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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920729/transcriptional-network-architecture-of-breast-cancer-molecular-subtypes
#1
Guillermo de Anda-Jáuregui, Tadeo E Velázquez-Caldelas, Jesús Espinal-Enríquez, Enrique Hernández-Lemus
Breast cancer heterogeneity is evident at the clinical, histological and molecular level. High throughput technologies allowed the identification of intrinsic subtypes that capture transcriptional differences among tumors. A remaining question is whether said differences are associated to a particular transcriptional program which involves different connections between the same molecules. In other words, whether particular transcriptional network architectures can be linked to specific phenotypes. In this work we infer, construct and analyze transcriptional networks from whole-genome gene expression microarrays, by using an information theory approach...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734700/-the-endocannabinoid-system-and-bone
#2
Mikuláš Pura, Peter Vaňuga
Recent studies suggest an important role for the skeletal endocannabinoid system in the regulation of bone mass in both physiological and pathological conditions. Both major endocannabinoids (anandamid and 2-arachidonoylglycerol), endocannabinoid receptors - CB1-receptor (CB1R) a CB2-receptor (CB2R) and the endocannabinoid metabolizing enzymes are present or expressed in osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Previous studies identified multiple risk and protective variants of CNR2 gene dealing with the relationship to bone density and/or osteoporosis...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476469/cb2-63-polymorphism-and-immune-mediated-diseases-associated-with-hcv-chronic-infection
#3
Nicola Coppola, Rosa Zampino, Giulia Bellini, Maria Stanzione, Nicolina Capoluongo, Aldo Marrone, Margherita Macera, Luigi Elio Adinolfi, Emanuele Miraglia Del Giudice, Ivan Gentile, Evangelista Sagnelli, Francesca Rossi
AIMS: To evaluate whether CB2 variants are associated with the presence of immune-mediated disorders (IMDs) in patients with chronic HCV infection. METHODS: One hundred and sixty-eight anti-HCV/HCV-RNA-positive patients were enrolled, 81 with signs of IMDs and 87 without. In the IMDs group, 22 (27.2%) showed ANA positivity (titers ≥1:160), 3 (3.7%) SMA positivity (titers ≥1:160), 24 (29.6%) had cryoglobulinemia, 25 (30.9%) autoimmune thyroiditis, 4 (4.9%) psoriasis, 2 (2...
July 15, 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27474745/cannabinoid-receptor-2-modulates-susceptibility-to-experimental-cerebral-malaria-through-a-ccl17-dependent-mechanism
#4
Judith Alferink, Sabine Specht, Hannah Arends, Beatrix Schumak, Kim Schmidt, Christina Ruland, Ramona Lundt, Andrea Kemter, Andrea Dlugos, Janina M Kuepper, Karola Poppensieker, Matthias Findeiss, Önder Albayram, David-M Otte, Janine Marazzi, Jürg Gertsch, Irmgard Förster, Wolfgang Maier, Stefanie Scheu, Achim Hoerauf, Andreas Zimmer
Cerebral malaria is a severe and often fatal complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. It is characterized by parasite sequestration, a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier, and a strong inflammation in the brain. We investigated the role of the cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), an important modulator of neuroinflammatory responses, in experimental cerebral malaria (ECM). Strikingly, mice with a deletion of the CB2-encoding gene (Cnr2(-/-)) inoculated with Plasmodium berghei ANKA erythrocytes exhibited enhanced survival and a diminished blood-brain barrier disruption...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27401043/mechanical-and-material-properties-of-cortical-and-trabecular-bone-from-cannabinoid-receptor-1-null-cnr1-mice
#5
Aysha B Khalid, Simon R Goodyear, Ruth A Ross, Richard M Aspden
The endocannabinoid system is known for its regulatory effects on bone metabolism through the cannabinoid receptors, Cnr1 and Cnr2. In this study we analysed the mechanical and material properties of long bones from Cnr1(-/-) mice on a C57BL/6 background. Tibiae and femora from 5- and 12-week-old mice were subjected to three-point bending to measure bending stiffness and yield strength. Elastic modulus, density and mineral content were measured in the diaphysis. Second moment of area (MOA2), inner and outer perimeters of the cortical shaft and trabecular fractional bone volume (BV/TV) were measured using micro-CT...
