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Gold nanoparticles, review

Florence Masse, Mathieu Ouellette, Guillaume Lamoureux, Elodie Boisselier
Many research projects are underway to improve the diagnosis and therapy in ophthalmology. Indeed, visual acuity deficits affect 285 million people worldwide and different strategies are being developed to strengthen patient care. One of these strategies is the use of gold nanoparticles (GNP) for their multiple properties and their ability to be used as both diagnosis and therapy tools. This review exhaustively details research developing GNPs for use in ophthalmology. The toxicity of GNPs and their distribution in the eye are described through in vitro and in vivo studies...
May 16, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
Myriam Laprise-Pelletier, Teresa Simão, Marc-André Fortin
Over the last few decades, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have emerged as "radiosensitizers" in oncology. Radiosensitizers are additives that can enhance the effects of radiation on biological tissues treated with radiotherapy. The interaction of photons with GNPs leads to the emission of low-energy and short-range secondary electrons, which in turn increase the dose deposited in tissues. In this context, GNPs are the subject of intensive theoretical and experimental studies aiming at optimizing the parameters leading to greater dose enhancement and highest therapeutic effect...
May 4, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Narges Elahi, Mehdi Kamali, Mohammad Hadi Baghersad
Recent advances in nanotechnology are as a result of the development of engineered nanoparticles. Efficiently, metallic nanoparticles have been widely exploited for biomedical application and among them, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are highly remarkable. Consequent upon their significant nature, spherical and gold nanorods (Au NRs) nanoparticles attract extreme attention. Their intrinsic features such as optical, electronic, physicochemical and, surface plasmon resonance (SPR); which can be altered by changing the characterizations of particles such as shape, size, aspect ratio, or environment; ease of synthesis and functionalization properties have resulted to various applications in different fields of biomedicine such as sensing, targeted drug delivery, imaging, photothermal and photodynamic therapy as well as the modulation of two or three applications...
July 1, 2018: Talanta
Yanqi Wu, Jiaqing Liu, Yifen Lin, Rennan Weng, Ran Chen, Jian Li, Zhiyue Lv
Schistosomiasis is a neglected disease of tropics and subtropics, which has been associated with illness and death of millions of people, especially children. Although, excessive use of anthelmintic drugs and improvement of sanitation procedures have been in practice, yet timely detection, and diagnosis of low-intensity infections, are of utmost importance for reducing morbidity and final elimination of the disease. The diagnosis methods, currently being used for schistosomiasis, have several limitations, hence warrant further investigations for development of novel detection methods with higher rapidity, reliability, and convenience...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
Ee-Seul Kang, Da-Seul Kim, Intan Rosalina Suhito, Wanhee Lee, Inbeom Song, Tae-Hyung Kim
Background: In the past decade, stem cells, with their ability to differentiate into various types of cells, have been proven to be resourceful in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Despite the ability to repair damaged parts of organs and tissues, the use of stem cells still entails several limitations, such as low differentiation efficiency and difficulties in guiding differentiation. To address these limitations, nanotechnology approaches have been recently implemented in stem cell research...
2018: Biomaterials Research
Dylan Peukert, Ivan Kempson, Michael Douglass, Eva Bezak
The use of gold nanoparticle (GNP) and other metal nanoparticle (MNP) radiosensitisers to enhance radiotherapy offers the potential of improved treatment outcomes. Originally intended for use with X-ray therapy, the possibility of enhanced hadron therapy is desirable due to the superior sparing of healthy tissue in hadron therapy compared to conventional X-ray therapy. While MNPs were not expected to be effective radiosensitisers for hadron therapy due to the limited Z dependence of interactions, recent experimental measurements have contradicted this expectation...
March 2018: Physica Medica: PM
Fan Leng, Fang Liu, Yongtao Yang, Yu Wu, Weiqun Tian
The emergence of nanomedicine has enriched the knowledge and strategies of treating diseases, and especially some incurable diseases, such as cancers, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and neurodegenerative diseases. The application of nanoparticles in medicine is in the core of nanomedicine. Nanoparticles can be used in drug delivery for improving the uptake of poorly soluble drugs, targeted delivery to a specific site, and drug bioavailability. Early diagnosis of and targeted therapies for cancers can significantly improve patients' quality of life and extend patients' lives...
