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Gold nanoparticles, review

Romana Parveen, Tooba Naz Shamsi, Sadaf Fatima
This review helps to understand protein misfolding events, which results in protein aggregation, and hence to related neurodegenerative diseases. Many chaperones and folding factors are found inside the cell system for the proper folding of protein. If protein gets misfolded, it may accumulate in cells and can lead to several fatal diseases. In some cases, misfolded proteins aggregated in form of loop-sheet polymer and amyloid fibril when they escape the degradation process and leads to neurodegenerative disorders...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Jose Maria Carnerero, Aila Jimenez-Ruiz, Paula Margarita Castillo, Rafael Prado-Gotor
The interactions of DNA, whether long, hundred base pair chains or short-chained oligonucleotides, with ligands play a key role in the field of structural biology. Its biological activity not only depends on the thermodynamic properties of DNA-ligand complexes, but can and often is conditioned by the formation kinetics of those complexes. On the other hand, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have long been known to present excellent biocompatibility with biomolecules and are themselves remarkable for their structural, electronic, magnetic, optical and catalytic properties, radically different from those of their counterpart bulk materials, and which make them an important asset in multiple applications...
October 10, 2016: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Yizhong Shen, Adam J Shuhendler, Deju Ye, Jing-Juan Xu, Hong-Yuan Chen
Two-photon excitation (TPE) nanoparticle-based photosensitizers (PSs) that combine the advantages of TPE and nanotechnology have emerged as attractive therapeutic agents for near-infrared red (NIR) light excited photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cancer treatment. TPE PDT is characterized by nonlinear absorption of two relatively low-energy photons of NIR light with the resulting emission of high-energy visible light. This high-energy light can sensitize oxygen to produce cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and singlet oxygen ((1)O2) which can kill cancer cells...
October 5, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
Lev A Dykman, Nikolai G Khlebtsov
Although Au-particle potential in nanobiotechnology has been recognized for the last 15 years, new insights into the unique properties of multifunctional nanostructures have just recently started to emerge. Multifunctional gold-based nanocomposites combine multiple modalities to improve the efficacy of the therapeutic and diagnostic treatment of cancer and other socially significant diseases. This review is focused on multifunctional gold-based theranostic nanocomposites, which can be fabricated by three main routes...
November 2016: Biomaterials
Md Habban Akhter, Saima Amin
Squamous cell carcinoma of skin has become an important matter of discussion worldwide due to high number of deaths. Treatment of such cancer involves use of drugs (chemotherapy) along with surgery or radiation therapy. The combination therapy is always preferred than single treatment modality due to poor internalization of most of the chemotherapeutics in the affected cells. Now a days, nanoparticle based drug delivery to squamous cell carcinoma is equanimous to become a leading therapeutic approach for cancer treatment...
September 6, 2016: Current Drug Delivery
Leila Syedmoradi, Maryam Daneshpour, Mehrdad Alvandipour, Frank A Gomez, Hassan Hajghassem, Kobra Omidfar
Point-of-care (POC) diagnostic devices are integral in the health care system and particularly for the diagnosis and monitoring of diseases. POC testing has a variety of advantages including the ability to provide rapid and accurate results, ease of use, low cost, and little need for specialized equipment. One of the goals of POC testing is the development of a chip-based, miniaturized, portable, and self-containing system that allows for the assay of different analytes in complex samples. To achieve these goals, many researchers have focused on paper-based and printed electrode technologies as the material for fabricating POC diagnostic systems...
August 26, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Rongchao Jin, Chenjie Zeng, Meng Zhou, Yuxiang Chen
Colloidal nanoparticles are being intensely pursued in current nanoscience research. Nanochemists are often frustrated by the well-known fact that no two nanoparticles are the same, which precludes the deep understanding of many fundamental properties of colloidal nanoparticles in which the total structures (core plus surface) must be known. Therefore, controlling nanoparticles with atomic precision and solving their total structures have long been major dreams for nanochemists. Recently, these goals are partially fulfilled in the case of gold nanoparticles, at least in the ultrasmall size regime (1-3 nm in diameter, often called nanoclusters)...
