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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223665/guidelines-and-checklists-for-short-term-missions-in-global-pediatric-surgery-recommendations-from-the-american-academy-of-pediatrics-delivery-of-surgical-care-global-health-subcommittee-american-pediatric-surgical-association-global-pediatric-surgery-committee
#1
REVIEW
Marilyn Butler, Elizabeth Drum, Faye M Evans, Tamara Fitzgerald, Jason Fraser, Ai-Xuan Holterman, Howard Jen, J Matthew Kynes, Jenny Kreiss, Craig D McClain, Mark Newton, Benedict Nwomeh, James O'Neill, Doruk Ozgediz, George Politis, Henry Rice, David Rothstein, Julie Sanchez, Mark Singleton, Francine S Yudkowitz
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric surgeons, anesthesia providers, and nurses from North America and other high-income countries (HICs) are increasingly engaged in resource-limited areas, with short-term missions (STMs) as the most common form of involvement. However, consensus recommendations currently do not exist for STMs in pediatric general surgery and associated perioperative care. METHODS: The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Delivery of Surgical Care Subcommittee and American Pediatric Surgical Association (APSA) Global Pediatric Surgery Committee, with the American Pediatric Surgical Nurses Association, Inc...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222998/experiences-of-connectivity-and-severance-in-the-wake-of-a-new-motorway-implications-for-health-and-well-being
#2
Amy Nimegeer, Hilary Thomson, Louise Foley, Shona Hilton, Fiona Crawford, David Ogilvie
The construction of new urban roads may cause severance, or the separation of residents from local amenities or social networks. Using qualitative data from a natural experimental study, we examined severance related to a new section of urban motorway constructed through largely deprived residential neighbourhoods in Glasgow, Scotland. Semi-structured and photo-elicitation interviews were used to better understand severance and connectivity related to the new motorway, and specifically implications for individual and community-level health and well-being through active travel and social connections...
November 29, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219074/economic-cost-and-quality-of-life-of-family-caregivers-of-schizophrenic-patients-attending-psychiatric-hospitals-in-ghana
#3
Yaw Nyarko Opoku-Boateng, Irene A Kretchy, Genevieve Cecilia Aryeetey, Duah Dwomoh, Sybil Decker, Samuel Agyei Agyemang, Yesim Tozan, Moses Aikins, Justice Nonvignon
BACKGROUND: Low and middle income countries face many challenges in meeting their populations' mental health care needs. Though family caregiving is crucial to the management of severe mental health disabilities, such as schizophrenia, the economic costs borne by family caregivers often go unnoticed. In this study, we estimated the household economic costs of schizophrenia and quality of life of family caregivers in Ghana. METHODS: We used a cost of illness analysis approach...
December 4, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218072/spatial-multiresolution-analysis-of-the-effect-of-pm2-5-on-birth-weights
#4
Joseph Antonelli, Joel Schwartz, Itai Kloog, Brent A Coull
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) measured at a given location is a mix of pollution generated locally and pollution traveling long distances in the atmosphere. Therefore, the identification of spatial scales associated with health effects can inform on pollution sources responsible for these effects, resulting in more targeted regulatory policy. Recently, prediction methods that yield high-resolution spatial estimates of PM2.5 exposures allow one to evaluate such scale-specific associations. We propose a two-dimensional wavelet decomposition that alleviates restrictive assumptions required for standard wavelet decompositions...
2017: Annals of Applied Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217768/potential-risk-posed-by-the-importation-of-ticks-into-the-uk-on-animals-records-from-the-tick-surveillance-scheme
#5
Kayleigh M Hansford, Maaike E Pietzsch, Benjamin Cull, Emma L Gillingham, Jolyon M Medlock
In order to monitor important tick vectors in the UK, Public Health England's Tick Surveillance Scheme (TSS) receives specimens from across the country for identification. In recent years, an increasing number of these specimens have been removed from animals with a recent history of travel outside the UK. This paper presents all data collated by the TSS on ticks entering the country on recently travelled or imported animals since surveillance commenced in 2005. Ten different tick species representing six different genera were identified, entering the UK from 15 different countries...
December 7, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217379/major-epidemiological-factors-associated-with-leptospirosis-in-malaysia
#6
REVIEW
Bashiru Garba, Abdul Rani Bahaman, Siti Khairani Bejo, Zunita Zakaria, Abdul Rahim Mutalib, Faruku Bande
INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by a diverse pathogenic leptospira species and serovars. The disease is transmitted directly following contact with infected urine and other body fluids or indirectly after contact with water or soil contaminated with infected urine. OBJECTIVES: While a wide range of domestic and wild animals are known to be reservoirs of the disease, occupation, international travel and recreation are beginning to assume a center stage in the transmission of the disease...
