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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102196/whole-brain-3d-mapping-of-human-neural-transplant-innervation
#1
Jonas Doerr, Martin Karl Schwarz, Dirk Wiedermann, Anke Leinhaas, Alina Jakobs, Florian Schloen, Inna Schwarz, Michael Diedenhofen, Nils Christian Braun, Philipp Koch, Daniel A Peterson, Ulrich Kubitscheck, Mathias Hoehn, Oliver Brüstle
While transplantation represents a key tool for assessing in vivo functionality of neural stem cells and their suitability for neural repair, little is known about the integration of grafted neurons into the host brain circuitry. Rabies virus-based retrograde tracing has developed into a powerful approach for visualizing synaptically connected neurons. Here, we combine this technique with light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) to visualize transplanted cells and connected host neurons in whole-mouse brain preparations...
January 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100620/overexpression-of-il-7-extends-the-humoral-immune-response-induced-by-rabies-vaccination
#2
Yingying Li, Ming Zhou, Zhaochen Luo, Yachun Zhang, Min Cui, Huanchun Chen, Zhen F Fu, Ling Zhao
: Rabies continues to present a public health threat in most countries of the world. The most efficient way to prevent and control rabies is to implement vaccination programmes for domestic animals. However, traditional inactivated vaccines used in animals are costly and have a relatively low efficiency, which impedes their extensive use in developing countries. There is therefore an urgent need to develop single-dose and long-lasting rabies vaccines. However, little information is available regarding the mechanisms underlying immunological memory, which can broaden humoral responses following rabies vaccination...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099042/sex-differences-in-associations-between-insulin-resistance-heart-rate-variability-and-arterial-stiffness-in-healthy-women-and-men-a-physiology-study
#3
Luke Anthony Rannelli, Jennifer M MacRae, Michelle C Mann, Sharanya Ramesh, Brenda R Hemmelgarn, Doreen Rabi, Darlene Y Sola, Sofia B Ahmed
Diabetes confers greater cardiovascular risk to women than to men. Whether insulin-resistance-mediated risk extends to the healthy population is unknown. Measures of insulin resistance (fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment, hemoglobin A1c, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, glucose) were determined in 48 (56% female) healthy subjects. Heart rate variability (HRV) was calculated by spectral power analysis and arterial stiffness was determined using noninvasive applanation tonometry. Both were measured at baseline and in response to angiotensin II infusion...
November 2, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096367/zero-index-structures-as-an-alternative-platform-for-quantum-optics
#4
Iñigo Liberal, Nader Engheta
Vacuum fluctuations are one of the most distinctive aspects of quantum optics, being the trigger of multiple nonclassical phenomena. Thus, platforms like resonant cavities and photonic crystals that enable the inhibition and manipulation of vacuum fluctuations have been key to our ability to control light-matter interactions (e.g., the decay of quantum emitters). Here, we theoretically demonstrate that vacuum fluctuations may be naturally inhibited within bodies immersed in epsilon-and-mu-near-zero (EMNZ) media, while they can also be selectively excited via bound eigenmodes...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095930/quantitative-risk-assessment-of-the-introduction-of-rabies-into-japan-through-the-importation-of-dogs-and-cats-worldwide
#5
N C L Kwan, K Sugiura, Y Hosoi, A Yamada, E L Snary
Japan has been free from rabies since 1958. A strict import regimen has been adopted since 2004 consisting of identification of an animal with microchip, two-time rabies vaccination, neutralizing antibody titration test and a waiting period of 180 days. The present study aims to quantitatively assess the risk of rabies introduction into Japan through the international importation of dogs and cats and hence provide evidence-based recommendations to strengthen the current rabies prevention system. A stochastic scenario tree model was developed and simulations were run using @RISK...
