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Akhilesh Kumar, Manas Ranjan Dikhit, Ajay Amit, Amir Zaidi, Raj Kishor Pandey, Ashish Kumar Singh, Shashi S Suman, Vahab Ali, Vidya Nand Rabi Das, Krishna Pandey, Vikas Kumar, Shubhankar Kumar Singh, Shyam Narayan, Hirendra Kumar Chourasia, Pradeep Das, Sanjiva Bimal
We report here a Leishmania donovani ornithine decarboxylase (Ld-ODC) gene used as a DNA vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis in a murine Balb/c mouse model. This study also evaluated the possible mechanism of action directed by this candidate. We found a Th1 immune response after immunization using an Ld-ODC DNA vaccine, with results based on the rearrangement of TCR-V-α-2, proliferation of Carboxy fluorescein Succinimidyle ester positive T cells, which were able to produce cytokines such as TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12 and IL-2, but not IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-10, and modulations of the STAT-1 and p38 MAP kinase signaling pathways...
March 17, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Mary Freire de Carvalho, Marco A N Vigilato, Julio A Pompei, Felipe Rocha, Alexandra Vokaty, Baldomero Molina Flores, Ottorino Cosivi, Victor J Del Rio Vilas
Through national efforts and regional cooperation under the umbrella of the Regional Program for the Elimination of Rabies, dog and human rabies have decreased significantly in Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) countries over the last three decades. To achieve this decline, LAC countries had to develop national plans, and consolidate capabilities such as regular mass dog vaccination, opportune post-exposure prophylaxis and sensitive surveillance. This paper presents longitudinal data for 21 LAC countries on dog vaccination, PEP and rabies surveillance collected from the biannual regional meeting for rabies directors from 1998-2014 and from the Regional Epidemiologic Surveillance System for Rabies (SIRVERA)...
March 20, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Yun-Ting Su, Meng-Yang Gu, Xi Chu, Xiang Feng, Yan-Qin Yu
The GABAergic neurons in the parafacial zone (PZ) play an important role in sleep-wake regulation and have been identified as part of a sleep-promoting center in the brainstem, but the long-range connections mediating this function remain poorly characterized. Here, we performed whole-brain mapping of both the inputs and outputs of the GABAergic neurons in the PZ of the mouse brain. We used the modified rabies virus EnvA-ΔG-DsRed combined with a Cre/loxP gene-expression strategy to map the direct monosynaptic inputs to the GABAergic neurons in the PZ, and found that they receive inputs mainly from the hypothalamic area, zona incerta, and parasubthalamic nucleus in the hypothalamus; the substantia nigra, pars reticulata and deep mesencephalic nucleus in the midbrain; and the intermediate reticular nucleus and medial vestibular nucleus (parvocellular part) in the pons and medulla...
March 20, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Tianyu He, Jennifer C Misuraca, Rabi A Musah
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tommaso Zanca, Franco Pellegrini, Giuseppe E Santoro, Erio Tosatti
The quantum motion of nuclei, generally ignored in the physics of sliding friction, can affect in an important manner the frictional dissipation of a light particle forced to slide in an optical lattice. The density matrix-calculated evolution of the quantum version of the basic Prandtl-Tomlinson model, describing the dragging by an external force of a point particle in a periodic potential, shows that purely classical friction predictions can be very wrong. The strongest quantum effect occurs not for weak but for strong periodic potentials, where barriers are high but energy levels in each well are discrete, and resonant Rabi or Landau-Zener tunneling to states in the nearest well can preempt classical stick-slip with nonnegligible efficiency, depending on the forcing speed...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Chen Fu, Yonggang Xiang, Xiaorong Li, Ailing Fu
For successful theranosis of brain diseases, limited access of therapeutic molecules across blood-brain barrier (BBB) needs be overcome in brain delivery. Currently, peptide derivatives of rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG) have been exploited as delivery ligands to transport nanocarriers across BBB and specifically into the brain. The targeting peptides usually conjugate to the nanocarrier surface, and the cargoes, including siRNA, miRNA, DNA, proteins and small molecular chemicals, are complexed or encapsulated in the nanocarriers...
