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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725299/octadecylpropyl-sulfamide-reduces-neurodegeneration-and-restores-the-memory-deficits-induced-by-hypoxia-ischemia-in-mice
#1
Elk Kossatz, Daniel Silva-Peña, Juan Suárez, Fernando R de Fonseca, Rafael Maldonado, Patricia Robledo
The PPAR-α agonist, oleoylethanolamide (OEA) has neuroprotective properties in stroke models. However, its rapid degradation represents a limitation for an effective therapeutic approach. In this study, we evaluated the effects of a stable OEA-modeled compound, octadecylpropyl sulfamide (SUL) on the cognitive, behavioral, cellular and molecular alterations associated with hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in mice. Mice subjected to HI were treated with the PPAR-α antagonist GW6471 (GW) (1 mg/kg) followed 15 min later by SUL (3 and 10 mg/kg)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624642/cannabidiol-regulates-behavioural-alterations-and-gene-expression-changes-induced-by-spontaneous-cannabinoid-withdrawal
#2
Francisco Navarrete, Auxiliadora Aracil-Fernández, Jorge Manzanares
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cannabidiol (CBD) represents a promising therapeutic tool for treating cannabis use disorder (CUD). This study aimed to evaluate the effects of CBD on the behavioural and gene expression alterations induced by spontaneous cannabinoid withdrawal. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Spontaneous cannabinoid withdrawal was evaluated 12 h after cessation of CP-55,940 treatment (0.5 mg·kg-1 /12 h; intraperitoneally (i.p.); 7 days) in C57BL/6J mice. The effects of CBD (5, 10 and 20 mg·kg-1 ; i...
April 6, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528898/new-findings-in-pharmacogenetics-of-schizophrenia
#3
Clement C Zai, Arun K Tiwari, Gwyneth C Zai, Miriam S Maes, James L Kennedy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights recent advances in the investigation of genetic factors for antipsychotic response and side effects. RECENT FINDINGS: Antipsychotics prescribed to treat psychotic symptoms are variable in efficacy and propensity for causing side effects. The major side effects include tardive dyskinesia, antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG), and clozapine-induced agranulocytosis (CIA). Several promising associations of polymorphisms in genes including HSPG2, CNR1, and DPP6 with tardive dyskinesia have been reported...
May 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497784/absence-of-cannabinoid-1-receptor-in-beta-cells-protects-against-high-fat-high-sugar-diet-induced-beta-cell-dysfunction-and-inflammation-in-murine-islets
#4
Isabel González-Mariscal, Rodrigo A Montoro, Máire E Doyle, Qing-Rong Liu, Michael Rouse, Jennifer F O'Connell, Sara Santa-Cruz Calvo, Susan M Krzysik-Walker, Soumita Ghosh, Olga D Carlson, Elin Lehrmann, Yongqing Zhang, Kevin G Becker, Chee W Chia, Paritosh Ghosh, Josephine M Egan
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) regulates insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in peripheral tissues. CB1R is expressed on pancreatic beta cells and is coupled to the G protein Gαi, suggesting a negative regulation of endogenous signalling in the beta cell. Deciphering the exact function of CB1R in beta cells has been confounded by the expression of this receptor on multiple tissues involved in regulating metabolism. Thus, in models of global genetic or pharmacological CB1R blockade, it is difficult to distinguish the indirect effects of improved insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues from the direct effects of inhibiting CB1R in beta cells per se...
June 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374346/accessing-gene-expression-in-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia
#5
Patricia N Moretti, Vanessa K Ota, Eduardo S Gouvea, Mariana Pedrini, Marcos L Santoro, Fernanda Talarico, Leticia M Spindola, Carolina Muniz Carvalho, Cristiano Noto, Gabriela Xavier, Elisa Brietzke, Ary Gadelha, Rodrigo Bressan, Jair Mari, Sintia Belangero
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a mental disorder arising from a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. It has been suggested that treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) is a distinct, more severe, and homogenous subgroup of schizophrenia that could present specific biological markers. Our aim was to characterize expression of target genes in blood of TRS patients compared with non-TRS (NTRS) patients and healthy controls (HC). TRS has been defined using failure to respond to two previous antipsychotic trials...
