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Qian Gao, Xuemei Li, Haitao Huang, Ying Guan, Qili Mi, Jianhua Yao
Phyllanthus emblica: (PE) fruit extract has pharmacological activity and exert anti-bacterial, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects, but few study exist for evaluating its improved effects on the imbalance of oral ecology, which may contribute to series of oral diseases. In this study, an examiner-blinded, randomized, and gum-base-controlled crossover manner was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a sugar-free chewing gum containing PE fruit extract in changing the oral microbiome. Twenty healthy young adults were randomly instructed to chew either PE gum or placebo gum...
March 21, 2018: Current Microbiology
Joby Pulikkan, Abhijit Maji, Darshan Bharat Dhakan, Rituja Saxena, Binoop Mohan, Milu Maria Anto, Neeti Agarwal, Tony Grace, Vineet K Sharma
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a term associated with a group of neurodevelopmental disorders. The etiology of ASD is not yet completely understood; however, a disorder in the gut-brain axis is emerging as a prominent factor leading to autism. To identify the taxonomic composition and markers associated with ASD, we compared the fecal microbiota of 30 ASD children diagnosed using Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) score, DSM-5 approved AIIMS-modified INCLEN Diagnostic Tool for Autism Spectrum Disorder (INDT-ASD), and Indian Scale for Assessment of Autism (ISAA) tool, with family-matched 24 healthy children from Indian population using next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 16S rRNA gene amplicon...
March 21, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Rafal Tokarz, Stephen Sameroff, Teresa Tagliafierro, Komal Jain, Simon H Williams, D Moses Cucura, Ilia Rochlin, Javier Monzon, Giovanna Carpi, Danielle Tufts, Maria Diuk-Wasser, Jory Brinkerhoff, W Ian Lipkin
Ticks carry a wide range of known human and animal pathogens and are postulated to carry others with the potential to cause disease. Here we report a discovery effort wherein unbiased high-throughput sequencing was used to characterize the virome of 2,021 ticks, including Ixodes scapularis ( n = 1,138), Amblyomma americanum ( n = 720), and Dermacentor variabilis ( n = 163), collected in New York, Connecticut, and Virginia in 2015 and 2016. We identified 33 viruses, including 24 putative novel viral species...
March 2018: MSphere
Francesco Multinu, Sean C Harrington, Jun Chen, Patricio R Jeraldo, Stephen Johnson, Nicholas Chia, Marina R Walther-Antonio
Variability in representation of microbial communities can be caused by differences in microbial composition or artifacts introduced at sample collection or processing. Alterations in community representation introduced by variations in starting DNA concentrations have not been systematically investigated in stool samples. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of the genomic DNA (gDNA) concentration in the resulting 16S rRNA gene library composition and compare its effect to other sample processing variables in homogenized human fecal material...
March 2018: MSphere
Bethany M Henrick, Andra A Hutton, Michelle C Palumbo, Giorgio Casaburi, Ryan D Mitchell, Mark A Underwood, Jennifer T Smilowitz, Steven A Frese
Historically, Bifidobacterium species were reported as abundant in the breastfed infant gut. However, recent studies in resource-rich countries show an increased abundance of taxa regarded as signatures of dysbiosis. It is unclear whether these differences are the product of genetics, geographic factors, or interventions such as formula feeding, antibiotics, and caesarean section. Fecal pH is strongly associated with Bifidobacterium abundance; thus, pH could be an indicator of its historical abundance. A review of 14 clinical studies published between 1926 and 2017, representing more than 312 healthy breastfed infants, demonstrated a change in fecal pH from 5...
March 2018: MSphere
Krish Patel, Amee Patel, David Hawes, Janki Shah, Krishna Shah
Gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota are known to play paramount role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Innovative sequencing methods have radically expanded our ability to analyze the intestinal microbiome. However, alterations of the GI microbiome in IBD have not yet been fully evaluated. Irregular colonization of the gut has been implicated in chronic intestinal inflammation. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a procedure which aims to restore microbial disturbances to the individual's gut microbiome...