October 2016: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27346075/genetic-variation-in-the-endocannabinoid-system-and-response-to-cognitive-behavior-therapy-for-child-anxiety-disorders
#6
Kathryn J Lester, Jonathan R I Coleman, Susanna Roberts, Robert Keers, Gerome Breen, Susan Bögels, Cathy Creswell, Jennifer L Hudson, Anna McKinnon, Maaike Nauta, Ronald M Rapee, Silvia Schneider, Wendy K Silverman, Mikael Thastum, Polly Waite, Gro Janne H Wergeland, Thalia C Eley
Extinction learning is an important mechanism in the successful psychological treatment of anxiety. Individual differences in response and relapse following Cognitive Behavior Therapy may in part be explained by variability in the ease with which fears are extinguished or the vulnerability of these fears to re-emerge. Given the role of the endocannabinoid system in fear extinction, this study investigates whether genetic variation in the endocannabinoid system explains individual differences in response to CBT...
June 27, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27327781/the-endocannabinoid-system-in-the-baboon-papio-spp-as-a-complex-framework-for-developmental-pharmacology
#7
Iram P Rodriguez-Sanchez, Josee Guindon, Marco Ruiz, Maria E Tejero, Gene Hubbard, Laura E Martinez-de-Villarreal, Hugo A Barrera-Saldaña, Edward J Dick, Anthony G Commuzzie, Natalia E Schlabritz-Loutsevitch
INTRODUCTION: The consumption of marijuana (exogenous cannabinoid) almost doubled in adults during last decade. Consumption of exogenous cannabinoids interferes with the endogenous cannabinoid (or "endocannabinoid" (eCB)) system (ECS), which comprises N-arachidonylethanolamide (anandamide, AEA), 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), endocannabinoid receptors (cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1R and CB2R), encoded by CNR1 and CNR2, respectively), and synthesizing/degrading enzymes (FAAH, fatty-acid amide hydrolase; MAGL, monoacylglycerol lipase; DAGL-α, diacylglycerol lipase-alpha)...
June 17, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27262886/dietary-conjugated-linoleic-acid-supplementation-alters-the-expression-of-genes-involved-in-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-the-bovine-endometrium-and-increases-plasma-progesterone-concentrations
#8
A Abolghasemi, E Dirandeh, Z Ansari Pirsaraei, B Shohreh
Endocannabinoids are derived from phospholipids and reduce fertility by interfering with implantation. Identification of changes in the expression of genes of the endocannabinoid system as a result of dietary inclusion of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is critical to the advancement of our understanding of the nutritional regulation of uterine function. An experiment was conducted on transition cows to evaluate the expression of key endocannabinoid genes in bovine endometrium in response to dietary supplementation with CLA...
October 1, 2016: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27213582/novel-role-of-cannabinoid-receptor-2-in-inhibiting-egf-egfr-and-igf-i-igf-ir-pathways-in-breast-cancer
#9
Mohamad Elbaz, Dinesh Ahirwar, Janani Ravi, Mohd W Nasser, Ramesh K Ganju
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among women. Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CNR2 or CB2) is an integral part of the endocannabinoid system. Although CNR2 is highly expressed in the breast cancer tissues as well as breast cancer cell lines, its functional role in breast tumorigenesis is not well understood. We observed that estrogen receptor-α negative (ERα-) breast cancer cells highly express epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as well as insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR)...