December 5, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216905/variations-in-visceral-leishmaniasis-burden-mortality-and-the-pathway-to-care-within-bihar-india
#7
Sarah Jervis, Lloyd A C Chapman, Shweta Dwivedi, Morchan Karthick, Aritra Das, Epke A Le Rutte, Orin Courtenay, Graham F Medley, Indranath Banerjee, Tanmay Mahapatra, Indrajit Chaudhuri, Sridhar Srikantiah, T Déirdre Hollingsworth
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been targeted by the WHO for elimination as a public health problem (< 1 case/10,000 people/year) in the Indian sub-continent (ISC) by 2020. Bihar State in India, which accounts for the majority of cases in the ISC, remains a major target for this elimination effort. However, there is considerable spatial, temporal and sub-population variation in occurrence of the disease and the pathway to care, which is largely unexplored and a threat to achieving the target...
December 7, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216496/the-impact-of-new-national-guidance-for-the-public-health-management-of-enteric-fever-in-england
#8
K Russell, S Addiman, D Grynszpan, J Freedman, J Lopez Bernal, Z Yin, C Rawlings, S Balasegaram
OBJECTIVES: New guidance was published in England in February 2012 to support the public health management of enteric fever and reduce the risks of secondary transmission. The new guidance was evaluated to assess: STUDY DESIGN: Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the implementation of new public health guidance. METHODS: A qualitative review of all non-travel-related cases from February 2010 to January 2014 to compare the risk of secondary transmission before and after the guidance introduction; an audit of clearance sampling for each case and their contacts reported in London from February 2012-January 2015 to compare with a previous London audit; and an online user survey in November 2014...
December 4, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214813/development-implementation-and-evaluation-of-active-lions-a-campaign-to-promote-active-travel-to-a-university-campus
#9
Melissa Bopp, Dangaia Sims, Stephen A Matthews, Liza S Rovniak, Erika Poole, Joanna Colgan
PURPOSE: To outline the development, implementation, and evaluation of a multistrategy intervention to promote active transportation, on a large university campus. DESIGN: Single group pilot study. SETTING: A large university in the Northeastern United States. PARTICIPANTS: University students (n = 563), faculty and staff (employees, n = 999) were included in the study. INTERVENTION: The Active Lions campaign aimed to increase active transportation to campus for all students and employees...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211576/development-of-a-web-based-psychosocial-intervention-for-adolescent-and-young-adult-survivors-of-pediatric-brain-tumor
#10
Stacey P Raj, Megan E Narad, Ralph Salloum, Amber Platt, Aimee Thompson, Katherine T Baum, Shari L Wade
PURPOSE: To develop A Survivor's Journey, a web-based psychosocial intervention for adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors of pediatric brain tumors (PBTs). METHODS: Stages of development included focus groups with five AYA survivors (ages 16-23 years) and six parents to identify needs and challenges, as well as surveys and interviews with clinical care providers at a survivorship clinic. RESULTS: Concerns reported by AYA survivors, parents, and providers were similar to those reported in the literature, including fatigue, memory deficits, poor mood, health concerns, and challenging peer relationships...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209527/pembrolizumab-as-second-line-therapy-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-in-northern-norway-budget-impact-and-expected-gain-a-model-based-analysis
#11
Jan Norum, Margareth Aarag Antonsen, Terje Tollåli, Khalid Al-Shibli, Gry Andersen, Kristin Helene Svanqvist, Nina Helbekkmo
Background: Pembrolizumab is a new drug approved in several countries for second-line therapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) being programmed cell death ligand (PD-L1) positive. This drug has a high cost, and the cost-effectiveness ratio has been debated. Patients and methods: The budget impact to the Northern Norwegian Regional Health Authority trust of implementing pembrolizumab in second-line therapy in patients with PD-L1-positive NSCLC was calculated...
2017: ESMO Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202107/a-multi-level-spatial-analysis-of-clinical-malaria-and-subclinical-plasmodium-infections-in-pailin-province-cambodia
#12
Daniel M Parker, Rupam Tripura, Thomas J Peto, Richard J Maude, Chea Nguon, Jeremy Chalk, Pasathorn Sirithiranont, Mallika Imwong, Lorenz von Seidlein, Nicholas J White, Arjen M Dondorp
Background: The malaria burden is decreasing throughout the Greater Mekong Subregion, however transmission persists in some areas. Human movement, subclinical infections and complicated transmission patterns contribute to the persistence of malaria. This research describes the micro-geographical epidemiology of both clinical malaria and subclinical Plasmodium infections in three villages in Western Cambodia. Methods: Three villages in Western Cambodia were selected for the study based on high reported Plasmodium falciparum incidence...
November 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200521/zika-virus-in-semen-a-prospective-cohort-study-of-symptomatic-travellers-returning-to-belgium
#13
Ralph Huits, Birgit De Smet, Kevin K Ariën, Marjan Van Esbroeck, Emmanuel Bottieau, Lieselotte Cnops
Objective: To prospectively monitor Zika viral loads in semen from Belgian travellers with confirmed Zika virus infection, who returned from the Americas during the 2016 Zika virus epidemic. Methods: We recruited symptomatic travellers consulting our clinic and we confirmed infection with either reverse-transcriptase (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay or virus neutralization test. The participants produced semen samples weekly, either at the clinic or at home...
