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Static Compliance

Julia Scheiermann, Dennis M Klinman
BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation (MV) is commonly used to improve blood oxygenation in critically ill patients and for general anesthesia. Yet the cyclic mechanical stress induced at even moderate ventilation volume settings [tidal volume (Vt) <10 mL/kg] can injure the lungs and induce an inflammatory response. This work explores the effect of treatment with suppressive oligonucleotides (Sup ODN) in a mouse model of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). METHODS: Balb/cJ mice were mechanically ventilated for 4 h using clinically relevant Vt and a positive end-expiratory pressure of 3 cmH2O under 2-3% isoflurane anesthesia...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Radek Frič, Erika Kristina Lindstrøm, Geir Andre Ringstad, Kent-André Mardal, Per Kristian Eide
BACKGROUND: In symptomatic Chiari malformation type 1 (CMI), impaired intracranial compliance (ICC) is associated with an increased cranio-spinal pulsatile pressure gradient. Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents a non-invasive modality for the assessment of the pulse pressure gradient at the cranio-cervical junction (CCJ). We wished to explore how the MRI-derived pulse pressure gradient (MRI-dP) compares with invasively measured pulsatile intracranial pressure (ICP) in CMI, and with healthy controls...
October 14, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
Anu K Kaskinen, Laura Martelius, Turkka Kirjavainen, Paula Rautiainen, Sture Andersson, Olli M Pitkänen
BACKGROUND: Lung ultrasounds show vertical artifacts known as B-lines in the presence of increased extravascular lung water (EVLW). We aimed to investigate whether lung ultrasound could estimate EVLW after congenital cardiac surgery. METHODS: This prospective observational study comprised 61 children (age range 3 days to 7.4 years) undergoing congenital cardiac surgery. We compared postoperative B-line scores from lung ultrasounds, early postoperative ultrasound as our primary interest, with corresponding postoperative chest radiography (CXR) lung edema scores, with static lung compliance, and with short-term clinical outcome interpreted as time on mechanical ventilation and length of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) stay...
October 14, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Toshihiro Okamoto, David Wheeler, Qiang Liu, Cristiano Quintini, J Steven Hata, Kenneth R McCurry
BACKGROUND: Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) may be an essential process for the pre-transplant evaluation of the donor lungs. Currently, the partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2, or PF) ratio is the standard in the assessment of lung function in cellular EVLP, whereas other parameters, including airway and vascular parameters, have only been partially utilized. The primary purpose of this study is to assess the potential utility of other parameters as a surrogate of lung function in EVLP...
May 20, 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Laura Lucarini, Mariaconcetta Durante, Cecilia Lanzi, Alessandro Pini, Giulia Boccalini, Laura Calosi, Flavio Moroni, Emanuela Masini, Guido Mannaioni
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a severe disease characterized by excessive myofibroblast proliferation, extracellular matrix and fibrils deposition, remodelling of lung parenchyma and pulmonary insufficiency. Drugs able to reduce disease progression are available, but therapeutic results are unsatisfactory; new and safe treatments are urgently needed. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases-1 (PARP-1) is an abundant nuclear enzyme involved in key biological processes: DNA repair, gene expression control, and cell survival or death...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Patrice Rougier, Etienne Cusin
OBJECTIVE: Using unloader knee braces with 3-point pressure in knee osteoarthritis patients is debated. The main reason is discomfort resulting in poor compliance. Studying the external knee adduction moment (EKAM) curve, gold standard in the medial knee load estimation, should be helpful to reduce this discomfort. Reducing constraint solely during the stance phase of gait (combined with an inactivation during large knee flexion) should indeed considerably improve comfort. Thus, the objective of this study was to validate both a method for measuring dynamic activity of new unloader knee braces and to highlight the biomechanical effectiveness of these orthoses...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Thibaut Mirlicourtois, Tche Hong Loquineau, Pierre Yves Chagnon, Thomas Rondepierre, Serge Mirlicourtois, Jean Christophe Bonnardel
OBJECTIVE: The replacement of a mechanical knee with prosthetic class I foot fitting by an electronic knee with prosthetic class II foot was proposed to a 54-years-old schizophrenic patient, active, with right femoral and left tibial traumatic amputation. This fitting evolution was assessed both quantitatively and qualitatively. OBSERVATIONS/METHOD: Compared evaluation of electronic knee with prosthetic class II foot versus mechanical polycentric knee with prosthetic class I foot (fitting unchanged moreover) in: - functional abilities and quality of life using standardized scores (Functional Ambulation Classification, Houghton, Functional Independence Measurement, B...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Jeffrey J Fletcher, Thomas J Wilson, Venkatakrishna Rajajee, Scott B Davidson, Jon C Walsh
