLα), monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL), and cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) in a mouse retinal explant model...
December 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999963/identification-of-an-endocannabinoid-system-in-the-rat-pars-tuberalis-a-possible-interface-in-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-system
#3
Arsalan Jafarpour, Faramarz Dehghani, Horst-Werner Korf
Endocannabinoids (ECs) are ubiquitous endogenous lipid derivatives and play an important role in intercellular communication either in an autocrine/paracrine or in an endocrine fashion. Recently, an intrinsic EC system has been discovered in the hypophysial pars tuberalis (PT) of hamsters and humans. In hamsters, this EC system is under photoperiodic control and appears to influence the secretion of hormones such as prolactin from the adenohypophysis. We investigate the EC system in the PT of the rat, a frequently used species in endocrine research...
December 20, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992221/triazole-ureas-act-as-diacylglycerol-lipase-inhibitors-and-prevent-fasting-induced-refeeding
#4
Hui Deng, Sander Kooijman, Adrianus M C H van den Nieuwendijk, Daisuke Ogasawara, Tom van der Wel, Floris van Dalen, Marc P Baggelaar, Freek J Janssen, Richard J B H N van den Berg, Hans den Dulk, Benjamin F Cravatt, Herman S Overkleeft, Patrick C N Rensen, Mario van der Stelt
Triazole ureas constitute a versatile class of irreversible inhibitors that target serine hydrolases in both cells and animal models. We have previously reported that triazole ureas can act as selective and CNS-active inhibitors for diacylglycerol lipases (DAGLs), enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) that activates cannabinoid CB1 receptor. Here, we report the enantio- and diastereoselective synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies. We found that 2,4-substituted triazole ureas with a biphenylmethanol group provided the most optimal scaffold...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911408/defining-substrate-specificities-for-lipase-and-phospholipase-candidates
#5
Diana X Sahonero-Canavesi, Maritza Zavaleta-Pastor, Lourdes Martínez-Aguilar, Isabel M López-Lara, Otto Geiger
Microorganisms produce a wide spectrum of (phospho)lipases that are secreted in order to make external substrates available for the organism. Alternatively, other (phospho)lipases may be physically associated with the producing organism causing a turnover of intrinsic lipids and frequently giving rise to a remodeling of the cellular membranes. Although potential (phospho)lipases can be predicted with a number of algorithms when the gene/protein sequence is available, experimental proof of the enzyme activities, substrate specificities, and potential physiological functions has frequently not been obtained...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871072/testosterone-rapidly-augments-retrograde-endocannabinoid-signaling-in-proopiomelanocortin-neurons-to-suppress-glutamatergic-input-from-steroidogenic-factor-1-neurons-via-upregulation-of-diacylglycerol-lipase-%C3%AE
#6
Kristie Conde, Carolina Fabelo, William C Krause, Robert Propst, Jordan Goethel, Daniel Fischer, Jin Hur, Cecilia Meza, Holly A Ingraham, Edward J Wagner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2016: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784678/oxyradical-stress-increases-the-biosynthesis-of-2-arachidonoylglycerol-involvement-of-nadph-oxidase
#7
Anberitha T Matthews, Jung Hwa Lee, Abdolsamad Borazjani, Lee C Mangum, Xiang Hou, Matthew K Ross
NADPH oxidase (Nox)-derived oxyradicals contribute to atherosclerosis by oxidizing low-density lipoproteins (LDL), leading to their phagocytosis by vascular macrophages. Endocannabinoids, such as 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), might be an important link between oxidative stress and atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that 2-AG biosynthesis in macrophages is enhanced following ligation of oxidized LDL by scavenger receptors via a signal transduction pathway involving Nox-derived ROS that activates diacylglycerol lipase-β (DAGL-β), the 2-AG biosynthetic enzyme...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778288/competitive-abpp-of-serine-hydrolases-a-case-study-on-dagl-alpha
#8
Marc P Baggelaar, Mario Van der Stelt
Competitive activity-based protein profiling is a highly efficient chemical biology technique to determine target engagement and selectivity profiles of enzyme inhibitors in complex proteomes. Fluorophosphonate-based fluorescent inhibitors are widely used as broad-spectrum probes for serine hydrolases. However, diacylglycerol lipase-α is not labeled by fluorophosphonate-based probes. To overcome this problem, we have developed a tailor-made activity-based probe that reacts with diacylglycerol lipase-α. Here we describe a case study in which we apply competitive activity-based protein profiling using a broad-spectrum and a tailor-made activity-based probe to establish selectivity and activity profiles of inhibitors targeting diacylglycerol lipase-α in the mouse brain proteome...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775008/coordinated-regulation-of-endocannabinoid-mediated-retrograde-synaptic-suppression-in-the-cerebellum-by-neuronal-and-astrocytic-monoacylglycerol-lipase