September 28, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Nathan D Burrows, Wayne Lin, Joshua G Hinman, Jordan M Dennison, Ariane M Vartanian, Nardine S Abadeer, Elissa M Grzincic, Lisa M Jacob, Ji Li, Catherine J Murphy
Gold nanorods have garnered a great deal of scientific interest because of their unique optical properties, and they have the potential to greatly impact many areas of science and technology. Understanding the structure and chemical makeup of their surfaces as well as how to tailor them is of paramount importance in the development of their successful applications. This Feature Article reviews the current understanding of the surface chemistry of as-synthesized gold nanorods, methods of tailoring the surface chemistry of gold nanorods with various inorganic and organic coatings/ligands, and the techniques employed to characterize ligands on the surface of gold nanorods as well as the associated measurement challenges...
October 4, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Changan Li, Hai Chen, Bin Chen, Guanghua Zhao
Applications of nanotechnology in food have rapidly increased in the past decades. Ultra-small gold nanoclusters (Au NCs), composed of several to roughly a hundred atoms, represent a kind of novel nanomaterials. The Au NCs directed by food proteins have drawn considerable research attention due to their environmentally friendly preparation, strong fluorescence, excellent photo-stability and favorable biocompatibility. These interesting protein-Au hybrids have opened up a new area at the nano-bio-food interface, not only did they provide the missing link between single metal atoms and plasmonic metal nanoparticles, but also developed the hybrid system between biomacromolecule and inorganic ions...
August 24, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Chiranjib Chakraborty, Ashish Ranjan Sharma, Garima Sharma, Sang-Soo Lee
Presently, nanotechnology is a multi-trillion dollar business sector that covers a wide range of industries, such as medicine, electronics and chemistry. In the current era, the commercial transition of nanotechnology from research level to industrial level is stimulating the world's total economic growth. However, commercialization of nanoparticles might offer possible risks once they are liberated in the environment. In recent years, the use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) as an established animal model system for nanoparticle toxicity assay is growing exponentially...
2016: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Fabrizio Mancin, Leonard J Prins, Paolo Pengo, Lucia Pasquato, Paolo Tecilla, Paolo Scrimin
Although the term nanozymes was coined by us in 2004 to highlight the enzyme-like properties of gold nanoparticles passivated with a monolayer of Zn(II)-complexes in the cleavage of phosphate diesters, systems resembling those metallo-nanoparticles, like micelles and vesicles, have been the subject of investigation since the mid-eighties of the last century. This paper reviews what has been done in the field and compares the different nanosystems highlighting the source of catalysis and frequent misconceptions found in the literature...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Richard A Revia, Miqin Zhang
The development of nanoparticles (NPs) for use in all facets of oncological disease detection and therapy has shown great progress over the past two decades. NPs have been tailored for use as contrast enhancement agents for imaging, drug delivery vehicles, and most recently as a therapeutic component in initiating tumor cell death in magnetic and photonic ablation therapies. Of the many possible core constituents of NPs, such as gold, silver, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, manganese oxide, lipids, micelles, etc...
April 2016: Materials Today
Muhammad Umair, Ibrahim Javed, Mubashar Rehman, Asadullah Madni, Aqeel Javeed, Aamir Ghafoor, Muhammad Ashraf
Nanotechnology has opened a new horizon of research in various fields including applied physics, chemistry, electronics, optics, robotics, biotechnology and medicine. In the biomedical field, nanomaterials have shown remarkable potential as theranostic agents. Materials which are considered inert are often used in nanomedicine owning to their nontoxic profile. At nanoscale, these inert materials have shown unique properties that differ from bulk and dissolved counterparts. In the case of metals, this unique behavior not only imparts paramount advantages but also confers toxicity due to their unwanted interaction with different cellular processes...