March 28, 2018: Nanomaterials
Anupriya Baranwal, Ananya Srivastava, Pradeep Kumar, Vivek K Bajpai, Pawan K Maurya, Pranjal Chandra
Nanostructured materials (NSMs) have increasingly been used as a substitute for antibiotics and additives in various products to impart microbicidal effect. In particular, use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has garnered huge researchers' attention as potent bactericidal agent due to the inherent antimicrobial property of the silver metal. Moreover, other nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, graphene, chitosan, etc.) have also been studied for their antimicrobial effects in order ensure their application in widespread domains...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Muhammad Ovais, Irshad Ahmad, Ali Talha Khalil, Sudip Mukherjee, Rabia Javed, Muhammad Ayaz, Abida Raza, Zabta Khan Shinwari
Nanotechnology has emerged as a prominent scientific discipline in the technological revolution of this millennium. The scientific community has focused on the green synthesis of metal nanoparticles as compared to physical and chemical methods due to its eco-friendly nature and high efficacy. Medicinal plants have been proven as the paramount source of various phytochemicals that can be used for the biogenic synthesis of colloidal silver and gold nanoparticles as compared to other living organisms, e.g., microbes and fungi...
March 27, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Raviraj Vankayala, Kuo Chu Hwang
Cancer is one of the most deadly diseases threatening the lives of humans. Although many treatment methods have been developed to tackle cancer, each modality of cancer treatment has its own limitations and drawbacks. The development of minimally invasive treatment modalities for cancers remains a great challenge. Near-infrared (NIR) light-activated nanomaterial-mediated phototherapies, including photothermal and photodynamic therapies, provide an alternative means for spatially and temporally controlled minimally invasive treatments of cancers...
March 25, 2018: Advanced Materials
Mohamed Shehata Draz, Hadi Shafiee
Viruses are the smallest known microbes, yet they cause the most significant losses in human health. Most of the time, the best-known cure for viruses is the innate immunological defense system of the host; otherwise, the initial prevention of viral infection is the only alternative. Therefore, diagnosis is the primary strategy toward the overarching goal of virus control and elimination. The introduction of a new class of nanoscale materials with multiple unique properties and functions has sparked a series of breakthrough applications...
2018: Theranostics
Happy Agarwal, Soumya Menon, S Venkat Kumar, S Rajeshkumar
A large array of diseases caused by bacterial pathogens and origination of multidrug resistance in their gene provokes the need of developing new vectors or novel drug molecules for effective drug delivery and thus, better treatment of disease. The nanoparticle has emerged as a novel drug molecule in last decade and has been used in various industrial fields like cosmetics, healthcare, agricultural, pharmaceuticals due to their high optical, electronic, medicinal properties. Use of nanoparticles as an antibacterial agent remain in current studies with metal nanoparticles like silver, gold, copper, iron and metal oxide nanoparticles like zinc oxide, copper oxide, titanium oxide and iron oxide nanoparticles...
March 15, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Elnaz Bagheri, Legha Ansari, Khalil Abnous, Seyed Mohammad Taghdisi, Fahimeh Charbgoo, Mohammad Ramezani, Mona Alibolandi
Silica hybrid materials play an important role in improvement of novel progressive functional nanomaterials. Study in silica hybrid functional materials is supported by growing interest in providing intelligent materials that combine best of the inorganic silica structure along with organic or biological realms. Hybrid silica materials do not only provide fantastic opportunities for the design of novel materials for research but their represented unique properties open versatile applications specifically in nanomedicine since it was recognized by US FDA as a safe material for human trials...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Mahmoud Nasrollahzadeh, Mohaddeseh Sajjadi, Fatemeh Ghorbannezhad, S Mohammad Sajadi
A3 coupling is one of the few transition-metal catalyzed carbon-carbon bond forming reactions that have been established as a most direct, efficient and atom-economical synthetic approach to afford propargylamine derivatives using various catalysts. A large number of nanosized heterogeneous catalysts for three-component coupling reactions between an aldehyde, an amine, and a terminal alkyne have been popularly introduced as an A3 coupling in the last decade. The coupling product has found a broad application as a key intermediate for a variety of heterocyclic useful compounds and numerous biologically active molecules such as β-lactams, conformationally restricted peptides, isosteres, herbicides, fungicides, indolizines, pyrroles, quinolines and therapeutic drug molecules...
