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Diacylglycerol lipase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297136/production-of-fame-and-faee-via-alcoholysis-of-sunflower-oil-by-eversa-lipases-immobilized-on-hydrophobic-supports
#1
Daniela Remonatto, J Vladimir de Oliveira, J Manuel Guisan, Débora de Oliveira, Jorge Ninow, Gloria Fernandez-Lorente
The performance of two new commercial low-cost lipases Eversa® Transform and Eversa® Transform 2.0 immobilized in different supports was investigated. The two lipases were adsorbed on four different hydrophobic supports. Interesting results were obtained for both lipases and for the four supports. However, the most active derivative was prepared by immobilization of Eversa® Transform 2.0 on Sepabeads C-18. Ninety-nine percent of fatty acid ethyl ester was obtained, in 3 h at 40 °C, by using hexane as solvent, a molar ratio of 4:1 (ethanol/oil), and 10 wt% of immobilized biocatalyst...
January 3, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287386/selective-synthesis-of-partial-glycerides-of-conjugated-linoleic-acids-via-modulation-of-the-catalytic-properties-of-lipases-by-immobilization-on-different-supports
#2
Carlos M Verdasco-Martín, Eduardo Garcia-Verdugo, Raul Porcar, Roberto Fernandez-Lafuente, Cristina Otero
Lipases B from Candida antarctica (CALB), Rhizomucor miehei (RML) and Thermomyces lanuginosus (TLL) were immobilized on octadecyl methacylate (OM) or octadecyl methacrylate (OMC) beads. Their specific activity and regioselectivity were studied in the synthesis of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) partial glycerides, which presented nutraceutical properties. TLL derivatives were poor catalysts. Novozym® 435 was much better than Lipozyme® RM IM. RML activity (a GRAS enzyme) was modulated via immobilization. After only 3 h, OM-RML gave the highest CLA conversion (54% at 40 °C with 1:3 M ratio of glycerol to CLA)...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193524/effect-of-site-specific-peptide-tag-labeling-on-the-biocatalytic-properties-of-thermoalkalophilic-lipase-from-geobacillus-thermocatenulatus
#3
Oscar Romero, Blanca de Las Rivas, David Lopez-Tejedor, Jose M Palomo
Tailor-made peptides were investigated for a site-specific tag labeling of Geobacillus thermocatenulatus lipase (GTL). GTL was first genetically modified by introducing a unique cysteine on the lid-site of the enzyme, producing two variants (GTLσ-A193C and GTLσ- S196C). The chemical modification was performed by using a small library of cysteine-containing peptides. The synthesized peptide-lipase biocatalysts were high stable, more active, specific and selective toward different substrates than non-modified GTL...
November 28, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184702/pharmacological-inhibition-of-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase-1-and-insights-into-postprandial-gut-peptide-secretion
#4
Benjamin S Maciejewski, Tara B Manion, Claire M Steppan
AIM: To examine the role that enzyme Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT1) plays in postprandial gut peptide secretion and signaling. METHODS: The standard experimental paradigm utilized to evaluate the incretin response was a lipid challenge. Following a lipid challenge, plasma was collected via cardiac puncture at each time point from a cohort of 5-8 mice per group from baseline at time zero to 10 h. Incretin hormones [glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) and glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)] were then quantitated...
November 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178188/characterization-of-the-enzymatic-activity-and-physiological-function-of-the-lipid-droplet-associated-triacylglycerol-lipase-atobl1
#5
Anna Ophelia Müller, Till Ischebeck
Similar to seeds, pollen tubes contain lipid droplets that store triacylglycerol (TAG), but the fate of this TAG as well as the enzymes involved in its breakdown are unknown. Therefore, two potential TAG lipases from tobacco and Arabidopsis, NtOBL1 (Oil body lipase 1) and AtOBL1, were investigated, especially with respect to their importance for pollen tube growth. We expressed NtOBL1 and AtOBL1 as fluorescent fusion proteins to study their localization by confocal microscopy. Furthermore, we overexpressed AtOBL1 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves to characterize it enzymatically...