December 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199281/emerging-viral-diseases-from-a-vaccinology-perspective-preparing-for-the-next-pandemic
#14
REVIEW
Barney S Graham, Nancy J Sullivan
Emerging infectious diseases will continue to threaten public health and are sustained by global commerce, travel and disruption of ecological systems. Most pandemic threats are caused by viruses from either zoonotic sources or vector-borne sources. Developing better ways to anticipate and manage the ongoing microbial challenge will be critical for achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and, conversely, each such goal will affect the ability to control infectious diseases. Here we discuss how technology can be applied effectively to better prepare for and respond to new viral diseases with a focus on new paradigms for vaccine development...
December 3, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197487/no-352-technical-update-the-role-of-early-comprehensive-fetal-anatomy-ultrasound-examination
#15
Ori Nevo, Richard Brown, Phyllis Glanc, Ken Lim
OBJECTIVE: This guideline presents an evidence-based technical update and recommendations for the performance of early comprehensive fetal anatomic scanning (ECFAS) at 11 to 16 weeks' gestation. OPTIONS: Patients at high risk for fetal anomalies and in whom traditional mid-second trimester transabdominal imaging may be challenging or who may benefit from earlier identification of fetal anomalies may be suitable for early fetal anatomy scanning. OUTCOMES: This practice may result in earlier identification of fetal anomalies and provide earlier intervention options in high-risk populations and/or in populations where mid-second trimester transabdominal scanning is challenging...
December 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196275/global-risk-mapping-for-major-diseases-transmitted-by-aedes-aegypti-and-aedes-albopictus
#16
Samson Leta, Tariku Jibat Beyene, Eva M De Clercq, Kebede Amenu, Crawford Revie
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to map the global risk of the major arboviral diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus by identifying areas where the diseases are reported either through active transmission or travel related outbreaks, as well as areas where the diseases are not currently reported but are nonetheless suitable for the vector. METHODS: This study extracts data from some of the largest contemporary databases relating to five arboviral diseases (Zika, dengue fever, chikungunya, yellow fever and RVF) and pairs these data with the known distribution of their vectors, Ae...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191243/potential-for-broad-scale-transmission-of-ebola-virus-disease-during-the-west-africa-crisis-lessons-for-the-global-health-security-agenda
#17
Eduardo A Undurraga, Cristina Carias, Martin I Meltzer, Emily B Kahn
BACKGROUND: The 2014-2016 Ebola crisis in West Africa had approximately eight times as many reported deaths as the sum of all previous Ebola outbreaks. The outbreak magnitude and occurrence of multiple Ebola cases in at least seven countries beyond Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea, hinted at the possibility of broad-scale transmission of Ebola. MAIN TEXT: Using a modeling tool developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during the Ebola outbreak, we estimated the number of Ebola cases that might have occurred had the disease spread beyond the three countries in West Africa to cities in other countries at high risk for disease transmission (based on late 2014 air travel patterns)...
December 1, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191125/the-2017-aans-presidential-address-a-world-of-innovation
#18
Frederick A Boop
The 2016 scientific meeting of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS) focused on the theme "A World of Innovation." In his presidential address, 2016 AANS President Frederick Boop compared the historical development of the specialty of neurological surgery with that of the development of global communications. In the early years, general surgeons training in the United States would spend post-residency time abroad learning from surgical masters in Europe and other places. Since Harvey Cushing's day, neurosurgeons from around the world continue to travel abroad, with many now coming to America for training at centers of excellence...
December 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190517/comparing-residence-based-to-actual-path-based-methods-for-defining-adolescents-environmental-exposures-using-granular-spatial-data
#19
Alison J Culyba, Wensheng Guo, Charles C Branas, Elizabeth Miller, Douglas J Wiebe
This paper uses data from a population-based case control study of daily activities and assault injury to examine residence-based versus actual path-based approaches to measuring environmental exposures that pose risks for violence among adolescents. Defining environmental exposures based on participant home address resulted in significant misclassification compared to gold standard daily travel path measures. Dividing participant daily travel paths into origin-destination segments, we explore a method for defining spatial counterfactuals by comparing actual trip path exposures to shortest potential trip path exposures...
November 27, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188465/demographic-and-travel-characteristics-of-travel-associated-zika-virus-infection-case-patients-in-san-diego-county-california-january-1-2016-march-31-2017
#20
Gabriela Escutia, Eric McDonald, Alfonso Rodríguez-Lainz, Jessica Healy
Most Zika disease cases diagnosed in the continental US have been associated with travel to areas with risk of Zika transmission, mainly the Caribbean and Latin America. Limited information has been published about the demographic and travel characteristics of Zika case-patients in the United States, besides their age and gender. During 2016-2017 the County of San Diego Health and Human Services Agency, California, expanded the scope and completeness of demographic and travel information collected from Zika case-patients for public health surveillance purposes...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Community Health
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