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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428048/multi-center-machine-learning-in-imaging-psychiatry-a-meta-model-approach
#1
Petr Dluhoš, Daniel Schwarz, Wiepke Cahn, Neeltje van Haren, René Kahn, Filip Španiel, Jiří Horáček, Tomáš Kašpárek, Hugo Schnack
One of the biggest problems in automated diagnosis of psychiatric disorders from medical images is the lack of sufficiently large samples for training. Sample size is especially important in the case of highly heterogeneous disorders such as schizophrenia, where machine learning models built on relatively low numbers of subjects may suffer from poor generalizability. Via multicenter studies and consortium initiatives researchers have tried to solve this problem by combining data sets from multiple sites. The necessary sharing of (raw) data is, however, often hindered by legal and ethical issues...
April 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424378/-recognition-care-and-prevention-of-suicidal-behaviour-in-adults
#2
Zoltán Rihmer, Attila Németh, Tamás Kurimay, Dóra Perczel-Forintos, György Purebl, Péter Döme
Suicide is a major public health problem everywhere in the world and in the WHO European Region suicide accounts for over 120,000 deaths per year. 1. Recognition and diagnosis: An underlying psychiatric disorder is present in up to 90% of people who completed suicide. Comorbidity with depression, anxiety, substance abuse and personality disorders is high. In order to achieve successful prevention of suicidality, adequate diagnostic procedures and appropriate treatment for the underlying disorder are essential...
2017: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419255/unannounced-versus-announced-hospital-surveys-a-nationwide-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Lars Holger Ehlers, Katherina Beltoft Simonsen, Morten Berg Jensen, Gitte Sand Rasmussen, Anne Vingaard Olesen
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of unannounced versus announced surveys in detecting non-compliance with accreditation standards in public hospitals. Design: A nationwide cluster-randomized controlled trial. Setting and participants: All public hospitals in Denmark were invited. Twenty-three hospitals (77%) (3 university hospitals, 5 psychiatric hospitals and 15 general hospitals) agreed to participate. Intervention: Twelve hospitals were randomized to receive unannounced surveys (intervention group) and eleven hospitals to receive announced surveys (control group)...
April 13, 2017: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406368/prn-medication-administration-in-a-geriatric-psychiatric-hospital-chart-review-and-nursing-perspective
#4
Lori Harper, John R Reddon, Courtney J Hunt, Heather Royan
OBJECTIVE: To improve patient care/outcome, an evaluation was conducted of nursing procedures and protocols for pro re nata (PRN) medications. METHODS: A 14-day chart review was conducted for 27 patients with mood and thought disorders (MTD) and for 24 patients with organic disorders (OD) at a geriatric psychiatric hospital, and a questionnaire was completed by 20 nurses. RESULTS: 377 PRNs were administered to patients in the MTD and OD units (240 and 137, respectively)...
March 24, 2017: Clinical Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405359/suicides-on-the-austrian-railway-network-hotspot-analysis-and-effect-of-proximity-to-psychiatric-institutions
#5
Markus J Strauss, Peter Klimek, Gernot Sonneck, Thomas Niederkrotenthaler
Railway suicide is a significant public health problem. In addition to the loss of lives, these suicides occur in public space, causing traumatization among train drivers and passengers, and significant public transport delays. Prevention efforts depend upon accurate knowledge of clustering phenomena across the railway network, and spatial risk factors. Factors such as proximity to psychiatric institutions have been discussed to impact on railway suicides, but analytic evaluations are scarce and limited. We identify 15 hotspots on the Austrian railway system while taking case location uncertainties into account...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402002/mental-health-and-associated-factors-among-young-offenders-in-chile-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Jorge Gaete, Nicolas Labbé, Paloma Del Villar, Catalina Allende, Ricardo Araya, Eduardo Valenzuela
BACKGROUND: Few studies in Latin America have explored mental disorder among young offenders, or variables associated with it. AIMS: Our aim was to test for associations between childhood adversity or substance misuse and psychiatric disorders among young offenders. METHODS: Sentenced adolescent offenders were recruited from young offenders' institutions or community centres provided by the Chilean National Service for Minors. Psychiatric disorders were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, conducted by trained psychologists...
April 12, 2017: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397510/a-profile-of-perceived-stress-factors-among-nursing-staff-working-with-intellectually-disabled-in-patients-at-the-free-state-psychiatric-complex-south-africa
#7
Maria Conradie, Danelle Erwee, Isabel Serfontein, Maré Visser, Frikkie J W Calitz, Gina Joubert
INTRODUCTION: Nursing staff working with intellectually disabled in-patients experience unique stress factors that can influence their personal well-being and work performance. OBJECTIVES: To compile a profile of stress factors experienced by nursing staff working with intellectually disabled in-patients at the Free State Psychiatric Complex (FSPC). METHODS: This descriptive study included 89 nursing staff members from this environment. A questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic information and determine personal and occupational stressors...