2018: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
Tatiana V Karpinets, Vancheswaran Gopalakrishnan, Jennifer Wargo, Andrew P Futreal, Christopher W Schadt, Jianhua Zhang
Studies of microbial communities by targeted sequencing of rRNA genes lead to recovering numerous rare low-abundance taxa with unknown biological roles. We propose to study associations of such rare organisms with their environments by a computational framework based on transformation of the data into qualitative variables. Namely, we analyze the sparse table of putative species or OTUs (operational taxonomic units) and samples generated in such studies, also known as an OTU table, by collecting statistics on co-occurrences of the species and on shared species richness across samples...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
D Pagliari, A Saviano, E E Newton, M L Serricchio, A A Dal Lago, A Gasbarrini, R Cianci
Gut microbiota is key to the development and modulation of the mucosal immune system. It plays a central role in several physiological functions, in the modulation of inflammatory signaling and in the protection against infections. In healthy states, there is a perfect balance between commensal and pathogens, and microbiota and the immune system interact to maintain gut homeostasis. The alteration of such balance, called dysbiosis, determines an intestinal bacterial overgrowth which leads to the disruption of the intestinal barrier with systemic translocation of pathogens...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Xuan-Xuan Li, Si Shi, Lan Rong, Mei-Qing Feng, Liang Zhong
Background: The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori has long been a global health issue. Triple therapy, being the first-line treatment, has caused dysbiosis of the gastrointestinal tract that led to various complications. A novel nanomedicine - liposomal linolenic acid (LipoLLA) - has been proven to have great potential in eradicating H. pylori . However, the possible side effects of LipoLLA due to alteration of the gastrointestinal microbiota remain unknown. Aim: This study focused on the impact of LipoLLA on gastrointestinal microbiota in mice in comparison with triple therapy in order to assess the safety profile...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Hongwei Zhang, Jiaqi Lu, Yingying Lu, Qingqing Cai, Haiou Liu, Congjian Xu
Although human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a major cause leading to the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), the relationship between genital microbiome and HPV persistence/clearance is not well established. Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) is one of standard treatments of CIN 2/3 globally, yet little is known about how the LEEP influence genital microbiota. We conducted a prospective study of 26 patients with CIN2/3 who underwent analysis of cervical microbiome before and after 3 months of LEEP treatment...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sari A Mahasneh, Adel M Mahasneh
Probiotics have a role in maintaining oral health through interaction with oral microbiome, thus contributing to healthy microbial equilibrium. The nature and composition of any individual microbiome impacts the general health, being a major contributor to oral health. The emergence of drug resistance and the side effects of available antimicrobials have restricted their use in an array of prophylactic options. Indeed, some new strategies to prevent oral diseases are based on manipulating oral microbiota, which is provided by probiotics...
September 27, 2017: Dent J (Basel)
Lesley Hoyles, Tom Snelling, Umm-Kulthum Umlai, Jeremy K Nicholson, Simon R Carding, Robert C Glen, Simon McArthur
BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota composition and function are symbiotically linked with host health and altered in metabolic, inflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. Three recognised mechanisms exist by which the microbiome influences the gut-brain axis: modification of autonomic/sensorimotor connections, immune activation, and neuroendocrine pathway regulation. We hypothesised interactions between circulating gut-derived microbial metabolites, and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) also contribute to the gut-brain axis...
March 21, 2018: Microbiome
Mohammadhossein Ravanbakhsh, Rashmi Sasidharan, Laurentius A C J Voesenek, George A Kowalchuk, Alexandre Jousset
The plant hormone ethylene is one of the central regulators of plant development and stress resistance. Optimal ethylene signaling is essential for plant fitness and is under strong selection pressure. Plants upregulate ethylene production in response to stress, and this hormone triggers defense mechanisms. Due to the pleiotropic effects of ethylene, adjusting stress responses to maximize resistance, while minimizing costs, is a central determinant of plant fitness. Ethylene signaling is influenced by the plant-associated microbiome...
March 21, 2018: Microbiome
E Gonzalez, F E Pitre, A P Pagé, J Marleau, W Guidi Nissim, M St-Arnaud, M Labrecque, S Joly, E Yergeau, N J B Brereton
BACKGROUND: One method for rejuvenating land polluted with anthropogenic contaminants is through phytoremediation, the reclamation of land through the cultivation of specific crops. The capacity for phytoremediation crops, such as Salix spp., to tolerate and even flourish in contaminated soils relies on a highly complex and predominantly cryptic interacting community of microbial life. METHODS: Here, Illumina HiSeq 2500 sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly were used to observe gene expression in washed Salix purpurea cv...