April 2016: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
Alla Bucharskaya, Galina Maslyakova, Georgy Terentyuk, Alexander Yakunin, Yuri Avetisyan, Olga Bibikova, Elena Tuchina, Boris Khlebtsov, Nikolai Khlebtsov, Valery Tuchin
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) of different size and shape are widely used as photosensitizers for cancer diagnostics and plasmonic photothermal (PPT)/photodynamic (PDT) therapy, as nanocarriers for drug delivery and laser-mediated pathogen killing, even the underlying mechanisms of treatment effects remain poorly understood. There is a need in analyzing and improving the ways to increase accumulation of AuNP in tumors and other crucial steps in interaction of AuNPs with laser light and tissues. In this review, we summarize our recent theoretical, experimental, and pre-clinical results on light activated interaction of AuNPs with tissues and cells...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Wessam Omara, Souad A Elfeky
BACKGROUND: Nanoparticles have a promising potential in electrochemical sensitivity. Polyaniline (PANI) received significant attention in the latest years owing to its high conductivity and excellent electrochemical stability. This research aims to study the effect of gold nanoparticles capped octadecyl amine (Au/ODA) on polyaniline emeraldine salt (ES) electrochemical sensitivity to formaldehyde (FA) using DPV technique. Furthermore, ES and Au-ODA/ES have been applied for the first time in sensing FA...
2016: Recent Patents on Nanotechnology
Codruta Soica, Dorina Coricovac, Cristina Dehelean, Iulia Pinzaru, Marius Mioc, Corina Danciu, Adriana Fulias, Maria Puiu, Cassian Sitaru
BACKGROUND: Immune system related pathologies affect an increasing number of patients every year, having potentially lethal consequences and requiring expensive and difficult tolerated treatments. This area of pathologies offers an excellent potential for the development of innovative solutions such as nanoformulations; this review aims to describe the main categories of nanostructured drug delivery platforms that have been developed in order to achieve a more effective, low toxic treatment in autoimmune pathologies...
2016: Recent Patents on Nanotechnology
Wenwen Chen, Shaohua Zhang, Yangyang Yu, Huisheng Zhang, Qianjun He
Personalized theranostics of cancer is increasingly desired, and can be realized by virtue of multifunctional nanomaterials with possible high performances. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are a type of especially promising candidate for cancer theranostics, because their synthesis and modification are facile, their structures and physicochemical properties are flexibly controlled, and they are also biocompatible. Especially, the localized surface plasmon resonance and multivalent coordination effects on the surface endow them with NIR light-triggered photothermal imaging and therapy, controlled drug release, and targeted drug delivery...
October 2016: Advanced Materials
Andra-Sorina Tatar, Timea Nagy-Simon, Ciprian Tomuleasa, Sanda Boca, Simion Astilean
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the malignancy with the highest incidence amongst children (26% of all cancer cases), being surpassed only by the cancers of the brain and of the nervous system. The most recent research on ALL is focusing on new molecular therapies, like targeting specific biological structures in key points in the cell cycle, or using selective inhibitors for transmembranary proteins involved in cell signalling, and even aiming cell surface receptors with specifically designed antibodies for active targeting...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Huan Zhang, Honglu Zhang, Ali Aldalbahi, Xiaolei Zuo, Chunhai Fan, Xianqiang Mi
During the past few years, graphene and graphene oxide (GO) have attracted numerous attentions for the potential applications in various fields from energy technology, biosensing to biomedical diagnosis and therapy due to their various functionalization, high volume surface ratio, unique physical and electrical properties. Among which, graphene and graphene oxide based fluorescent biosensors enabled by their fluorescence-quenching properties have attracted great interests. The fluorescence of fluorophore or dye labeled on probes (such as molecular beacon, aptamer, DNAzymes and so on) was quenched after adsorbed on to the surface of graphene...
July 9, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Li Tian, Linfeng Lu, Yang Qiao, Saisree Ravi, Ferandre Salatan, Marites P Melancon
An emerging concept is that cancers strongly depend on both internal and external signals for growth and invasion. In this review, we will discuss pathological and physical changes in the tumor microenvironment and how these changes can be exploited to design gold nanoparticles for cancer diagnosis and therapy. These intrinsic changes include extracellular and intracellular pH, extracellular matrix enzymes, and glutathione concentration. External stimuli include the application of laser, ultrasound and X-ray...
2016: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
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