January 18, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094609/ecological-potential-for-rabies-virus-transmission-via-scavenging-of-dead-bats-by-mesocarnivores
#6
Tad C Theimer, Annie C Dyer, Brian W Keeley, Amy T Gilbert, David L Bergman
Multiple species of bats are reservoirs of rabies virus in the Americas and are occasionally the source of spillover infections into mesocarnivore species. Although rabies transmission generally is assumed to occur via bite, laboratory studies have demonstrated the potential for rabies transmission via ingestion of rabid animals. We investigated the ecological potential for this mode of transmission by assessing mesocarnivore scavenging behavior of dead bats in suburban habitats of Flagstaff, Arizona. In autumn 2013, summer 2014, and autumn 2015, we placed 104 rabies-negative bat carcasses either near buildings, in wildland areas, or in residential yards and then monitored them with trail cameras for 5 d...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093702/rabies-virus-vaccine-as-an-immune-adjuvant-against-cancers-and-glioblastoma-new-studies-may-resurrect-a-neglected-potential
#7
REVIEW
M A Altinoz, S Guloksuz, I Elmaci
To review the literature about the use of Rabies Virus-Vaccine (RV-V) as an anticancer immunotherapeutic modality in the light of recent findings. The literature search in relevant databases with the following key words: Rabies virus, cancer, remission. Remissions occured following RV-V injections in patients with cervical cancer and melanoma. Pilot clinical studies showed that RV-V injections enhanced survival in glioblastoma patients, which is supported by findings in GL261 mouse glioma model. If public health studies demonstrate protective role of RV-V against certain types of cancers, it can be benefitted as a novel immune adjuvant in clinic...
January 16, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093542/disease-burden-of-dengue-in-the-philippines-adjusting-for-underreporting-by-comparing-active-and-passive-dengue-surveillance-in-punta-princesa-cebu-city
#8
Eduardo A Undurraga, Frances E Edillo, Jonathan Neil V Erasmo, Maria Theresa P Alera, In-Kyu Yoon, Francisco M Largo, Donald S Shepard
Dengue virus (DENV) is a serious threat to public health. Having reliable estimates of the burden of dengue is important to inform policy and research, but surveillance systems are not designed to capture all symptomatic DENV infections. We derived the rate of reporting of dengue by comparing active surveillance of symptomatic DENV infections in a prospective community-based seroepidemiological cohort study (N = 1008) of acute febrile illness in Punta Princesa, Cebu City, Philippines, with passive surveillance data from the Cebu City Health Department...
January 16, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090078/interfacing-broadband-photonic-qubits-to-on-chip-cavity-protected-rare-earth-ensembles
#9
Tian Zhong, Jonathan M Kindem, Jake Rochman, Andrei Faraon
Ensembles of solid-state optical emitters enable broadband quantum storage and transduction of photonic qubits, with applications in high-rate quantum networks for secure communications and interconnecting future quantum computers. To transfer quantum states using ensembles, rephasing techniques are used to mitigate fast decoherence resulting from inhomogeneous broadening, but these techniques generally limit the bandwidth, efficiency and active times of the quantum interface. Here, we use a dense ensemble of neodymium rare-earth ions strongly coupled to a nanophotonic resonator to demonstrate a significant cavity protection effect at the single-photon level-a technique to suppress ensemble decoherence due to inhomogeneous broadening...
January 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089844/familial-cluster-of-exposure-to-a-confirmed-rabid-dog-in-travelers-to-algeria
#10
Sylvie Antwi, Philippe Parola, Doudou Sow, Victoria Sornin, Maxime Henrion, Philippe Gautret
A 10 person-family originating from Algeria traveled in rural Algeria for the purpose of visiting friends and relatives without seeking pre-travel advice, did not received pre-travel rabies immunization, and were exposed to a confirmed rabid dog including 8 within less than 4 days of arrival. Three received suckling mouse brain rabies vaccine although WHO strongly recommends that its production and administration be discontinued and seven received insufficient doses of equine rabies immune globulin abroad. Rabies treatment was completed on returning to France...
January 9, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089546/expression-of-interleukin-6-by-a-recombinant-rabies-virus-enhances-its-immunogenicity-as-a-potential-vaccine
#11
Jun Luo, Boyue Zhang, Yuting Wu, Qin Tian, Jing Zhao, Ziyu Lyu, Qiong Zhang, Mingzhu Mei, Yongwen Luo, Xiaofeng Guo
Several studies have confirmed that interleukin-6 (IL6) mediates multiple biological effects that enhance immune responses when used as an adjuvant. In the present study, recombinant rabies virus (RABV) expressing canine IL6 (rHEP-CaIL6) was rescued and its pathogenicity and immunogenicity were investigated in mice. We demonstrated that mice received a single intramuscular immunization with rHEP-CaIL6 showed an earlier increase and higher maximum titres of virus-neutralizing antibody (VNA) as well as anti-RABV antibodies compared with mice immunized with the parent strain...