June 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Gary Beane, Brendan S Brown, Paul Johns, Tuphan Devkota, Gregory V Hartland
The interaction between plasmonic and excitonic systems and the formation of hybridized states is an area of intense interest, due to the potential to create exotic light-matter states. We report herein coupling between the leaky surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes of single Ag nanowires and excitons of a cyanine dye (TDBC) in an open nanocavity. Silver nanowires were spin-cast onto glass coverslips, and the wavevector of the leaky SPP mode was measured by back focal plane (BFP) microscopy. Performing these measurements at different wavelengths allows the generation of dispersion curves, which show avoided crossings after deposition of a concentrated TDBC-PVA film...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Jovan Nikolic, Cécile Lagaudrière-Gesbert, Nathalie Scrima, Danielle Blondel, Yves Gaudin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
K Beltako, F Michelini, N Cavassilas, L Raymond
Nanoscale molecular-electronic devices and machines are emerging as promising functional elements, naturally flexible and efficient, for next-generation technologies. A deeper understanding of carrier dynamics in molecular junctions is expected to benefit many fields of nanoelectronics and power devices. We determine time-resolved charge current flowing at the donor-acceptor interface in molecular junctions connected to metallic electrodes by means of quantum transport simulations. The current is induced by the interaction of the donor with a Gaussian-shape femtosecond laser pulse...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Karlien Mul, Chad Heatwole, Katy Eichinger, Nuran Dilek, William B Martens, Baziel G M van Engelen, Rabi Tawil, Jeffrey M Statland
INTRODUCTION: Electrical impedance myography (EIM) is a non-invasive technique for measuring muscle composition and a potential physiological biomarker for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). METHODS: Thirty-two genetically confirmed and clinically affected FSHD participants underwent EIM in 7 muscles bilaterally. Correlations between EIM and baseline clinical measures were used to select EIM parameters of interest in FSHD, and EIM and clinical measures were followed for 1 year...
March 15, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
Andrea Cote, Sarah Anne J Guagliardo, Cuc H Tran, Maria A Said, Veronica Pickens, Karl Musgrave, Ryan Wallace
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Jennifer S Evans, Guanghui Wu, David Selden, Hubert Buczkowski, Leigh Thorne, Anthony R Fooks, Ashley C Banyard
Lyssaviruses constitute a diverse range of viruses with the ability to cause fatal encephalitis known as rabies. Existing human rabies vaccines and post exposure prophylaxes (PEP) are based on inactivated preparations of, and neutralising antibody preparations directed against, classical rabies viruses, respectively. Whilst these prophylaxes are highly efficient at neutralising and preventing a productive infection with rabies virus, their ability to neutralise other lyssaviruses is thought to be limited. The remaining 15 virus species within the lyssavirus genus have been divided into at least three phylogroups that generally predict vaccine protection...
March 15, 2018: Viruses
Mateusz Borkowski
Optical molecular clocks promise unparalleled sensitivity to the temporal variation of the electron-to-proton mass ratio and insight into possible new physics beyond the standard model. We propose to realize a molecular clock with bosonic ^{174}Yb_{2} molecules, where the forbidden ^{1}S_{0}→^{3}P_{0} clock transition would be induced magnetically. The use of a bosonic species avoids possible complications due to the hyperfine structure present in fermionic species. While direct clock line photoassociation would be challenging, weakly bound ground state molecules could be produced by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage and used instead...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Steffen Ortmann, Ad Vos, Antje Kretzschmar, Nomusa Walther, Christiane Kaiser, Conrad Freuling, Ivana Lojkic, Thomas Müller
BACKGROUND: Oral vaccination of the small Indian mongoose against rabies has been suggested as a potential tool to eliminate mongoose-mediated rabies on several Caribbean islands. A recently developed oral rabies virus vaccine strain, SPBN GASGAS, has already been shown to be efficacious in this reservoir species. Since, all available oral rabies vaccines are based on replication-competent viruses and vaccine baits are distributed unsupervised in the environment, enhanced safety standards for such vaccine types are required...