March 16, 2017: Curationis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393749/a-transdiagnostic-study-of-education-employment-and-training-outcomes-in-young-people-with-mental-illness
#8
R S C Lee, D F Hermens, J Scott, B O'Dea, N Glozier, E M Scott, I B Hickie
BACKGROUND: Optimizing functional recovery in young individuals with severe mental illness constitutes a major healthcare priority. The current study sought to quantify the cognitive and clinical factors underpinning academic and vocational engagement in a transdiagnostic and prospective youth mental health cohort. The primary outcome measure was 'not in education, employment or training' ('NEET') status. METHOD: A clinical sample of psychiatric out-patients aged 15-25 years (n = 163) was assessed at two time points, on average, 24 months apart...
April 10, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393399/decreased-feedback-learning-in-anorexia-nervosa-persists-after-weight-restoration
#9
Karin Foerde, Joanna E Steinglass
OBJECTIVE: Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a serious disorder, with a mortality rate the highest of any psychiatric illness. It is notoriously challenging to treat and mechanisms of illness are not well understood. Reward system abnormalities have been proposed across theoretical models of the persistence of AN. Feedback learning is an important component of how reward systems shape behavior and we hypothesized that individuals with AN would show poorer learning from feedback. METHODS: We administered the acquired equivalence task to measure both learning from incremental feedback and generalization of that learning to novel stimuli...
April 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390399/could-a-short-training-intervention-modify-opinions-about-mental-illness-a-case-study-on-french-health-professionals
#10
Murielle Villani, Viviane Kovess-Masfety
BACKGROUND: In France, negative views on schizophrenia are pervasive, even among health professionals. Prior research suggests that the level of prejudice is lower when the illness is described with the example of a specific individual. This finding highlights the importance of designing local, targeted destigmatization campaigns. The present study aims to evaluate the benefits of a short intervention offering contact with psychiatric services users on reducing the stigma about mentally ill people, among a sample of Health Administrators and Students...
April 8, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389689/ambulance-attendances-resulting-from-self-harm-after-release-from-prison-a-prospective-data-linkage-study
#11
Rohan Borschmann, Jesse T Young, Paul Moran, Matthew J Spittal, Ed Heffernan, Katherine Mok, Stuart A Kinner
OBJECTIVE: Incarcerated adults are at high risk of self-harm and suicide and remain so after release into the community. The aims of this study were to estimate the number of ambulance attendances due to self-harm in adults following release from prison, and to identify factors predictive of such attendances. METHODS: Baseline surveys with 1309 adults within 6 weeks of expected release from prison between 2008 and 2010 were linked prospectively with state-wide correctional, ambulance, emergency department, hospital and death records in Queensland, Australia...
April 7, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386224/maintenance-of-voluntary-self-regulation-learned-through-real-time-fmri-neurofeedback
#12
Fabien Robineau, Djalel E Meskaldji, Yury Koush, Sebastian W Rieger, Christophe Mermoud, Stephan Morgenthaler, Dimitri Van De Ville, Patrik Vuilleumier, Frank Scharnowski
Neurofeedback based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an emerging technique that allows for learning voluntary control over brain activity. Such brain training has been shown to cause specific behavioral or cognitive enhancements, and even therapeutic effects in neurological and psychiatric patient populations. However, for clinical applications it is important to know if learned self-regulation can be maintained over longer periods of time and whether it transfers to situations without neurofeedback...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384524/reliability-and-validity-of-the-dsm-5-anxious-distress-specifier-interview
#13
Mark Zimmerman, Heather Clark, Patrick McGonigal, Lauren Harris, Carolina Guzman Holst, Jacob Martin
BACKGROUND: To acknowledge the clinical significance of anxiety in depressed patients, DSM-5 included an anxious distress specifier for major depressive disorder (MDD). In the present report we describe the reliability and validity of a semi-structured interview assessing the features of the anxious distress specifier. Our goal was to develop an instrument that could be used for both diagnostic and outcome measurement purposes. METHODS: One hundred seventy-three psychiatric patients with MDD were interviewed by a trained diagnostic rater who administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) supplemented with questions from the DSM-5 Anxious Distress Specifier Interview (DADSI)...
