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Ovary cancer

JoAnne S Richards
The "ovarian cycle" is an exquisite and dynamic endocrine system that includes ovarian events, hypothalamic-pituitary interactions, uterine endometrial and myometrial changes during implantation and pregnancy, cervical alterations in structure, and breast development. The ovarian cycle and the steroid hormones produced by the ovary also impact epithelial cancer development in the ovary, uterus, cervix, and breast. This chapter provides a personal view of recent developments that occur in this complex endocrine environment...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Natalie Herold, Barbara Wappenschmidt, Birgid Markiefka, Katharina Keupp, Sandra Kröber, Eric Hahnen, Rita Schmutzler, Kerstin Rhiem
Non-small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (NSCNEC) account for 2% of gynecological cancer cases and are associated with a poor prognosis due to delayed diagnosis and aggressive tumor behavior. BRCA2 -associated ovarian carcinomas predominantly possess a high-grade serous phenotype, which respond to platinum and targeted therapy with PARP inhibitors. Presented here is the case of an adult patient with NSCNEC of the ovaries associated with a deleterious BRCA2 germline mutation. The pathogenic mutation was also confirmed on the somatic level, while the wild-type allele had a high variant fraction, suggesting loss of heterozygosity...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
L E Stewart, T L Beck, N V Giannakopoulos, M H Rendi, C Isacson, B A Goff
OBJECTIVES: Low grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (LG-ESS) is a rare cancer with an indolent course. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of adjuvant hormonal suppression (HT) with or without oophorectomy (BSO) in prolonging progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with LG-ESS. METHODS: We performed a multi-institutional retrospective review of patients treated for low grade LG-ESS from 1985 to 2014. Demographics, treatment and recurrence data were abstracted from medical records...
March 11, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
Natalia Pascuali, Leopoldina Scotti, Mariana Di Pietro, Gonzalo Oubiña, Diana Bas, María May, Antonio Gómez Muñoz, Patricia S Cuasnicú, Débora J Cohen, Marta Tesone, Dalhia Abramovich, Fernanda Parborell
STUDY QUESTION: Is ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P) an ovarian protective agent during alkylating chemotherapy? SUMMARY ANSWER: Local administration of C1P drastically reduces ovarian damage induced by cyclophosphamide (Cy) via protection of follicular reserve, restoration of hormone levels, inhibition of apoptosis and improvement of stromal vasculature, while protecting fertility, oocyte quality and uterine morphology. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Cancer-directed therapies cause accelerated loss of ovarian reserve and lead to premature ovarian failure (POF)...
March 9, 2018: Human Reproduction
Przemysław Janas, Iwona Kucybała, Małgorzata Radoń-Pokracka, Hubert Huras
Telocytes are emerging cell population localized in the stroma of numerous organs, characterized by a distinctive morphology - small cell body with very long, slender prolongations, termed telopodes. Those cells can be found in the whole female reproductive system: in the vagina, uterus, oviducts and ovaries, mammary glands and also in the placenta. In our review, we aim at complete and transparent revision of the current knowledge of telocytes' localization and function, enriched by the analysis of the possible future direction of development of their clinical applications...
March 13, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Yalan Xu, Lei Li
Cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from ovarian endometriosis have been rarely reported. Most of the patients show a poor prognosis and present with a diminished survival time. We present a SCC case arising from endometriosis, and analyzed the clinical, therapeutic, and pathologic features through a comprehensive literature review. A 43-year premenopausal woman (gravida 2, para 1) presented to our hospital due to sudden pain in lower abdomen. Exploratory laparotomy indicated rupture of left ovarian cyst and intra-abdominal hemorrhage were observed...
February 9, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Vrunda B Desai, Jason D Wright, Peter E Schwartz, Elisa M Jorgensen, Linda Fan, Babak Litkouhi, Haiqun Lin, Cary P Gross, Xiao Xu
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of corpus uteri, cervix uteri, and ovarian malignancy in women undergoing hysterectomy or myomectomy for presumed benign indications. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the 2014-2015 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. Adult women undergoing hysterectomies and myomectomies without evidence for known or suspected cancer at the beginning of surgery were identified from the database...
March 8, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Veronica L Cox, Anas A Saeed Bamashmos, Wai Chin Foo, Shiva Gupta, Sireesha Yedururi, Naveen Garg, Hyunseon Christine Kang
Lynch syndrome is the most common hereditary cancer syndrome, the most common cause of heritable colorectal cancer, and the only known heritable cause of endometrial cancer. Other cancers associated with Lynch syndrome include cancers of the ovary, stomach, urothelial tract, and small bowel, and less frequently, cancers of the brain, biliary tract, pancreas, and prostate. The oncogenic tendency of Lynch syndrome stems from a set of genomic alterations of mismatch repair proteins. Defunct mismatch repair proteins cause unusually high instability of regions of the genome called microsatellites...
March 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Efterpi Tingi, Khawla Aswad, Manal Atwan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 12, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Pallavi Khattar, Puneet Bedi, Marion Gonzalez, Minghao Zhong, Changhong Yin, Weihua Huang, Humayun K Islam, John T Fallon
Primary (localized) non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) of the ovary is extremely rare; only a few cases have been reported in the literature. We report two cases of primary ovarian lymphoma (POL), one involving bilateral ovaries in a 15-year-old girl and other involving one ovary in a 5-year-old girl. This report describes detailed clinical, histopathological, and imaging findings, along with the review of literature of primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) arising from an ovary. In addition, we describe findings of targeted capture panel sequencing on both tumors and identify the major genetic mutations that are recurrently mutated in pan-cancers...
