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Static Compliance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911030/acellular-endocardium-as-a-novel-biomaterial-for-the-intima-of-tissue-engineered-small-caliber-vascular-grafts
#1
Feng Wang, Xin Guan, TianYi Wu, JianOu Qiao, ZhaoQing Han, JinLong Wu, XiaoWei Yu, QingJun You
We aimed to investigate whether acellular endocardium can be used as a useful biomaterial for the intima of engineered small-caliber vascular grafts. Fresh endocardium was harvested from the swine left atrium and was decellularized by digestion with the decellularization solution of Triton X-100 and SDS containing DNase I and RNase A. Surface morphological characteristics and Young's modulus were evaluated. To analyze the effect of mechanical characteristics on cell adhesion, the decellularized endocardium was stiffened with 2...
December 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910484/design-analysis-and-testing-of-kinematic-mount-for-astronomical-observation-instrument-used-in-space-camera
#2
Mingxin An, Lihao Zhang, Shuyan Xu, Jihong Dong
A statically determinate kinematic mount structure is designed for an astronomical observation instrument. The basic principle of the proposed kinematic mount is introduced in detail, including the design principle, its structure, and its degrees of freedom. The compliance equations for the single-axis right circle flexure hinge are deduced, and mathematical models of the compliances of the bipod in the X-axis and Z-axis directions are established. Based on the index requirements, the range of one design parameter (the hinge groove depth, R) for the kinematic mount is determined...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875410/should-we-use-driving-pressure-to-set-tidal-volume
#3
Domenico L Grieco, Lu Chen, Martin Dres, Laurent Brochard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) can occur despite use of tidal volume (VT) limited to 6 ml/kg of predicted body weight, especially in patients with a smaller aerated compartment (i.e. the baby lung) in which, indeed, tidal ventilation takes place. Because respiratory system static compliance (CRS) is mostly affected by the volume of the baby lung, the ratio VT/CRS (i.e. the driving pressure, ΔP) may potentially help tailoring interventions on VT setting. RECENT FINDINGS: Driving pressure is the ventilatory variable most strongly associated with changes in survival and has been shown to be the key mediator of the effects of mechanical ventilation on outcome in the acute respiratory distress syndrome...
November 19, 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864287/double-hit-mouse-model-of-cigarette-smoke-priming-for-acute-lung-injury
#4
Pavlo Sakhatskyy, Zhengke Wang, Diana Borgas, Joanne Lomas-Neira, Yaping Chen, Alfred Ayala, Sharon Rounds, Qing Lu
Epidemiologic studies indicate that cigarette smoking (CS) increases the risk and severity of acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The mechanism is not understood at least in part due to lack of animal models that reproduce the key features of CS priming process. In this study, using two strains of mice we characterized a double-hit mouse model of ALI induced by CS priming of injury caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). C57BL/6 and AKR mice were pre-exposed to CS briefly (3 hours) or sub-acutely (3 weeks) before intra-tracheal instillation of LPS and ALI was assessed 18 hours after LPS administration by measuring lung static compliance, lung edema, vascular permeability, inflammation and alveolar apoptosis...
November 18, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861182/cryopreserved-xeno-free-human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-reduce-lung-injury-severity-and-bacterial-burden-in-rodent-escherichia-coli-induced-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#5
Gerard F Curley, Mirjana Jerkic, Steve Dixon, Grace Hogan, Claire Masterson, Daniel O'Toole, James Devaney, John G Laffey
OBJECTIVE: Although mesenchymal stem/stromal cells represent a promising therapeutic strategy for acute respiratory distress syndrome, clinical translation faces challenges, including scarcity of bone marrow donors, and reliance on bovine serum during mesenchymal stem/stromal cell proliferation. We wished to compare mesenchymal stem/stromal cells from human umbilical cord, grown in xeno-free conditions, with mesenchymal stem/stromal cells from human bone marrow, in a rat model of Escherichia coli pneumonia...
November 16, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851954/airway-bistability-is-modulated-by-smooth-muscle-dynamics-and-length-tension-characteristics
#6
Graham M Donovan
Airway closure has important implications for lung disease, especially asthma; in particular, the prospect of bistability between open and closed (or effectively closed) airway states has been thought to play a prominent role in airway closure associated with the formation of clustered ventilation defects in asthma. However, many existing analyses of closure consider only static airway equilibria; here we construct, to our knowledge, a new model wherein airway narrowing and closure dynamics are modulated by coupling the airway to cross-bridge models of airway smooth muscle dynamics and force generation...
November 15, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776936/compliance-guided-versus-fio2-driven-positive-end-expiratory-pressure-in-patients-with-moderate-or-severe-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-according-to-the-berlin-definition
#7
M-C Pintado, R de Pablo, M Trascasa, J-M Milicua, M Sánchez-García
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of setting positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in an individualized manner (based on highest static compliance) compared to setting PEEP according to FiO2 upon mortality at 28 and 90 days, in patients with different severity acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). SETTING: A Spanish medical-surgical ICU. DESIGN: A post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled pilot study. PATIENTS: Patients with ARDS...