March 2, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381728/the-effects-of-psychoeducation-on-long-term-inpatients-with-schizophrenia-and-schizoaffective-disorder
#14
Nobuhiko Yanagida, Toshiro Uchino, Naohisa Uchimura
This study aimed to examine the significance of intervention to improve medication adherence in long-term inpatients by providing psychoeducation and then elucidating the effects of this training in terms of patient knowledge and attitudes. Subjects were patients who had been hospitalized for more than 1 year after being admitted to a psychiatric hospital, had been diagnosed as F2 (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder) according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition, and were capable of verbal communication...
April 3, 2017: Kurume Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378620/the-anorexia-nervosa-genetics-initiative-study-description-and-sample-characteristics-of-the-australian-and-new-zealand-arm
#15
Katherine M Kirk, Felicity C Martin, Amy Mao, Richard Parker, Sarah Maguire, Laura M Thornton, Gu Zhu, Kerrie McAloney, Jeremy L Freeman, Phillipa Hay, Sloane Madden, Christine Morgan, Janice Russell, Susan M Sawyer, Elizabeth K Hughes, A Kate Fairweather-Schmidt, Anthea Fursland, Julie McCormack, Fiona Wagg, Jennifer Jordan, Martin A Kennedy, Warren Ward, Tracey D Wade, Cynthia M Bulik, Nicholas G Martin
OBJECTIVES: Anorexia nervosa is a severe psychiatric disorder with high mortality rates. While its aetiology is poorly understood, there is evidence of a significant genetic component. The Anorexia Nervosa Genetics Initiative is an international collaboration which aims to understand the genetic basis of the disorder. This paper describes the recruitment and characteristics of the Australasian Anorexia Nervosa Genetics Initiative sample, the largest sample of individuals with anorexia nervosa ever assembled across Australia and New Zealand...
April 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378365/sleep-quality-of-german-soldiers-before-during-and-after-deployment-in-afghanistan-a-prospective-study
#16
Heidi Danker-Hopfe, Cornelia Sauter, Jens T Kowalski, Stefan Kropp, Andreas Ströhle, Ulrich Wesemann, Peter L Zimmermann
In this prospective study, subjective sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness prior to, during and after deployment of German soldiers in Afghanistan were examined. Sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; PSQI) and daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale; ESS) were assessed in 118 soldiers of the German army, who were deployed in Afghanistan for 6 months (deployment group: DG) and in 146 soldiers of a non-deployed control group (CG) at baseline. Results of the longitudinal analysis are reported, based on assessments conducted prior to, during the deployment and afterwards in the DG, and in the CG in parallel...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378204/a-schizophrenia-relevant-5-choice-serial-reaction-time-task-for-mice-assessing-broad-monitoring-distractibility-and-impulsivity
#17
Huiping Huang, Simone Guadagna, Maddalena Mereu, Mariasole Ciampoli, Giacomo Pruzzo, Theresa Ballard, Francesco Papaleo
The 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task (5-CSRTT) is an automated test for rodents allowing the assessment of multiple cognitive measures. Originally designed to assess cognitive deficits relevant to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, it has been widely used in the investigation of neural systems of attention. In the current study, we have set up a modified version, which reduced the training phase to only 8-9 days with minimal food deprivation and without single-housing. Furthermore, based on evidence that patients with schizophrenia are more impaired in broad monitoring abilities than in sustained attention, we successfully developed a protocol replicating the Spatial Attentional Resource Allocation Task (SARAT), used in humans to assess broad monitoring...
April 5, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374406/humanities-revisited-integrating-the-humanities-in-psychiatric-residency-training
#18
Andrew C Furman, William H Hudson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 3, 2017: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371953/-stigma-evaluation-of-a-psychological-therapy-program-for-stigma-management
#19
Manuela Schenner, Daniela Kohlbauer, Ullrich Meise, Christina Haller, Martina Pixner-Huber, Kristina Stürz, Verena Günther
Objective The project "Stigma Management - StigMa" aims on the evaluation of an adaptive therapy program for patients with psychiatric illness to help them in managing internalized stigma and self-stigmatization. Methods The patients for this pilot-study were recruited in day-hospitals of pro mente tirol. 26 patients participated in 11 group sessions, following 6 modules: "Education", "Activation of Resources", "Social Network", "Self-Esteem", "Social competence in public places" and "My personal stigma management"...
April 3, 2017: Psychiatrische Praxis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368185/helping-learners-level-up-with-cognitive-supports
#20
Derek Malenczak, Patricia B Nemec
TOPIC: This column describes strategies for helping educators and trainers address common problems with executive functioning and memory for their audiences, to better facilitate learning. PURPOSE: The purpose of the article is to suggest strategies for maximizing learning and goal achievement for students in academic settings, as well as for building employee knowledge and skills in the psychiatric rehabilitation workforce through worksite-based training. SOURCES USED: The content in this column is drawn from the professional experience of the authors as well as available literature...
March 2017: Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
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