March 14, 2018: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
Heerak Chugh, Damini Sood, Ishita Chandra, Vartika Tomar, Gagan Dhawan, Ramesh Chandra
Development of nanoparticles (NPs) as a part of cancer therapeutics has given rise to a new field of research - cancer nanomedicine. In comparison to traditional anti-cancer drugs, NPs provide a targeted approach which prevents undesirable effects. In this communication, we have reviewed the role of gold and silver NPs (AgNPs) in the cancer nanomedicine. The preparation of gold NPs (AuNPs) and AgNPs can be grouped into three categories - physical, chemical and biological. Among the three approaches, the biological approach is growing and receiving more attention due to its safe and effective production...
March 13, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
David Avnir
A unique materials' methodology enables the doping of metals with functional molecules, polymers, enzymes, and nanoparticles. The resulting materials have either the combined properties of the metal and the dopants, or new, sometimes synergetic properties that are not found in the separate components, emerge. Metals that have been doped so far include gold, silver, copper, iron, gallium, palladium, platinum, and several alloys. Numerous applications have been demonstrated including catalysis, biocatalysis, bioactivity, electrochemistry (including new type of batteries), corrosion resistance, induction of chirality, tailoring unconventional properties to metals, and more...
March 12, 2018: Advanced Materials
Hainan Sun, Jianbo Jia, Cuijuan Jiang, Shumei Zhai
Cell death is crucial to human health and is related to various serious diseases. Therefore, generation of new cell death regulators is urgently needed for disease treatment. Nanoparticles (NPs) are now routinely used in a variety of fields, including consumer products and medicine. Exhibiting stability and ease of decoration, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) could be used in diagnosis and disease treatment. Upon entering the human body, GNPs contact human cells in the blood, targeting organs and the immune system...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hasan Norouzi, Karim Khoshgard, Fatemeh Akbarzadeh
Hyperthermia is an anti-cancer treatment in which the temperature of the malignant tumor is increased more than other adjacent normal tissues. Microwave, ultrasound, laser, and radiofrequency sources have been used for hyperthermia of cancerous tissues. In the past decade, near-infrared (NIR) laser for cancer therapy, known as photo-thermal therapy (PTT), was expanded in which the photo-sensitizer agent converts the light photon energy to heat. The heat following PTT can destroy cancer cells. There are some photo-sensitizer agents which have been used for PTT; however, owing to recent advances in nanotechnology, noble metal nanoparticles like gold (Au) nanoparticles (GNPs) have been used successfully in PTT...
May 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
K L Dimuthu M Weerawardene, Hannu Häkkinen, Christine M Aikens
Ligand-stabilized gold and silver nanoparticles are of tremendous current interest in sensing, catalysis, and energy applications. Experimental and theoretical studies have closely interacted to elucidate properties such as the geometric and electronic structures of these fascinating systems. In this review, the interplay between theory and experiment is described; areas such as optical absorption and doping, where the theory-experiment connections are well established, are discussed in detail; and the current status of these connections in newer fields of study, such as luminescence, transient absorption, and the effects of solvent and the surrounding environment, are highlighted...
April 20, 2018: Annual Review of Physical Chemistry
Jakub Mesicek, Kamil Kuca
The optimal light dose, heat generation, consequent heat spread and an accurate thermal damage model, are key components of effective laser therapies. Recent advances in nanotechnology offer numerous possibilities on how to increase the efficacy of hyperthermia for tumour treatments. Gold nanoparticles are a promising candidate towards the achievement of this goal owing to their properties for efficiently converting light to heat. In this review, we summarise the numerical tools that are available for theoretical studies of gold-nanoparticle-mediated photo-thermal therapy...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Hyperthermia
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