#9
Xiaojie Liu, Yao Chen, Casey R Vickstrom, Yan Li, Andreu Viader, Benjamin F Cravatt, Qing-Song Liu
The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) mediates retrograde synaptic depression including depolarization-induced suppression of excitation (DSE) and inhibition (DSI). 2-AG is degraded primarily by monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), which is expressed in neurons and astrocytes. Using knockout mice in which MAGL is deleted globally or selectively in neurons or astrocytes, we investigated the relative contribution of neuronal and astrocytic MAGL to the termination of DSE and DSI in Purkinje cells (PCs) in cerebellar slices...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766867/therapeutic-potential-of-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-monoacylglycerol-lipase-and-n-acylethanolamine-acid-amidase-inhibitors
#10
Wei Tuo, Natascha Leleu-Chavain, John Spencer, Supojjanee Sansook, Regis Millet, Philippe Chavatte
Fatty acid ethanolamides (FAEs) and endocannabinoids (ECs) have been shown to alleviate pain and inflammation, regulate motility and appetite, and produce anti-cancer, anxiolytic, and neuroprotective efficacies via cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) or type 2 (CB2), or via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) stimulation. FAEs and ECs are synthesized by a series of endogenous enzymes, including N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD), diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL), or phospholipase C (PLC), and their metabolism is mediated by several metabolic enzymes, including fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), N-acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA), or cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751891/stearoyl-coa-desaturase-1-deficiency-reduces-lipid-accumulation-in-the-heart-by-activating-lipolysis-independently-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE
#11
Tomasz Bednarski, Adam Olichwier, Agnieszka Opasinska, Aleksandra Pyrkowska, Ana-Maria Gan, James M Ntambi, Pawel Dobrzyn
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) has recently been shown to be a critical control point in the regulation of cardiac metabolism and function. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is an important regulator of myocardial fatty acid uptake and utilization. The present study used SCD1 and PPARα double knockout (SCD1(-/-)/PPARα(-/-)) mice to test the hypothesis that PPARα is involved in metabolic changes in the heart that are caused by SCD1 downregulation/inhibition. SCD1 deficiency decreased the intracellular content of free fatty acids, triglycerides, and ceramide in the heart of SCD1(-/-) and SCD1(-/-)/PPARα(-/-) mice...
December 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733740/production-of-biodiesel-from-acid-oil-via-a-two-step-enzymatic-transesterification
#12
Nakyung Choi, Jeom-Sig Lee, Jieun Kwak, Junsoo Lee, In-Hwan Kim
A two-step enzymatic transesterification process in a solvent-free system has been developed as a novel approach to the production of biodiesel using acid oil from rice bran oil soapstock. The acid oil consisted of 53.7 wt% fatty acids, 2.4 wt% monoacylglycerols, 9.1 wt% diacylglycerols, 28.8 wt% triacylglycerols, and 6.0 wt% others. Three immobilized lipases were evaluated as potential biocatalysts, including Novozym 435 from Candida antarctica, Lipozyme RM IM from Rhizomucor miehei, and Lipozyme TL IM from Thermomyces lanuginosus...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627797/oxidation-stability-of-o-w-emulsion-prepared-with-linolenic-acid-enriched-diacylglycerol
#13
Jung-Ah Shin, Mi-Young Lee, Ki-Teak Lee
The sn-1,3-regiospecific Rhizomucor miehei lipase (Lipozyme RM IM) was employed to produce structured diacylglycerol (SL-DAG), which contained 67.3 mol% DAG with 27.2 area% of C18:3. To investigate the oxidative stability of the SL-DAG in emulsion form, 5% oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions were prepared with 200 and 400 ppm sinapic acid. It was shown that the hydroperoxide values of the control (without any antioxidant) was the highest (117.7 meq/L) on day 43 of storage and thereafter the value decreased. However, the emulsions with 200 and 400 ppm sinapic acid resulted in slow oxidation degree until day 64 of storage (30...
October 2016: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595600/regulated-endosomal-trafficking-of-diacylglycerol-lipase-alpha-dagl%C3%AE-generates-distinct-cellular-pools-implications-for-endocannabinoid-signaling
#14
Ya Zhou, Fiona V Howell, Oleg O Glebov, David Albrecht, Gareth Williams, Patrick Doherty
Diacylglycerol lipase alpha (DAGLα) generates the endocannabinoid (eCB) 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) that regulates the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells and serves as a retrograde signaling lipid at synapses. Nothing is known about the dynamics of DAGLα expression in cells and this is important as it will govern where 2-AG can be made and released. We have developed a new construct to label DAGLα at the surface of live cells and follow its trafficking. In hippocampal neurons a cell surface pool of DAGLα co-localizes with Homer, a postsynaptic density marker...