January 3, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
Katarzyna Miranowicz-Dzierżawska
The aim of this study was to assess whether there are differences between the results of determining oxidative stress markers obtained from different origin cell lines after exposure to chemicals generating free radicals. The studies considered two markers of oxidative stress: the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and superoxide dismutase activity. The evaluation was performed in five cell lines: Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-9) cells, lung adenocarcinoma A549, macrophages RAW264.7, skin carcinoma cells A431, and keratinocytes HaCaT...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Pei Hui, Stefan M Gysler, Mohamed Uduman, Taiwo A Togun, Daniel E Prado, Christine E Richter, Sunitha Nallur, Peter E Schwartz, Thomas J Rutherford, Alessandro D Santin, Joanne B Weidhaas, Elena S Ratner
Synchronous endometrial and ovarian malignancies occur in 5% of women presenting with endometrial cancer and 10% of patients presenting with ovarian malignancy. When a high-grade serous carcinoma concurrently involves both ovary and endometrium, pathological determination of whether they are synchronous primaries or metastatic tumors from one primary site can be challenging. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are 22-nucleotide noncoding RNAs that are aberrantly expressed in cancer cells and may inherit their cellular linage characteristics...
March 5, 2018: Human Pathology
Amnon A Berger, Cathleen E Matrai, Tessa Cigler, Melissa K Frey
Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in the United States. With an increasing rate of survivorship and extended life span for patients with metastatic disease, the demand for palliative care is increasing. Although uncommon, metastases to gynaecologic organs have been reported and are often present with post-menopausal bleeding. Post-menopausal bleeding can become clinically significant and have a detrimental effect on quality of life. We report the case of a 70-year-old woman with symptomatic vaginal bleeding caused by breast cancer metastatic to her uterus, cervix, fallopian tubes and ovaries...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
Vasudeva Reddy Netala, Suman Bukke, Latha Domdi, S Soneya, Sindhu G Reddy, Murali Satyanarayana Bethu, Venkata Subbaiah Kotakdi, K V Saritha, Vijaya Tartte
The present study reports the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (IH-AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Indigofera hisruta L. The biosynthesized IH-AgNPs were found to be FCC crystals, 5-10 nm in size, spherical in shape and stable. The biosynthesized IH-AgNPs showed dose-dependant cytotoxicity against prostate cancer (PC3) (IC50  = 68.5 μg/mL), colon cancer (COLO205) (IC50  = 85.2 μg/mL), and mouse melanoma (B16F10) (IC50  = 80.9 μg/mL). IH-AgNPs were found to be nontoxic towards normal CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cells...
March 7, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Witold Owczarek, Monika Słowińska, Aleksandra Lesiak, Magdalena Ciążyńska, Aldona Maciąg, Elwira Paluchowska, Luiza Marek-Józefowicz, Rafał Czajkowski
Overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is found in many cancers, including those of the head and neck area, non-small-cell lung cancer, and colorectal, cervical, prostate, breast, ovary, stomach, and pancreatic cancer. The EGFR inhibitors are used at present in the treatment of such cancers. Skin lesions that develop during and after cancer treatment may be due to specific cytostatics, molecular-targeted drugs, radiation therapy, complementary therapy, or the cancer itself, and hence knowledge is essential to distinguish between them...
October 2017: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
Karen Steindorf, Martina E Schmidt, Philipp Zimmer
A growing number of literature reports positive effects of physical activity and exercise. These effects concern prevention, mortality and progress of cancer. Furthermore they show a reduction of disease- and treatment-specific side effects, which implies a better patients' quality of life. Evidence shows a decreased mortality risk in patients with physically active cancer of colon, breast, ovaries and prostate. Activity recommendations for patients with cancer do not differ from those for healthy persons...
March 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Mark B Bignell, Akash M Mehta, Sue Alves, Kandiah Chandrakumaran, Sanjeev P Dayal, Faheez Mohamed, Tom D Cecil, Brendan J Moran
AIM: Ovarian metastases from gastrointestinal tract malignancy have been considered an ominous finding with poor prognosis. The aim of this project was to determine the impact on survival, and potential cure, when cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) are combined to treat peritoneal malignancy in women with Krukenberg tumours. METHOD: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data between January 2010 and July 2015...
March 4, 2018: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
Zaina S Inam, Abdul Hussain Azizi, Soemiwati W Holland
Sertoli-Leydig cell tumour (SLCT) is a rare, androgen-secreting sex cord-stromal tumour of the ovary that usually occurs in young premenopausal women. The major clinical manifestations are virilisation and defeminisation. The following case describes an 88-year-old G1P1 woman, 40 years after menopause, who presented with flushing, hirsutism, voice changes and alopecia along with significantly elevated levels of testosterone. Postoperative report revealed a well-differentiated SLCT in the left ovary. This case is unique in that SLCT is a very rare cancer and even more so in an 88-year-old woman...
March 1, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
S Campbell, A Gentry-Maharaj
Ovarian cancer is a low-prevalence postmenopausal cancer with a high mortality rate and is the fifth most lethal cancer in women. The most common serous subtype with TP53 mutations spreads rapidly throughout the peritoneal cavity (stage III/IV) when 5-year survival is 10%. If diagnosed while confined to the ovary (stage I), the survival rate exceeds 90%. This is the rationale for screening. Annual transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) scans used as a primary screening modality or as a second-line test following primary screening with serum CA125 (multimodal) have been investigated in several trials...
March 1, 2018: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
Elisa Schmoeckel, Thomas Kirchner, Doris Mayr
The differentiation between a primary mucinous ovarian neoplasm and an extra-ovarian metastasis in the ovary is often challenging in the histopathologic practice. Among various ovarian metastases from the gastro-intestinal tract the low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm (LAMN) is an important differential diagnosis to consider particularly in case of pseudomyxoma peritonei. A newly recognized marker in the routine diagnostic of a mucinous neoplasm in the ovary is SATB2 (Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2)...
December 14, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
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