November 27, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174396/plc%C3%AE-1-potential-arbitrator-of-cancer-progression
#6
REVIEW
Hyun-Jun Jang, Pann-Ghill Suh, Yu Jin Lee, Kyeong Jin Shin, Lucio Cocco, Young Chan Chae
Phospholipase C (PLC) is an essential mediator of cellular signaling. PLC regulates multiple cellular processes by generating bioactive molecules such as inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). These products propagate and regulate cellular signaling via calcium (Ca2+) mobilization and activation of protein kinase C (PKC), other kinases, and ion channels. PLCγ1, one of the primary subtypes of PLC, is directly activated by membrane receptors, including receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), and adhesion receptors such as integrin...
November 8, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151076/modulation-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-by-the-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-monoacylglycerol-and-diacylglycerol-lipase-inhibitors-as-an-attractive-target-for-secretory-diarrhoea-therapy
#7
A Wasilewski, A Misicka, M Sacharczuk, J Fichna
Secretory diarrhoea is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Our aim was to characterize the effect of inhibition of selected enzymes involved in the synthesis or degradation of endocannabinoids on electrolyte equilibrium in the mouse colonic tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of PF-3845, JZL-184 and RHC-80267, as inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), monoacylglycerol (MAGL) and diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL), respectively on epithelial ion transport in isolated mouse colon stimulated by forskolin (FSK), veratridine (VER) and bethanechol (BET)...
August 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145497/rare-genetic-variants-in-the-endocannabinoid-system-genes-cnr1-and-dagla-are-associated-with-neurological-phenotypes-in-humans
#8
Douglas R Smith, Christine M Stanley, Theodore Foss, Richard G Boles, Kevin McKernan
Rare genetic variants in the core endocannabinoid system genes CNR1, CNR2, DAGLA, MGLL and FAAH were identified in molecular testing data from 6,032 patients with a broad spectrum of neurological disorders. The variants were evaluated for association with phenotypes similar to those observed in the orthologous gene knockouts in mice. Heterozygous rare coding variants in CNR1, which encodes the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1), were found to be significantly associated with pain sensitivity (especially migraine), sleep and memory disorders-alone or in combination with anxiety-compared to a set of controls without such CNR1 variants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138223/effect-of-maternal-high-fat-diet-on-key-components-of-the-placental-and-hepatic-endocannabinoid-system
#9
Kushal Gandhi, Cun Li, Nadezhda German, Cezary Skobowiat, Maira Carrillo, Raja Reddy Kallem, Eneko Larumbe, Stacy Martinez, Marcel Chuecos, Gary Ventolini, Peter Nathanielsz, Natalia Schlabritz-Loutsevitch
INTRODUCTION: Involvement of endogenous cannabinoids (eCBs) in obesity is well-characterized. However, information regarding eCB physiology in obesity associated with pregnancy is sparse. METHODS: From at least 9 months before conception, non-pregnant baboons (Papio spp.) were fed a diet of either 45% fat (HFD; n=11) or 12% fat or a control diet (CTR; n=11), and dietary intervention continued through pregnancy. Maternal and fetal venous plasma samples were evaluated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to quantify anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG)...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109080/central-leptin-regulates-heart-lipid-content-by-selectively-increasing-ppar-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-expression
#10
Cristina Mora, Cristina Pintado, Blanca Rubio, Lorena Mazuecos, Virginia Lopez, Alejandro Fernandez, Aurora Salamanca, Brenda Barcena, Teresa Fernandez-Agullo, Carmen Arribas, Nilda Gallardo, Antonio Andres
The role of central leptin in regulating the heart from lipid accumulation in lean leptin-sensitive animals has not been fully elucidated. Herein we investigated the effects of central leptin infusion on the expression of genes involved in cardiac metabolism and its role in the control of myocardial triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation in adult Wistar rats. Intracerebroventricular (icv) leptin infusion (0.2µg/day) for 7 days markedly decreased TAG levels in cardiac tissue. Remarkably, the cardiac anti-steatotic effects of central leptin were associated with the selective up-regulation of gene and protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) and their target genes, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4), and acyl CoA oxidase 1 (Acox1), involved in myocardial intracellular lipolysis and mitochondrial/peroxisomal fatty acid utilization...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102548/modulation-of-the-glycerol-phosphate-availability-led-to-concomitant-reduction-in-the-citric-acid-excretion-and-increase-in-lipid-content-and-yield-in-yarrowia-lipolytica