PURPOSE: Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) utilizes high levels of airway pressure coupled with brief expiratory release to facilitate open lung ventilation. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of APRV-induced elevated airway pressure mean in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study at a 424-bed Level I trauma center. Linear mixed effects models were developed to assess the difference in therapeutic intensity level (TIL), intracranial pressure (ICP), and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) over time following the application of APRV...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Kumiko Ando, Takahiro Soshi, Kanako Nakazawa, Takamasa Noda, Takayuki Okada
The Medical Treatment and Supervision Act (MTSA) was enacted in 2005 in Japan to promote the reintegration of clinical offenders with mental disorders into society. Under the MTSA, individuals who committed serious crimes in a state of insanity or diminished responsibility are diverted from the criminal justice system to the mental health system. Based on court decisions about MTSA-based treatment, clinical offenders have an obligation to engage in rehabilitation within their local community under the guidance of mental health professionals...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Amit Abraham, Ayelet Dunsky, Ruth Dickstein
OBJECTIVE: Elevé is a core dance movement requiring the greatest ankle plantarflexion (PF) range of motion (ROM). One possible way to enhance elevé performance is by using motor imagery practice (MIP). The aims of this pilot study were to investigate: 1) functional ankle PF maximal angles and ROM while performing elevé among professional dancers, 2) the effect of MIP on enhancing elevé performance, and 3) participants' views on the MIP intervention and its feasibility in a professional dance company setting...
September 2016: Medical Problems of Performing Artists
Jute Richter, Julio Jimenez, Taro Nagatomo, Jaan Toelen, Paul Brady, Thomas Salaets, Flore Lesage, Jeroen Vanoirbeek, Jan Deprest
BACKGROUND: The administration of supplemental oxygen to treat ventilatory insufficiency may lead to the formation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent tissue damage. Cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) can modulate hyperoxic lung injury by a currently unknown mechanism. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of administration of omeprazole on the induction of CYP1A1 and its influence on hyperoxic lung injury in an established preterm rabbit model. METHODS: Omeprazole was administered either (1) directly to the fetus, (2) to the mother or (3) after birth to the pups in different doses (2-10 or 20 mg/kg)...
2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Michelle L Baack, Benjamin J Forred, Tricia D Larsen, Danielle N Jensen, Angela L Wachal, Muhammad Ali Khan, Peter F Vitiello
RATIONALE: Infants born to diabetic or obese mothers are at risk of respiratory distress and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), conceivably through fuel-mediated pathogenic mechanisms. Prior research and preventative measures focus on controlling maternal hyperglycemia, but growing evidence suggests a role for additional circulating fuels including lipids. Little is known about the individual or additive effects of a maternal high-fat diet on fetal lung development...
2016: PloS One
Matthew Mcgarry, Ronny Li, Iason Apostolakis, Pierre Nauleau, Elisa E Konofagou
The mechanical properties of arteries are implicated in a wide variety of cardiovascular diseases, many of which are expected to involve a strong spatial variation in properties that can be depicted by diagnostic imaging. A pulse wave inverse problem (PWIP) is presented, which can produce spatially resolved estimates of vessel compliance from ultrasound measurements of the vessel wall displacements. The 1D equations governing pulse wave propagation in a flexible tube are parameterized by the spatially varying properties, discrete cosine transform components of the inlet pressure boundary conditions, viscous loss constant and a resistance outlet boundary condition...
August 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Dimitris Georgopoulos, Nectaria Xirouchaki, Nikolaos Tzanakis, Magdy Younes
The data show respiratory variables in 108 critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure placed on proportional assist ventilation with load adjustable gain factors (PAV+) after at least 36 h on passive mechanical ventilation. PAV+ was continued for 48 h until the patients met pre-defined criteria either for switching to controlled modes or for breathing without ventilator assistance. Data during passive mechanical ventilation and during PAV+ are reported. Data are acquired from the whole population, as well as from patients with and without acute respiratory distress syndrome...