March 13, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
E N Ilina, M V Larina, T K Aliev, D A Dolgikh, M P Kirpichnikov
Rabies virus is a prototypical neurotropic virus that causes one of the most dangerous zoonotic diseases in humans. Humanized or fully human monoclonal antibodies (mAb) that neutralize rabies virus would be the basis for powerful post-exposure prophylaxis of rabies in humans, having several significant benefits in comparison with human or equine rabies polyclonal immunoglobulins. The most advanced antibodies should broadly neutralize natural rabies virus isolates, bind with conserved antigenic determinants of the rabies virus glycoprotein, and show high neutralizing potency in assays in vivo...
January 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Amy E Campbell, Sean C Shadle, Sujatha Jagannathan, Jong-Won Lim, Rebecca Resnick, Rabi Tawil, Silvère M van der Maarel, Stephen J Tapscott
The DUX4 transcription factor is encoded by a retrogene embedded in each unit of the D4Z4 macrosatellite repeat. DUX4 is normally expressed in the cleavage-stage embryo, whereas chromatin repression prevents DUX4 expression in most somatic tissues. Failure of this repression causes facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) due to mis-expression of DUX4 in skeletal muscle. In this study, we used CRISPR/Cas9 engineered chromatin immunoprecipitation (enChIP) locus-specific proteomics to characterize D4Z4-associated proteins...
March 13, 2018: ELife
Michihito Sasaki, Paulina D Anindita, Naoto Ito, Makoto Sugiyama, Michael Carr, Hideo Fukuhara, Toyoyuki Ose, Katsumi Maenaka, Ayato Takada, William W Hall, Yasuko Orba, Hirofumi Sawa
Rabies virus (RABV) is the causative agent of fatal neurological disease. Cellular attachment is the initial and essential step for viral infections. Although extensive studies have demonstrated that RABV utilizes various target cell molecules to mediate infection, no specific molecule has been identified as an attachment factor for RABV infection. Here we demonstrate that cellular heparan sulfate (HS) supports RABV adhesion and subsequent entry into target cells. Enzymatic removal of HS reduced the cellular susceptibility to RABV infection and heparin, a highly sulfated form of HS, blocked viral adhesion and infection...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Wahid Bouida, Kaouthar Beltaief, Houda Baccouche, Mouna Sassi, Zohra Dridi, Imen Trabelsi, Kamel Laaouiti, Taher Chakroun, Ilhem Hellara, Riadh Boukef, Nabil Sakly, Mohsen Hassine, Faouzi Added, Rabie Razgallah, Fadhel Najjar, Semir Nouira
AIMS: Ramadan fasting (RF) may affect aspirin resistance. We conducted this study in patients with cardiovascular risk (CVR) factors to assess the effect of RF on aspirin resistance and explore whether type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) would influence this effect. METHODS: A total of 177 stable patients with ≥2 CVR factors were recruited. All patients observed RF and were taking aspirin. Physical exam and standard biological tests including glycaemia and serum lipids data were performed before Ramadan (Pre-R), at the last week of Ramadan (R) and four weeks after the end of Ramadan (Post-R)...
2018: PloS One
T J Beyene, M C M Mourits, C W Revie, H Hogeveen
The objective of this study was to identify factors that determine medical treatment seeking behaviour following potential rabies exposure after being bitten by a suspected dog and the likelihood of compliance to receive sufficient doses of post-exposure prophylaxis after the visit to a health centre visit. A detailed survey based on case investigation was conducted on suspected rabid dog bite cases in three areas of Ethiopia. Two multivariable logistic regression models were created with a set of putative variables to explain treatment seeking and compliance outcomes...
March 10, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Waranyoo Phoolcharoen, Ashley C Banyard, Christophe Prehaud, David Selden, Guanghui Wu, Colin P D Birch, Tim H Szeto, Monique Lafon, Anthony R Fooks, Julian K-C Ma
Rabies causes more than 60,000 human deaths annually in areas where the virus is endemic. Importantly, rabies is one of the few pathogens for which there is no treatment following the onset of clinical disease with the outcome of infection being death in almost 100% of cases. Whilst vaccination, and the combination of vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin treatment for post-exposure administration are available, no tools have been identified that can reduce or prevent rabies virus replication once clinical disease has initiated...
March 6, 2018: Vaccine
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