#11
Rana Sagnak, Sandrine Cochot, Carole Molina-Jouve, Jean-Marc Nicaud, Stéphane E Guillouet
In order to improve TriAcylGycerol (TAG) lipids accumulation in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica on glucose, double over-expression of the major acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase encoding gene (ylDGA2) and of the glycerol-phosphate dehydrogenase encoding gene (ylGPD1) was carried out. The genes were over-expressed in a strain impaired for the mobilization of the accumulated lipids, through the deletion of the genes encoding acyl-coenzyme A oxidases (POX1-6 genes) and the deletion of the very efficient lipase attached to the lipid bodies, encoded by ylTGL4...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100630/stress-promotes-drug-seeking-through-glucocorticoid-dependent-endocannabinoid-mobilization-in-the-prelimbic-cortex
#12
Jayme R McReynolds, Elizabeth M Doncheck, Yan Li, Oliver Vranjkovic, Evan N Graf, Daisuke Ogasawara, Benjamin F Cravatt, David A Baker, Qing-Song Liu, Cecilia J Hillard, John R Mantsch
BACKGROUND: Clinical reports suggest that rather than directly driving cocaine use, stress may create a biological context within which other triggers for drug use become more potent. We hypothesize that stress-induced increases in corticosterone "set the stage" for relapse by promoting endocannabinoid-induced attenuation of inhibitory transmission in the prelimbic cortex (PL). METHODS: We have established a rat model for these stage-setting effects of stress. In this model, neither a stressor (electric footshock) nor stress-level corticosterone treatment alone reinstates cocaine seeking following self-administration and extinction, but each treatment potentiates reinstatement in response to an otherwise subthreshold cocaine priming dose (2...
October 6, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082418/effects-of-organic-solvent-water-activity-and-salt-hydrate-pair-on-the-sn-1-3-selectivity-and-activity-of-whole-cell-lipase-from-aspergillus-niger-gzuf36
#13
Cuiqin Li, Fuhao Zhang, Zexin Gao, Laping He, Xuefeng Zeng, Qiujin Zhu, Lijuan Yu
We previously screened a whole-cell lipase EC 3.1.1.3 from the novel strain Aspergillus niger GZUF36, which exhibited 1,3-selectivity in the synthesis of 1,3-diacylglycerol via glycerolysis. However, the mechanism of lipase selectively in catalyzing the sn-1,3 position remains ambiguous. This work was performed to investigate the 1,3-selective mechanism of lipase using glycerolysis to synthesize 1,3-diacylglycerol (1,3-DG) as a model reaction by changing solvent(s) and water activity (aw), and addition of salt hydrate pair...
October 29, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031792/control-of-myogenic-tone-and-agonist-induced-contraction-of-intramural-coronary-resistance-arterioles-by-cannabinoid-type-1-receptors-and-endocannabinoids
#14
Mária Szekeres, György L Nádasy, Eszter Soltész-Katona, László Hunyady
It was tested whether intrinsic CB1R activation modifies myogenic and agonist induced contraction of intramural coronary resistance arteries of the rat. CB1R protein was detected by immuno-histochemistry and by Western blot, its mRNA by qRT-PCR in their wall. Microsurgically prepared cylindrical coronary segments (∼100-150μm) developed myogenic contraction (∼20% of relaxed luminal diameter), from which a substantial relaxation (∼15%) in response to WIN55212 (a specific agonist of the CB1Rs) has been found...
October 16, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980889/comparative-analysis-of-effects-of-dietary-arachidonic-acid-and-epa-on-growth-tissue-fatty-acid-composition-antioxidant-response-and-lipid-metabolism-in-juvenile-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idellus
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jing-Jing Tian, Cai-Xia Lei, Hong Ji, Gen Kaneko, Ji-Shu Zhou, Hai-Bo Yu, Yang Li, Er-Meng Yu, Jun Xie
Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic purified diets containing free arachidonic acid (ARA) or EPA (control group), 0·30 % ARA, 0·30 % EPA and 0·30 % ARA+EPA (equivalent) were designed to feed juvenile grass carp (10·21 (sd 0·10) g) for 10 weeks. Only the EPA group presented better growth performance compared with the control group (P<0·05). Dietary ARA and EPA were incorporated into polar lipids more than non-polar lipids in hepatopancreas but not intraperitoneal fat (IPF) tissue. Fish fed ARA and EPA showed an increase of serum superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, and decrease of glutathione peroxidase activity and malondialdehyde contents (P<0·05)...