October 21, 2016: Medicina Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746995/suppressive-oligonucleotides-inhibit-inflammation-in-a-murine-model-of-mechanical-ventilator-induced-lung-injury
#8
Julia Scheiermann, Dennis M Klinman
BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation (MV) is commonly used to improve blood oxygenation in critically ill patients and for general anesthesia. Yet the cyclic mechanical stress induced at even moderate ventilation volume settings [tidal volume (Vt) <10 mL/kg] can injure the lungs and induce an inflammatory response. This work explores the effect of treatment with suppressive oligonucleotides (Sup ODN) in a mouse model of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). METHODS: Balb/cJ mice were mechanically ventilated for 4 h using clinically relevant Vt and a positive end-expiratory pressure of 3 cmH2O under 2-3% isoflurane anesthesia...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743249/the-association-between-the-pulse-pressure-gradient-at-the-cranio-cervical-junction-derived-from-phase-contrast-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-invasively-measured-pulsatile-intracranial-pressure-in-symptomatic-patients-with-chiari-malformation-type-1
#9
Radek Frič, Erika Kristina Lindstrøm, Geir Andre Ringstad, Kent-André Mardal, Per Kristian Eide
BACKGROUND: In symptomatic Chiari malformation type 1 (CMI), impaired intracranial compliance (ICC) is associated with an increased cranio-spinal pulsatile pressure gradient. Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents a non-invasive modality for the assessment of the pulse pressure gradient at the cranio-cervical junction (CCJ). We wished to explore how the MRI-derived pulse pressure gradient (MRI-dP) compares with invasively measured pulsatile intracranial pressure (ICP) in CMI, and with healthy controls...
October 14, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740725/assessment-of-extravascular-lung-water-by-ultrasound-after-congenital-cardiac-surgery
#10
Anu K Kaskinen, Laura Martelius, Turkka Kirjavainen, Paula Rautiainen, Sture Andersson, Olli M Pitkänen
BACKGROUND: Lung ultrasounds show vertical artifacts known as B-lines in the presence of increased extravascular lung water (EVLW). We aimed to investigate whether lung ultrasound could estimate EVLW after congenital cardiac surgery. METHODS: This prospective observational study comprised 61 children (age range 3 days to 7.4 years) undergoing congenital cardiac surgery. We compared postoperative B-line scores from lung ultrasounds, early postoperative ultrasound as our primary interest, with corresponding postoperative chest radiography (CXR) lung edema scores, with static lung compliance, and with short-term clinical outcome interpreted as time on mechanical ventilation and length of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) stay...
October 14, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727070/correlation-between-pao2-fio2-and-airway-and-vascular-parameters-in-the-assessment-of-cellular-ex-vivo-lung-perfusion-system
#11
Toshihiro Okamoto, David Wheeler, Qiang Liu, Cristiano Quintini, J Steven Hata, Kenneth R McCurry
BACKGROUND: Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) may be an essential process for the pre-transplant evaluation of the donor lungs. Currently, the partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2, or PF) ratio is the standard in the assessment of lung function in cellular EVLP, whereas other parameters, including airway and vascular parameters, have only been partially utilized. The primary purpose of this study is to assess the potential utility of other parameters as a surrogate of lung function in EVLP...
May 20, 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704718/hydamtiq-a-selective-parp-1-inhibitor-improves-bleomycin-induced-lung-fibrosis-by-dampening-the-tgf-%C3%AE-smad-signalling-pathway
#12
Laura Lucarini, Mariaconcetta Durante, Cecilia Lanzi, Alessandro Pini, Giulia Boccalini, Laura Calosi, Flavio Moroni, Emanuela Masini, Guido Mannaioni
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a severe disease characterized by excessive myofibroblast proliferation, extracellular matrix and fibrils deposition, remodelling of lung parenchyma and pulmonary insufficiency. Drugs able to reduce disease progression are available, but therapeutic results are unsatisfactory; new and safe treatments are urgently needed. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases-1 (PARP-1) is an abundant nuclear enzyme involved in key biological processes: DNA repair, gene expression control, and cell survival or death...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676901/dynamic-activity-of-unloader-knee-braces-in-genu-varum-subjects-new-insights-to-improve-compliance-in-medial-knee-osteoarthritis-patients
#13
Patrice Rougier, Etienne Cusin
OBJECTIVE: Using unloader knee braces with 3-point pressure in knee osteoarthritis patients is debated. The main reason is discomfort resulting in poor compliance. Studying the external knee adduction moment (EKAM) curve, gold standard in the medial knee load estimation, should be helpful to reduce this discomfort. Reducing constraint solely during the stance phase of gait (combined with an inactivation during large knee flexion) should indeed considerably improve comfort. Thus, the objective of this study was to validate both a method for measuring dynamic activity of new unloader knee braces and to highlight the biomechanical effectiveness of these orthoses...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676888/fitting-with-an-electronic-knee-for-a-schizophrenic-patient-with-bilateral-amputation-of-lower-limbs-what-s-the-point
#14
Thibaut Mirlicourtois, Tche Hong Loquineau, Pierre Yves Chagnon, Thomas Rondepierre, Serge Mirlicourtois, Jean Christophe Bonnardel