January 26, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369947/hepatocellular-carcinoma-retrospective-evaluation-of-the-correlation-between-gadobenate-dimeglumine-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-pathologic-grade
#6
Xiuzhu Huang, Zebin Xiao, Yuyang Zhang, Na Lin, Meilian Xiong, Xinyao Huang, Qi Chen, Dairong Cao
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in characterizing the grade of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using the signal intensity (SI) of the erector spinae as internal reference. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical data of 40 patients (a total of 44 lesions) confirmed by pathology for HCC were retrospectively reviewed. Gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging was performed in all patients, and SI of lesions (SIles), liver parenchyma around the lesions (SIhep), erector spinae (SImus) and standard deviation of SI of the surrounding noise (SDnoi) on nonenhanced T2WI, nonenhanced T1WI, and contrast-enhanced T1WI (in both arterial and hepatobiliary phase [AP and HBP]) were measured, respectively...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364174/molecular-understanding-of-the-activation-of-cb1-and-blockade-of-trpv1-receptors-implications-for-novel-treatment-strategies-in-osteoarthritis
#7
Jakub Mlost, Magdalena Kostrzewa, Natalia Malek, Katarzyna Starowicz
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a joint disease in which cartilage degenerates as a result of mechanical and biochemical changes. The main OA symptom is chronic pain involving both peripheral and central mechanisms of nociceptive processing. Our previous studies have implicated the benefits of dual- over single-acting compounds interacting with the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in OA treatment. In the present study, we focused on the specific molecular alterations associated with pharmacological treatment. OA was induced in Wistar rats by intra-articular injection of 3 mg of monoiodoacetate (MIA)...
January 24, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353877/gene-variants-and-educational-attainment-in-cannabis-use-mediating-role-of-dna-methylation
#8
Maria Carla Gerra, Subramaniam Jayanthi, Matteo Manfredini, Donna Walther, Jennifer Schroeder, Karran A Phillips, Jean Lud Cadet, Claudia Donnini
Genetic and sociodemographic risk factors potentially associated with cannabis use (CU) were investigated in 40 cannabis users and 96 control subjects. DNA methylation analyses were also performed to explore the possibility of epigenetic changes related to CU. We conducted a candidate gene association study that included variants involved in the dopaminergic (ANKK1, NCAM1 genes) and endocannabinoid (CNR1, CNR2 gene) pathways. Sociodemographic data included gender, marital status, level of education, and body mass index...
January 22, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328379/mir%C3%A2-1273g%C3%A2-3p-promotes-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-of-lovo-cells-via-cannabinoid-receptor-1-through-activation-of-erbb4-pik3r3-mtor-s6k2-signaling-pathway
#9
Min Li, Xiaoping Qian, Mingzhen Zhu, Aiyi Li, Mingzhi Fang, Yong Zhu, Jingyu Zhang
MicroRNAs (miR) are important in various crucial cell processes including proliferation, migration and invasion. Dysregulation of miRNAs have been increasingly reported to contribute to colorectal cancer. However, the detailed biological function and potential mechanisms of miR‑1273g‑3p in colorectal cancer remain poorly understood. The expression levels of miR‑1273g‑3p in human colorectal cancer LoVo cell lines were detected via reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR)...
March 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325450/symptom-science-omics-supports-common-biological-underpinnings-across-symptoms
#10
Maura K McCall, Ansley Grimes Stanfill, Elizabeth Skrovanek, Jessica Renee Pforr, Susan W Wesmiller, Yvette P Conley
For precision health care to be successful, an in-depth understanding of the biological mechanisms for symptom development and severity is essential. Omics-based research approaches facilitate identification of the biological underpinnings of symptoms. We reviewed literature for omics-based approaches and exemplar symptoms (sleep disruption, cognitive impairment, fatigue, gastrointestinal [GI] distress, and pain) to identify genes associated with the symptom or symptoms across disease processes. The review yielded 27 genes associated with more than one symptom...