October 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568643/evolution-of-the-diacylglycerol-lipases
#15
REVIEW
Dongjuan Yuan, Zhongdao Wu, Yonghua Wang
Diacylglycerol lipases (DGLs) mainly catalyze "on-demand" biosynthesis of bioactive monoacylglycerols (MAGs) with different long fatty acyl chains, including 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), 2-linoleoylglycerol (2-LG), 2-oleoylglycerol (2-OG) and 2-palmitoylglycerol (2-PG). Enzymatic characterization of DGLs, their expression and distribution, and functional features has been elucidated from microorganisms to mammals in some extent. In mammals, biosynthesis, degradation and metabolism of these bioactive lipids intertwine and form a complicated biochemical pathway to affect the mammal neuromodulation of central nervous system and also other physiological processes in most peripheral organs and non-nervous tissue cells, and yet we still do not know if the neuromodulatory role of mammal DGL and MAGs is similar to invertebrates...
August 26, 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544863/chemoproteomic-biochemical-and-pharmacological-approaches-in-the-discovery-of-inhibitors-targeting-human-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-hydrolase-domain-containing-11-abhd11
#16
Dina Navia-Paldanius, Jayendra Z Patel, Miriam López Navarro, Hermina Jakupović, Steffi Goffart, Sanna Pasonen-Seppänen, Tapio J Nevalainen, Tiina Jääskeläinen, Tuomo Laitinen, Jarmo T Laitinen, Juha R Savinainen
ABHD11 (α/β-hydrolase domain containing 11) is a non-annotated enzyme belonging to the family of metabolic serine hydrolases (mSHs). Its natural substrates and products are unknown. Using competitive activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) to identify novel inhibitors of human (h)ABHD11, three compounds from our chemical library exhibited low nanomolar potency towards hABHD11. Competitive ABPP of various proteomes revealed fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) as the sole off-target among the mSHs. Our fluorescent activity assays designed for natural lipase substrates revealed no activity of hABHD11 towards mono- or diacylglycerols...
October 10, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540752/a-novel-process-for-the-synthesis-of-highly-pure-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-pufa-enriched-triglycerides-by-combined-transesterification-and-ethanolysis
#17
Daoming Li, Weifei Wang, Xiaoli Qin, Xingxing Li, Bo Yang, Yonghua Wang
In this study, a novel two-step enzymatic reaction was developed for the synthesis of highly pure triacylglycerols (TAGs) with a high content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Glyceride mixtures were primarily synthesized by Novozym 435-catalyzed transesterification of glycerol and DHA/EPA-rich ethyl esters (EEs), followed by removal of partial glycerides, for the first time, by immobilized mono- and diacylglycerol lipase SMG1-F278N-catalyzed ethanolysis. TAG yield as high as 98.66% was achieved under the optimized conditions, and highly pure (98...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498782/decreased-lipf-expression-is-correlated-with-dgka-and-predicts-poor-outcome-of-gastric-cancer
#18
Yi Kong, Yan Zheng, Yanfei Jia, Ping Li, Yunshan Wang
Gastric cancer (GC) is a common and deadly digestive tract tumor worldwide. Unfortunately, diagnosis of GC is usually confused and misleading because of atypical symptoms or incomplete complaints. Accordingly, exploring gene expression profile and identifying genes with analogical variance trend will bring new perspective into the diagnosis and treatment of GC. Herein, a RNA‑Seq dataset from Caucasian GC and their matched non‑cancerous samples [Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO): SRP049809] and datasets from four microarrays constituted with tumor and non‑tumor tissues (GEO: GSE13911, GSE19826, GSE29272, GSE33335) were analyzed to explore the differentially expressed genes (DGEs)...
October 2016: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27489310/partial-disruption-of-lipolysis-increases-postexercise-insulin-sensitivity-in-skeletal-muscle-despite-accumulation-of-dag
#19
Annette Karen Serup, Thomas Junker Alsted, Andreas Børsting Jordy, Peter Schjerling, Cecilia Holm, Bente Kiens
Type 2 diabetes and skeletal muscle insulin resistance have been linked to accumulation of the intramyocellular lipid-intermediate diacylglycerol (DAG). However, recent animal and human studies have questioned such an association. Given that DAG appears in different stereoisomers and has different reactivity in vitro, we investigated whether the described function of DAGs as mediators of lipid-induced insulin resistance was dependent on the different DAG isomers. We measured insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) knockout (KO) mice after treadmill exercise to stimulate the accumulation of DAGs in skeletal muscle...
October 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452464/crucial-roles-of-the-endocannabinoid-2-arachidonoylglycerol-in-the-suppression-of-epileptic-seizures
#20
Yuki Sugaya, Maya Yamazaki, Motokazu Uchigashima, Kenta Kobayashi, Masahiko Watanabe, Kenji Sakimura, Masanobu Kano
Endocannabinoid signaling is considered to suppress excessive excitability of neural circuits and to protect the brain from seizures. However, the precise mechanisms of this effect are poorly understood. Here, we report that 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), one of the two major endocannabinoids, is crucial for suppressing seizures. We found that kainate-induced seizures in mice lacking the 2-AG synthesizing enzyme, diacylglycerol lipase α, were much more severe compared with those in cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout mice and were comparable to those in mice lacking both CB1- and CB2-receptor-mediated signaling...
August 2, 2016: Cell Reports
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