January 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087312/immunisation-choice-of-host-adjuvants-and-boosting-schedules-with-emphasis-on-polyclonal-antibody-production
#12
REVIEW
Philippe Delahaut
Polyclonal antibodies are frequently used as immunodiagnostic tools in fundamental research. They are also used for routine diagnostic purposes in human and veterinary medicine and for quality control procedures in the food-processing industry. The antibody is a major component of the detection system. It binds with the molecule to be identified. This conjugate is subsequently revealed by means of binding the antibody with a radio-isotope, a fluorescent substance, an enzyme inducing a color change, or a biosensor based analytical system...
January 10, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081126/a-pan-lyssavirus-taqman-real-time-rt-pcr-assay-for-the-detection-of-highly-variable-rabies-virus-and-other-lyssaviruses
#13
Ashutosh Wadhwa, Kimberly Wilkins, Jinxin Gao, Rene Edgar Condori Condori, Crystal M Gigante, Hui Zhao, Xiaoyue Ma, James A Ellison, Lauren Greenberg, Andres Velasco-Villa, Lillian Orciari, Yu Li
Rabies, resulting from infection by Rabies virus (RABV) and related lyssaviruses, is one of the most deadly zoonotic diseases and is responsible for up to 70,000 estimated human deaths worldwide each year. Rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of rabies is essential for timely administration of post-exposure prophylaxis in humans and control of the disease in animals. Currently, only the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test is recommended for routine rabies diagnosis. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based diagnostic methods have been widely adapted for the diagnosis of other viral pathogens, but there is currently no widely accepted rapid real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of all lyssaviruses...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078786/v1-connections-reveal-a-series-of-elongated-higher-visual-areas-in-the-california-ground-squirrel-otospermophilus-beecheyi
#14
Moritz Negwer, Yong-Jun Liu, Dirk Schubert, David C Lyon
For studies of visual cortex organization, mouse is becoming an increasingly more often used model. In addition to its genetic tractability, the relatively small area of cortical surface devoted to visual processing simplifies efforts in relating the structure of visual cortex to visual function. However, the nature of this compact organization can make some comparisons to the much larger non-human primate visual cortex difficult. The squirrel, as a highly visual rodent offers a useful means for better understanding how mouse and monkey cortical organization compares...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068664/fusion-peptide-improves-stability-and-bioactivity-of-single-chain-antibody-against-rabies-virus
#15
Hualong Xi, Kaixin Zhang, Yanchun Yin, Tiejun Gu, Qing Sun, Linqing Shi, Renxia Zhang, Chunlai Jiang, Wei Kong, Yongge Wu
The combination of rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) with a vaccine is currently effective against rabies infections, but improvements are needed. Genetic engineering antibody technology is an attractive approach for developing novel antibodies to replace RIG. In our previous study, a single-chain variable fragment, scFv57R, against rabies virus glycoprotein (RVGP) was constructed. However, its inherent weak stability and short half-life compared with the parent RIG may limit its diagnostic and therapeutic application...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068098/coherent-phonon-rabi-oscillations-with-a-high-frequency-carbon-nanotube-phonon-cavity
#16
Dong Zhu, Xin-He Wang, Wei-Cheng Kong, Guang-Wei Deng, Jiang-Tao Wang, Hai-Ou Li, Gang Cao, Ming Xiao, Kai-Li Jiang, Xing-Can Dai, Guang-Can Guo, Franco Nori, Guo-Ping Guo
Phonon-cavity electromechanics allows the manipulation of mechanical oscillations similar to photon-cavity systems. Many advances on this subject have been achieved in various materials. In addition, the coherent phonon transfer (phonon Rabi oscillations) between the phonon cavity mode and another oscillation mode has attracted many interest in nanoscience. Here, we demonstrate coherent phonon transfer in a carbon nanotube phonon-cavity system with two mechanical modes exhibiting strong dynamical coupling. The gate-tunable phonon oscillation modes are manipulated and detected by extending the red-detuned pump idea of photonic cavity electromechanics...