March 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304078/the-endocannabinoid-gene-faah2a-modulates-stress-associated-behavior-in-zebrafish
#11
Randall G Krug, Han B Lee, Louis Y El Khoury, Ashley N Sigafoos, Morgan O Petersen, Karl J Clark
The ability to orchestrate appropriate physiological and behavioral responses to stress is important for survival, and is often dysfunctional in neuropsychiatric disorders that account for leading causes of global disability burden. Numerous studies have shown that the endocannabinoid neurotransmitter system is able to regulate stress responses and could serve as a therapeutic target for the management of these disorders. We used quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions to show that genes encoding enzymes that synthesize (abhd4, gde1, napepld), enzymes that degrade (faah, faah2a, faah2b), and receptors that bind (cnr1, cnr2, gpr55-like) endocannabinoids are expressed in zebrafish (Danio rerio)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191570/the-effect-of-interactions-between-genetics-and-cannabis-use-on-neurocognition-a-review
#12
REVIEW
E Cosker, T Schwitzer, N Ramoz, F Ligier, L Lalanne, P Gorwood, R Schwan, V Laprévote
BACKGROUND: Cannabis is one of the most widely-used drugs in industrialized countries. It is now well established that cannabis use impacts neurocognition. In the intoxication period time episodic memory, working memory and attention are impacted and impulsivity is increased. The long-term effects of cannabis use tend to be similar. Various internal factors, such as sex differences, modulate this impact. It is unclear whether genetic variations can also influence the impact of cannabis on neurocognition...
March 2, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145497/rare-genetic-variants-in-the-endocannabinoid-system-genes-cnr1-and-dagla-are-associated-with-neurological-phenotypes-in-humans
#13
Douglas R Smith, Christine M Stanley, Theodore Foss, Richard G Boles, Kevin McKernan
Rare genetic variants in the core endocannabinoid system genes CNR1, CNR2, DAGLA, MGLL and FAAH were identified in molecular testing data from 6,032 patients with a broad spectrum of neurological disorders. The variants were evaluated for association with phenotypes similar to those observed in the orthologous gene knockouts in mice. Heterozygous rare coding variants in CNR1, which encodes the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1), were found to be significantly associated with pain sensitivity (especially migraine), sleep and memory disorders-alone or in combination with anxiety-compared to a set of controls without such CNR1 variants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107297/decreasing-cb-1-receptor-signaling-in-kupffer-cells-improves-insulin-sensitivity-in-obese-mice
#14
Tony Jourdan, Sarah M Nicoloro, Zhou Zhou, Yuefei Shen, Jie Liu, Nathan J Coffey, Resat Cinar, Grzegorz Godlewski, Bin Gao, Myriam Aouadi, Michael P Czech, George Kunos
OBJECTIVE: Obesity-induced accumulation of ectopic fat in the liver is thought to contribute to the development of insulin resistance, and increased activity of hepatic CB1 R has been shown to promote both processes. However, lipid accumulation in liver can be experimentally dissociated from insulin resistance under certain conditions, suggesting the involvement of additional mechanisms. Obesity is also associated with pro-inflammatory changes which, in turn, can promote insulin resistance...
November 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106063/cannabinoid-1-receptor-deletion-in-podocytes-mitigates-both-glomerular-and-tubular-dysfunction-in-a-mouse-model-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#15
Tony Jourdan, Joshua K Park, Zoltán V Varga, János Pálóczi, Nathan J Coffey, Avi Z Rosenberg, Grzegorz Godlewski, Resat Cinar, Ken Mackie, Pal Pacher, George Kunos
AIMS: To determine the specific role of podocyte-expressed cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1 R) in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN), relative to CB1 R in other renal cell types. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We developed a mouse model with a podocyte-specific deletion of CB1 R (pCB1Rko) and challenged this model with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type-1 DN. We also assessed the podocyte response to high glucose in vitro and its effects on CB1 R activation. RESULTS: High glucose exposure for 48 hours led to an increase in CB1 R gene expression (CNR1) and endocannabinoid production in cultured human podocytes...