OBJECTIVE: The replacement of a mechanical knee with prosthetic class I foot fitting by an electronic knee with prosthetic class II foot was proposed to a 54-years-old schizophrenic patient, active, with right femoral and left tibial traumatic amputation. This fitting evolution was assessed both quantitatively and qualitatively. OBSERVATIONS/METHOD: Compared evaluation of electronic knee with prosthetic class II foot versus mechanical polycentric knee with prosthetic class I foot (fitting unchanged moreover) in: - functional abilities and quality of life using standardized scores (Functional Ambulation Classification, Houghton, Functional Independence Measurement, B...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651443/changes-in-therapeutic-intensity-level-following-airway-pressure-release-ventilation-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Jeffrey J Fletcher, Thomas J Wilson, Venkatakrishna Rajajee, Scott B Davidson, Jon C Walsh
PURPOSE: Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) utilizes high levels of airway pressure coupled with brief expiratory release to facilitate open lung ventilation. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of APRV-induced elevated airway pressure mean in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study at a 424-bed Level I trauma center. Linear mixed effects models were developed to assess the difference in therapeutic intensity level (TIL), intracranial pressure (ICP), and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) over time following the application of APRV...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605915/risk-factors-for-problematic-behaviors-among-forensic-outpatients-under-the-medical-treatment-and-supervision-act-in-japan
#16
Kumiko Ando, Takahiro Soshi, Kanako Nakazawa, Takamasa Noda, Takayuki Okada
The Medical Treatment and Supervision Act (MTSA) was enacted in 2005 in Japan to promote the reintegration of clinical offenders with mental disorders into society. Under the MTSA, individuals who committed serious crimes in a state of insanity or diminished responsibility are diverted from the criminal justice system to the mental health system. Based on court decisions about MTSA-based treatment, clinical offenders have an obligation to engage in rehabilitation within their local community under the guidance of mental health professionals...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575288/motor-imagery-practice-for-enhancing-elev%C3%A3-performance-among-professional-dancers-a-pilot-study
#17
Amit Abraham, Ayelet Dunsky, Ruth Dickstein
OBJECTIVE: Elevé is a core dance movement requiring the greatest ankle plantarflexion (PF) range of motion (ROM). One possible way to enhance elevé performance is by using motor imagery practice (MIP). The aims of this pilot study were to investigate: 1) functional ankle PF maximal angles and ROM while performing elevé among professional dancers, 2) the effect of MIP on enhancing elevé performance, and 3) participants' views on the MIP intervention and its feasibility in a professional dance company setting...
September 2016: Medical Problems of Performing Artists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567616/proton-pump-inhibitor-omeprazole-attenuates-hyperoxia-induced-lung-injury
#18
Jute Richter, Julio Jimenez, Taro Nagatomo, Jaan Toelen, Paul Brady, Thomas Salaets, Flore Lesage, Jeroen Vanoirbeek, Jan Deprest
BACKGROUND: The administration of supplemental oxygen to treat ventilatory insufficiency may lead to the formation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent tissue damage. Cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) can modulate hyperoxic lung injury by a currently unknown mechanism. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of administration of omeprazole on the induction of CYP1A1 and its influence on hyperoxic lung injury in an established preterm rabbit model. METHODS: Omeprazole was administered either (1) directly to the fetus, (2) to the mother or (3) after birth to the pups in different doses (2-10 or 20 mg/kg)...
2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27518105/consequences-of-a-maternal-high-fat-diet-and-late-gestation-diabetes-on-the-developing-rat-lung
#19
Michelle L Baack, Benjamin J Forred, Tricia D Larsen, Danielle N Jensen, Angela L Wachal, Muhammad Ali Khan, Peter F Vitiello
RATIONALE: Infants born to diabetic or obese mothers are at risk of respiratory distress and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), conceivably through fuel-mediated pathogenic mechanisms. Prior research and preventative measures focus on controlling maternal hyperglycemia, but growing evidence suggests a role for additional circulating fuels including lipids. Little is known about the individual or additive effects of a maternal high-fat diet on fetal lung development...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27384105/an-inverse-approach-to-determining-spatially-varying-arterial-compliance-using-ultrasound-imaging
#20
Matthew Mcgarry, Ronny Li, Iason Apostolakis, Pierre Nauleau, Elisa E Konofagou
The mechanical properties of arteries are implicated in a wide variety of cardiovascular diseases, many of which are expected to involve a strong spatial variation in properties that can be depicted by diagnostic imaging. A pulse wave inverse problem (PWIP) is presented, which can produce spatially resolved estimates of vessel compliance from ultrasound measurements of the vessel wall displacements. The 1D equations governing pulse wave propagation in a flexible tube are parameterized by the spatially varying properties, discrete cosine transform components of the inlet pressure boundary conditions, viscous loss constant and a resistance outlet boundary condition...
August 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
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