May 17, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26900150/sustained-endocannabinoid-signaling-compromises-decidual-function-and-promotes-inflammation-induced-preterm-birth
#10
Xiaofei Sun, Wenbo Deng, Yingju Li, Shuang Tang, Emma Leishman, Heather B Bradshaw, Sudhansu K Dey
Recent studies provide evidence that premature maternal decidual senescence resulting from heightened mTORC1 signaling is a cause of preterm birth (PTB). We show here that mice devoid of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) with elevated levels ofN-arachidonyl ethanolamide (anandamide), a major endocannabinoid lipid mediator, were more susceptible to PTB upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Anandamide is degraded by FAAH and primarily works by activating two G-protein-coupled receptors CB1 and CB2, encoded by Cnr1 and Cnr2, respectively...
April 8, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26887036/a-collaboration-investigating-endocannabinoid-signalling-in-brain-and-bone
#11
Andreas Zimmer
Investigations into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the psychoactive effects of cannabis preparations have led to the discovery of the endocannabinoid system. Interest in the central nervous system effects was initially the main focus of the research, but it soon became evident that the endocannabinoid system affects virtually every organ. The research field has therefore experienced a tremendous growth over the last decade and is now truly interdisciplinary. This short review provides a personal account of an interdisciplinary collaboration between Itai Bab from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and the author...
May 1, 2016: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26884397/cannabinoid-receptor-signaling-regulates-liver-development-and-metabolism
#12
Leah Y Liu, Kristen Alexa, Mauricio Cortes, Stephanie Schatzman-Bone, Andrew J Kim, Bani Mukhopadhyay, Resat Cinar, George Kunos, Trista E North, Wolfram Goessling
Endocannabinoid (EC) signaling mediates psychotropic effects and regulates appetite. By contrast, potential roles in organ development and embryonic energy consumption remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that genetic or chemical inhibition of cannabinoid receptor (Cnr) activity disrupts liver development and metabolic function in zebrafish (Danio rerio), impacting hepatic differentiation, but not endodermal specification: loss of cannabinoid receptor 1 (cnr1) and cnr2 activity leads to smaller livers with fewer hepatocytes, reduced liver-specific gene expression and proliferation...
February 15, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26880264/effects-of-chronic-exercise-on-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-wistar-rats-with-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity
#13
François-Xavier Gamelin, Julien Aucouturier, Fabio Arturo Iannotti, Fabiana Piscitelli, Enrico Mazzarella, Teresa Aveta, Melissa Leriche, Erwan Dupont, Caroline Cieniewski-Bernard, Valérie Montel, Bruno Bastide, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Elsa Heyman
The endocannabinoid system is dysregulated during obesity in tissues involved in the control of food intake and energy metabolism. We examined the effect of chronic exercise on the tissue levels of endocannabinoids (eCBs) and on the expression of genes coding for cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) (Cnr1 and Cnr2, respectively) in the subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissues and in the soleus and extensor digitorim longus (EDL) muscles, in rats fed with standard or high-fat diet...
June 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26447698/the-cannabinoid-receptor-2-q63r-variant-modulates-the-relationship-between-childhood-obesity-and-age-at-menarche
#14
Giulia Bellini, Anna Grandone, Marco Torella, Emanuele Miraglia del Giudice, Bruno Nobili, Laura Perrone, Sabatino Maione, Francesca Rossi
BACKGROUND: The ovary is an important site where gene variants modulate pubertal timing. The cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) is expressed in the ovary, plays a role in folliculogenesis and ovulation, and can be modulated by estrogens. Obesity is strictly associated with early menarche and is characterized by sex hormone and endocannabinoid derangement. AIM: In this study, we investigated the role of the CB2 receptor in determining the age at menarche in obese girls...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26192460/elucidating-cannabinoid-biology-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#15
REVIEW
Randall G Krug, Karl J Clark
The number of annual cannabinoid users exceeds 100,000,000 globally and an estimated 9% of these individuals will suffer from dependency. Although exogenous cannabinoids, like those contained in marijuana, are known to exert their effects by disrupting the endocannabinoid system, a dearth of knowledge exists about the potential toxicological consequences on public health. Conversely, the endocannabinoid system represents a promising therapeutic target for a plethora of disorders because it functions to endogenously regulate a vast repertoire of physiological functions...