March 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105060/cannabinoid-receptor-1-2-double-knockout-mice-develop-epilepsy
#16
Shane Rowley, Xiaofei Sun, Isabel V Lima, Alexandra Tavenier, Antonio Carlos Pinheiro de Oliveira, Sudhansu K Dey, Steve C Danzer
The endocannabinoid system has gained attention as an important modulator of activity in the central nervous system. Initial studies focused on cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), which is widely expressed in the brain, but recent work also implicates cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) in modulating neuronal activity. Both receptors are capable of reducing neuronal activity, generating interest in cannabinoid receptor agonists as potential anticonvulsants. CB1 (Cnr1) and CB2 (Cnr2) single-knockout mice have been generated, with the former showing heightened seizure sensitivity, but not overt seizures...
December 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093492/the-association-between-gene-variants-and-longitudinal-structural-brain-changes-in-psychosis-a-systematic-review-of-longitudinal-neuroimaging-genetics-studies
#17
REVIEW
Julia H Harari, Covadonga M Díaz-Caneja, Joost Janssen, Kenia Martínez, Bárbara Arias, Celso Arango
Evidence suggests that genetic variation might influence structural brain alterations in psychotic disorders. Longitudinal genetic neuroimaging (G-NI) studies are designed to assess the association between genetic variants, disease progression and brain changes. There is a paucity of reviews of longitudinal G-NI studies in psychotic disorders. A systematic search of PubMed from inception until November 2016 was conducted to identify longitudinal G-NI studies examining the link between Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI)-based brain measurements and specific gene variants (SNPs, microsatellites, haplotypes) in patients with psychosis...
November 1, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082317/cannabinoid-receptor-1-gene-by-cannabis-use-interaction-on-cb1-receptor-density
#18
Ariel Ketcherside, Lindsey J Noble, Christa K McIntyre, Francesca M Filbey
Background: Because delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, binds to cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors, levels of CB1 protein could serve as a potential biomarker for response to THC. To date, available techniques to characterize CB1 expression and function in vivo are limited. In this study, we developed an assay to quantify CB1 in lymphocytes to determine how it relates to cannabis use in 58 daily cannabis users compared with 47 nonusers. Furthermore, we tested whether CB1 levels are associated with mutations in a single nucleotide polymorphism known to regulate CB1 functioning (i...
2017: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065845/identification-of-electrophysiological-changes-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-microarray-based-transcriptomics-and-molecular-pathway-analysis-study
#19
Zeenat Mirza, Nisreen Rajeh
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Involvement of amyloid beta and tau proteins in pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been studied extensively. However, electrophysiological activity, and cellular processes like membrane transport are mostly unstudied. Electrophysiological processes provide a bridge between brain activity and cognition, and show promise as translatable biomarkers in preclinical and clinical applications. Biochemical imbalance leads to change in glutamate-based neurotransmission, antioxidant capacity, and in membrane polarization-repolarization events, eventually, resulting in AD...
2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021832/pharmacogenomics-in-the-treatment-of-mood-disorders-strategies-and-opportunities-for-personalized-psychiatry
#20
REVIEW
Azmeraw T Amare, Klaus Oliver Schubert, Bernhard T Baune
Personalized medicine (personalized psychiatry in a specific setting) is a new model towards individualized care, in which knowledge from genomics and other omic pillars (microbiome, epigenomes, proteome, and metabolome) will be combined with clinical data to guide efforts to new drug development and targeted prescription of the existing treatment options. In this review, we summarize pharmacogenomic studies in mood disorders that may lay the foundation towards personalized psychiatry. In addition, we have discussed the possible strategies to integrate data from omic pillars as a future path to personalized psychiatry...
September 2017: EPMA Journal
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