January 11, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065475/could-the-rts-s-as01-meningitis-safety-signal-really-be-a-protective-effect-of-rabies-vaccine
#17
REVIEW
Bradford D Gessner, Darryn L Knobel, Anne Conan, Adam Finn
The RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine has been associated with meningitis and cerebral malaria safety signals. Key characteristics of the meningitis signal include presence, in the 5-17month but not the 6-12week age group, of delayed and variable meningitis onset after vaccination, and multiple etiologies. For both meningitis and cerebral malaria, the 5-17month old age group control arm had abnormally low incidences while other arms in both age groups had meningitis and cerebral malaria incidences similar to background rates...
January 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062251/opioid-suppression-of-conditioned-anticipatory-brain-responses-to-breathlessness
#18
Anja Hayen, Vishvarani Wanigasekera, Olivia K Faull, Stewart F Campbell, Payashi S Garry, Simon J M Raby, Josephine Robertson, Ruth Webster, Richard G Wise, Mari Herigstad, Kyle T S Pattinson
Opioid painkillers are a promising treatment for chronic breathlessness, but are associated with potentially fatal side effects. In the treatment of breathlessness, their mechanisms of action are unclear. A better understanding might help to identify safer alternatives. Learned associations between previously neutral stimuli (e.g. stairs) and repeated breathlessness induce an anticipatory threat response that may worsen breathlessness, contributing to the downward spiral of decline seen in clinical populations...
January 3, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060935/high-incidence-of-human-rabies-exposure-in-north-western-tigray-ethiopia-a-four-year-retrospective-study
#19
Gebreyohans Gebru Teklu, Teweldemedhn Gebretinsae Hailu, Gebremedhin Romha Eshetu
BACKGROUND: Rabies is a fatal zoonotic disease that has been known in Ethiopia for centuries in society as "Mad Dog Disease". It is an important disease with veterinary and public health significance in the North western zone of Tigray where previous studies have not been conducted. Frequent occurrence of outbreaks in the area led the researchers to carry out a four year retrospective study to estimate the incidence of human rabies exposure in Northwestern Tigray, Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY: A referent study was conducted on human rabies exposure cases recorded from 2012 to 2015 at Suhul hospital, Shire Endaselase, Northwestern Tigray, Ethiopia...
January 6, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059714/regeneration-of-fat-cells-from-myofibroblasts-during-wound-healing
#20
Maksim V Plikus, Christian F Guerrero-Juarez, Mayumi Ito, Yun Rose Li, Priya H Dedhia, Ying Zheng, Mengle Shao, Denise L Gay, Raul Ramos, Tsai-Ching His, Ji Won Oh, Xiaojie Wang, Amanda Ramirez, Sara E Konopelski, Arijh Elzein, Anne Wang, Rarinthip June Supapannachart, Hye-Lim Lee, Chae Ho Lim, Arben Nace, Amy Guo, Elsa Treffeisen, Thomas Andl, Ricardo N Ramirez, Rabi Murad, Stefan Offermanns, Daniel Metzger, Pierre Chambon, Alan D Widgerow, Tai-Lan Tuan, Ali Mortazavi, Rana K Gupta, Bruce A Hamilton, Sarah E Millar, Patrick Seale, Warren S Pear, Mitchell A Lazar, George Cotsarelis
Although regeneration via the reprogramming of one cell lineage to another occurs in fish and amphibians, it is not observed in mammals. We discovered in mouse that during wound healing adipocytes regenerate from myofibroblasts, a cell type thought to be differentiated and non-adipogenic. Myofibroblast reprogramming required neogenic hair follicles, which triggered BMP signaling and then activation of adipocyte transcription factors expressed during development. Overexpression of the BMP antagonist, noggin, in hair follicles or deletion of the BMP receptor in myofibroblasts prevented adipocyte formation...
January 5, 2017: Science
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