March 21, 2018: Microbiome
Marit K Zinöcker, Inge A Lindseth
The dietary pattern that characterizes the Western diet is strongly associated with obesity and related metabolic diseases, but biological mechanisms supporting these associations remain largely unknown. We argue that the Western diet promotes inflammation that arises from both structural and behavioral changes in the resident microbiome. The environment created in the gut by ultra-processed foods, a hallmark of the Western diet, is an evolutionarily unique selection ground for microbes that can promote diverse forms of inflammatory disease...
March 17, 2018: Nutrients
X J Wang, J H Feng, M H Zhang, X M Li, D D Ma, S S Chang
The intestinal microbiome has been shown to influence animal nutrient metabolism and immune homeostasis. The present study aimed to examine the effect of heat stress on the intestinal microbiome of broilers using pyrosequencing technologies. Ninety-six Arbor Acres broiler chicks were allocated to thermoneutral control (TC; 21 ± 1°C) and high ambient temperature (HT; 31 ± 1°C) groups (6 cages of 8 birds per group), respectively, and raised in 2 controlled climate chambers from 28 to 42 d old. Genomic DNA was extracted from ileal contents isolated from 6 male broiler chicks of each group at 42 d old, and then amplified based on the V3-4 hyper-variable region of 16S rRNA...
March 16, 2018: Poultry Science
Ted R Mikuls, Clay Walker, Fang Qiu, Fang Yu, Geoffrey M Thiele, Barnett Alfant, Eric C Li, Lisa Y Zhao, Gary P Wang, Susmita Datta, Jeffrey B Payne
Objectives: To profile and compare the subgingival microbiome of RA patients with OA controls. Methods: RA (n = 260) and OA (n = 296) patients underwent full-mouth examination and subgingival samples were collected. Bacterial DNA was profiled using 16 S rRNA Illumina sequencing. Following data filtering and normalization, hierarchical clustering analysis was used to group samples. Multivariable regression was used to examine associations of patient factors with membership in the two largest clusters...
March 19, 2018: Rheumatology
Ingegerd Johansson, Anders Esberg, Linda Eriksson, Simon Haworth, Pernilla Lif Holgerson
Bovine milk intake has been associated with various disease outcomes, with modulation of the gastro-intestinal microbiome being suggested as one potential mechanism. The aim of the present study was to explore the oral microbiota in relation to variation in self-reported milk intake. Saliva and tooth biofilm microbiota was characterized by 16S rDNA sequencing, PCR and cultivation in 154 Swedish adolescents, and information on diet and other lifestyle markers were obtained from a questionnaire, and dental caries from clinical examination...
2018: PloS One
Marta Maciejewska, Magdalena Całusińska, Luc Cornet, Delphine Adam, Igor S Pessi, Sandrine Malchair, Philippe Delfosse, Denis Baurain, Hazel A Barton, Monique Carnol, Sébastien Rigali
Moonmilk are cave carbonate deposits that host a rich microbiome, including antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria, making these speleothems appealing for bioprospecting. Here, we investigated the taxonomic profile of the actinobacterial community of three moonmilk deposits of the cave "Grotte des Collemboles" via high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons. Actinobacteria was the most common phylum after Proteobacteria, ranging from 9% to 23% of the total bacterial population. Next to actinobacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) attributed to uncultured organisms at the genus level (~44%), we identified 47 actinobacterial genera with Rhodoccocus (4 OTUs, 17%) and Pseudonocardia (9 OTUs, ~16%) as the most abundant in terms of the absolute number of sequences...
March 21, 2018: Antibiotics
Ioanna Petta, Judith Fraussen, Veerle Somers, Markus Kleinewietfeld
B cells possess a predominant role in adaptive immune responses via antibody-dependent and -independent functions. The microbiome of the gastrointestinal tract is currently being intensively investigated due to its profound impact on various immune responses, including B cell maturation, activation, and IgA antibody responses. Recent findings have demonstrated the interplay between dietary components, gut microbiome, and autoantibody production. "Western" dietary patterns, such as high fat and high salt diets, can induce alterations in the gut microbiome that in turn affects IgA responses and the production of autoantibodies...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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