October 10, 2015: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26183885/dna-methyltransferase-expressions-in-japanese-rice-fish-oryzias-latipes-embryogenesis-is-developmentally-regulated-and-modulated-by-ethanol-and-5-azacytidine
#16
Asok K Dasmahapatra, Ikhlas A Khan
We aimed to investigate the impact of the epigenome in inducting fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) phenotypes in Japanese rice fish embryogenesis. One of the significant events in epigenome is DNA methylation which is catalyzed by DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) enzymes. We analyzed DNMT enzyme mRNA expressions in Japanese rice fish development starting from fertilized eggs to hatching and also in embryos exposed for first 48h of development either to ethanol (300mM) or to 5-azacytidine (5-azaC; 2mM), an inhibitor of DNMT enzyme activity...
October 2015: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26055357/evaluation-of-common-variants-in-cnr2-gene-for-bone-mineral-density-and-osteoporosis-susceptibility-in-postmenopausal-women-of-han-chinese
#17
C Zhang, J Ma, G Chen, D Fu, L Li, M Li
UNLABELLED: Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a major health problem with important genetic factors in postmenopausal women. We thoroughly evaluated the relationship of CNR2 polymorphisms with osteoporosis in a cohort of 1032 osteoporosis patients and 2089 healthy controls from Han Chinese postmenopausal women. Statistically significant differences, depending on different genotypes, were presented. INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis is a major health problem in postmenopausal women, which is a multifactorial disease in which genetic determinants are modulated by hormonal, environmental, and nutritional factors...
December 2015: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25974389/association-between-cannabinoid-receptor-type-2-q63r-variant-and-oligo-polyarticular-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#18
G Bellini, A N Olivieri, A Grandone, M Alessio, M F Gicchino, B Nobili, L Perrone, S Maione, E Miraglia del Giudice, F Rossi
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the functional variant Q63R of the cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptor is associated with susceptibility to oligo/poly-articular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and with its clinical features. METHOD: A total of 171 Italian children with oligoarticular/rheumatoid factor negative poly-articular JIA and 600 healthy controls were enrolled in the study and genotyped. RESULTS: A significant difference in genotype distribution of the CB2 Q63R variant (CNR2 rs35761398) between oligo/poly-articular JIA patients and controls was found (p = 0...
2015: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25937028/the-type-2-cannabinoid-receptor-regulates-susceptibility-to-osteoarthritis-in-mice
#19
A Sophocleous, A E Börjesson, D M Salter, S H Ralston
OBJECTIVE: Cannabinoid receptors and their ligands have been implicated in the regulation of various physiological processes but their role in osteoarthritis has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the type 2 cannabinoid receptor (Cnr2) in regulating susceptibility to osteoarthritis in mice. METHODS: We analysed the severity of knee osteoarthritis as assessed by the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) scoring system in mice with targeted deletion of Cnr2 (Cnr2(-/-)) and wild type (WT) littermates...
September 2015: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25931248/cannabinoid-receptor-2-regulates-embryonic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-development-via-prostaglandin-e2-and-p-selectin-activity
#20
Virginie Esain, Wanda Kwan, Kelli J Carroll, Mauricio Cortes, Sarah Y Liu, Gregory M Frechette, Lea M V Sheward, Sahar Nissim, Wolfram Goessling, Trista E North
Cannabinoids (CB) modulate adult hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPCs) function, however, impact on the production, expansion, or migration of embryonic HSCs is currently uncharacterized. Here, using chemical and genetic approaches targeting CB-signaling in zebrafish, we show that CB receptor (CNR) 2, but not CNR1, regulates embryonic HSC development. During HSC specification in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region, CNR2 stimulation by AM1241 increased runx1;cmyb(+) HSPCs, through heightened proliferation, whereas CNR2 antagonism decreased HSPC number; FACS analysis and absolute HSC counts confirmed and quantified these effects...
August 2015: Stem Cells
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