September 2016: Data in Brief
Utako Fujii, Nobuaki Miyahara, Akihiko Taniguchi, Koichi Waseda, Daisuke Morichika, Etsuko Kurimoto, Hikari Koga, Mikio Kataoka, Erwin W Gelfand, Daniel J Cua, Akihiko Yoshimura, Mitsune Tanimoto, Arihiko Kanehiro
We recently reported that IL-17A plays a critical role in the development of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE)-induced emphysema. The proliferation of T helper 17 (Th17) cells was induced by IL-23. To determine the contribution of IL-23 to the development of pulmonary emphysema a mouse model of PPE-induced emphysema was used in which responses of IL-23p19-deficient (IL-23-/-) and wild type (WT) mice were compared. Intra-tracheal instillation of PPE induced emphysematous changes in the lungs and was associated with increased levels of IL-23 in lung homogenates...
June 28, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Radek Frič, Per Kristian Eide
OBJECTIVE Several lines of evidence suggest common pathophysiological mechanisms in Chiari malformation Type I (CMI) and idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). It has been hypothesized that tonsillar ectopy, a typical finding in CMI, is the result of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) combined with a developmentally small posterior cranial fossa (PCF). To explore this hypothesis, the authors specifically investigated whether ICP is comparable in CMI and IIH and whether intracranial volumes (ICVs) are different in patients with CMI and IIH, which could explain the tonsillar ectopy in CMI...
June 24, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Xingyu Wang, Yabo Wang, Roumen Parapanov, Etienne Abdelnour, Fabrizio Gronchi, Jean Yannis Perentes, Lise Piquilloud, Hans-Beat Ris, Igor Letovanec, Lucas Liaudet, Thorsten Krueger
BACKGROUND: Donor lungs obtained after prolonged warm ischemia (WI) may be unsuitable for transplantation due to the risk of reperfusion injury, but could be reconditioned using ex-vivo lung perfusion (EVLP). Key processes of reperfusion injury include the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)/nitrogen species (RNS) and the activation of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP). We explored whether rat lungs obtained after WI could be reconditioned during EVLP using the ROS/RNS scavenger Mn(III)-tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin chloride (MnTBAP) or the PARP inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB)...
July 2016: Transplantation
Rebecca J Darrah, Anna L Mitchell, Cara K Campanaro, Eric S Barbato, Paul Litman, Abdus Sattar, Craig A Hodges, Mitchell L Drumm, Frank J Jacono
BACKGROUND: Altered pulmonary function is present early in the course of cystic fibrosis (CF), independent of documented infections or onset of pulmonary symptoms. New initiatives in clinical care are focusing on detection and characterization of preclinical disease. Thus, animal models are needed which recapitulate the pulmonary phenotype characteristic of early stage CF. METHODS: We investigated young CF mice to determine if they exhibit pulmonary pathophysiology consistent with the early CF lung phenotype...
May 23, 2016: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
Mary-Louise C Greer
Magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) now plays a central role in diagnosing pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and its role in other intestinal pathologies such as scleroderma is gradually expanding. MRE helps distinguish between Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis, defining extent and severity. Standard MRE protocols can be optimized in children and adolescents to be diagnostic and well tolerated, both of which are important with increasing use of serial MRE in pediatric IBD for monitoring treatment response and evaluating complications...
May 2016: Pediatric Radiology
J E Hiorns, O E Jensen, B S Brook
Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is a key characteristic of asthma that remains poorly understood. Tidal breathing and deep inspiration ordinarily cause rapid relaxation of airway smooth muscle (ASM) (as demonstrated via application of length fluctuations to tissue strips) and are therefore implicated in modulation of AHR, but in some cases (such as application of transmural pressure oscillations to isolated intact airways) this mechanism fails. Here we use a multiscale biomechanical model for intact airways that incorporates strain stiffening due to collagen recruitment and dynamic force generation by ASM cells to show that the geometry of the airway, together with interplay between dynamic active and passive forces, gives rise to large stress and compliance heterogeneities across the airway wall that are absent in tissue strips...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
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