September 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980208/calcitriol-concomitantly-enhances-insulin-sensitivity-and-alters-myocellular-lipid-partitioning-in-high-fat-treated-skeletal-muscle-cells
#16
Grace E Jefferson, David M Schnell, D Travis Thomas, Lance M Bollinger
Vitamin D reduces myocellular insulin resistance, but the effects of vitamin D on intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) partitioning are unknown. The purpose of this study was to understand how calcitriol, the active vitamin D metabolite, affects insulin sensitivity and lipid partitioning in skeletal muscle cells. C2C12 myotubes were treated with calcitriol (100 nM) or vehicle control for 96 h. Insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation (Thr 308) was determined by western blot. Intramyocellular triacylglycerol (IMTG), diacylglycerol (DAG), and ceramide content were measured by LC/MS...
November 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970359/investigation-of-diacylglycerol-lipase-alpha-inhibition-in-the-mouse-lipopolysaccharide-inflammatory-pain-model
#17
Jenny L Wilkerson, Giulia Donvito, Travis W Grim, Rehab A Abdullah, Daisuke Ogasawara, Benjamin F Cravatt, Aron H Lichtman
Diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL) α and β, the major biosynthetic enzymes of the endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid) 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), are highly expressed in the nervous system and immune system, respectively. Genetic deletion or pharmacological inhibition of DAGL-β protects against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in mouse peritoneal macrophages, and reverses LPS-induced allodynia in mice. In order to gain insight into the contribution of DAGL-α in LPS-induced allodynia, we tested global knockout mice as well as DO34, a dual DAGL-α/-β inhibitor...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948493/highly-efficient-deacidification-of-high-acid-rice-bran-oil-using-methanol-as-a-novel-acyl-acceptor
#18
Daoming Li, Muniba Faiza, Shahid Ali, Weifei Wang, Chin Ping Tan, Bo Yang, Yonghua Wang
A highly efficient process for reducing the fatty acid (FA) content of high-acid rice bran oil (RBO) was developed by immobilized partial glycerides-selective lipase SMG1-F278N-catalyzed esterification/transesterification using methanol as a novel acyl acceptor. Molecular docking simulation indicated that methanol was much closer to the catalytic serine (Ser-171) compared with ethanol and glycerol, which might be one of the reasons for its high efficiency in the deacidification of high-acid RBO. Additionally, the reaction parameters were optimized to minimize the FA content of high-acid RBO...
September 25, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946274/a-lumped-model-of-the-lipase-catalyzed-hydrolysis-of-sardine-oil-to-maximize-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-content-in-acylglycerols
#19
R Morales-Medina, M Munio, A Guadix, E M Guadix, F Camacho
The aim of this work was to produce diacylglycerols (DAG) and monoacylglycerols (MAG) with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Rhizomucor miehei lipase mediated-hydrolysis of sardine oil was conducted at several water activities. The system was mechanistically modeled to predict the time evolution of the concentration of triacylglycerols, DAG, MAG and free fatty acids (FFA) and the concentration of saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The release of the first fatty acid from the triacylglycerol was independent on the unsaturation degree...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901776/liposomal-delivery-of-diacylglycerol-lipase-beta-inhibitors-to-macrophages-dramatically-enhances-selectivity-and-efficacy-in-vivo
#20
Myungsun Shin, Helena W Snyder, Giulia Donvito, Lesley D Schurman, Todd E Fox, Aron H Lichtman, Mark Kester, Ku-Lung Hsu
Diacylglycerol lipase-beta (DAGLβ) hydrolyzes arachidonic acid (AA)-containing diacylglycerols to produce bioactive lipids including endocannabinoids and AA-derived eicosanoids involved in regulation of inflammatory signaling. Previously, we demonstrated that DAGLβ inactivation using the triazole urea inhibitor KT109 blocked macrophage inflammatory signaling and reversed allodynic responses of mice in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. Here, we tested whether we could exploit the phagocytic capacity of macrophages to localize delivery of DAGLβ inhibitors to these cells in vivo using liposome encapsulated KT109...
September 13, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
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