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S Navarro-Torre, J M Barcia-Piedras, E Mateos-Naranjo, S Redondo-Gómez, M Camacho, M A Caviedes, E Pajuelo, I D Rodríguez-Llorente
There is an increasing interest to use halophytes for revegetation of salt affected ecosystems, as well as in understanding their mechanisms of salt tolerance. We hypothesized that bacteria from the phyllosphere of these plants might play a key role in its high tolerance to excessive salinity. 8 endophytic bacteria belonging to Bacillus and closely related genera were isolated from phyllosphere of the halophyte Arthrocnemum macrostachyum growing in salty agricultural soils. The presence of plant-growth promoting (PGP) properties, enzymatic activities and tolerance towards NaCl was determined...
October 22, 2016: Plant Biology
Katsuhiko Hirota, Hiromichi Yumoto, Bayarmagnai Sapaar, Takashi Matsuo, Tetsuo Ichikawa, Yoichiro Miyake
Candida albicans is commonly found as a member of the human microflora and a major human opportunistic fungal pathogen. A perturbation of the microbiome can lead to infectious diseases caused by various microorganisms, including C. albicans. Moreover, the interactions between C. albicans and bacteria are considered to play critical roles in human health. The major biological feature of C. albicans, which impacts human health, resides in its ability to form biofilms. In particular, the extracellular matrix (ECM) of Candida biofilm plays a multifaceted role and therefore may be considered as a highly attractive target to combat biofilm-related infectious diseases...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Ellen K Silbergeld
The microbiome is increasingly recognized as a critical component in human development, health, and disease. Its relevance to toxicology and pharmacology involves challenges to current concepts related to absorption, metabolism, gene:environment, and pathways of response. Framing testable hypotheses for experimental and epidemiological studies will require attention to study designs, biosampling, data analysis, and attention to confounders.
October 21, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
Jong Wha J Joo, Eun Yong Kang, Elin Org, Nick Furlotte, Brian Parks, Farhad Hormozdiari, Aldons J Lusis, Eleazar Eskin
A typical GWAS tests correlation between a single phenotype and each genotype one at a time. However, single phenotype analysis might miss unmeasured aspects of complex biological networks. Analyzing many phenotypes simultaneously may increase the power to capture these unmeasured aspects and detect more variants. Several multivariate approaches aim to detect variants related to more than one phenotype, but these current approaches do not consider the effects of population structure. As a result, these approaches may result in a significant amount of false positive identifications...
October 21, 2016: Genetics
Guoqin Yu, Steve Phillips, Mitchell H Gail, James J Goedert, Michael Humphrys, Jacques Ravel, Yanfang Ren, Neil E Caporaso
BACKGROUND: The human microbiota is postulated to affect cancer risk, but collecting microbiota specimens with prospective follow-up for diseases will take time. Buccal cell samples have been obtained from mouthwash for the study of human genomic DNA in many cohort studies. Here we evaluate the feasibility of using buccal cell samples to examine associations of human microbiota and disease risk. METHODS: We obtained buccal cells from mouthwash in 41 healthy participants using a protocol that is widely employed to obtain buccal cells for the study of human DNA...
October 21, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Kensuke Yamamura, Yoshifumi Baba, Shigeki Nakagawa, Kosuke Mima, Keisuke Miyake, Kenichi Nakamura, Hiroshi Sawayama, Koichi Kinoshita, Takatsugu Ishimoto, Masaaki Iwatsuki, Yasuo Sakamoto, Yoichi Yamashita, Naoya Yoshida, Masayuki Watanabe, Hideo Baba
PURPOSE: Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) is a component of the human microbiome that primarily inhabits the oral cavity. It causes periodontal disease and has also been implicated in the development of human cancers. Although there are several reports of the relationship between F. nucleatum and the clinical outcome in human cancers, its prognostic significance in esophageal cancer remains unclear. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We quantified F. nucleatum DNA in 325 resected esophageal cancer specimens by qPCR...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
R Balfour Sartor, Gary D Wu
Intestinal microbiota are involved in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and pouchitis. We review the mechanisms by which these gut bacteria, fungi, and viruses mediate mucosal homeostasis, via their composite genes (metagenome) and metabolic products (metabolome). We explain how alterations to their profiles and functions under conditions of dysbiosis contribute to inflammation and effector immune responses that mediate inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in humans and enterocolitis in mice...
October 18, 2016: Gastroenterology
Joan B Broderick, James D Moody
The human gut microbiome is the source of not only microbial diversity, but also of interesting chemical reactions and enzymology. An excellent example of this is CutC, an enzyme that makes trimethylamine (TMA). In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Bodea et al. (2016) show how CutC uses a glycyl radical to perform C-N bond cleavage needed for TMA production.
October 20, 2016: Cell Chemical Biology
Boahemaa Adu-Oppong, Andrew J Gasparrini, Gautam Dantas
Microbial communities contain diverse bacteria that play important roles in every environment. Advances in sequencing and computational methodologies over the past decades have illuminated the phylogenetic and functional diversity of microbial communities from diverse habitats. Among the activities encoded in microbiomes are the abilities to synthesize and resist small molecules, yielding antimicrobial activity. These functions are of particular interest when viewed in light of the public health emergency posed by the increase in clinical antimicrobial resistance and the dwindling antimicrobial discovery and approval pipeline, and given the intimate ecological and evolutionary relationship between antimicrobial biosynthesis and resistance...
October 21, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Eric Banan-Mwine Daliri, Shuai Wei, Deog H Oh, Byong H Lee
The mammalian gastrointestinal tract has co-developed with a large number of microbes in a symbiotic relationship over millions of years. Recent studies indicate that indigenous bacteria are intimate with the intestine and play essential roles in health and disease. In the quest to maintain a stable niche, these prokaryotes influence multiple host metabolic pathways, resulting from an interactive host-microbiota metabolic signaling and impacting strongly on the metabolic phenotypes of the host. Since dysbiosis of the gut bacteria result in alteration in the levels of certain microbial and host co-metabolites, identifying these markers could enhance early detection of diseases...
October 21, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Matthias Willmann, Silke Peter
The increasing threat of antimicrobial resistance poses one of the greatest challenges to modern medicine. The collection of all antimicrobial resistance genes carried by various microorganisms in the human body is called the human resistome and represents the source of resistance in pathogens that can eventually cause life-threatening and untreatable infections. A deep understanding of the human resistome and its multilateral interaction with various environments is necessary for developing proper measures that can efficiently reduce the spread of resistance...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Shelby Calkins, M B Couger, Colin Jackson, Jordan Zandler, Garett C Hudgins, Radwa A Hanafy, Connie Budd, Donald P French, Wouter D Hoff, Noha Youssef
Staphylococcus hominis is a predominant member of the human skin microbiome. We here report on the genomic analysis of Staphylococcus hominis strain Hudgins that was isolated from the wrist area of human skin. The partial genome assembly of S. hominis Hudgins consists of 2,211,863 bp of DNA with 2174 protein-coding genes and 90 RNA genes. Based on the genomic analysis of KEGG pathways, the organism is expected to be a versatile heterotroph potentially capable of hydrolyzing the sugars glucose, fructose, mannose, and the amino acids alanine, aspartate, glutamate, glycine, threonine, cysteine, methionine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, arginine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan for energy production through aerobic respiration, with occasional lactate and acetate fermentation...
December 2016: Genomics Data
James J Cody, Wannaporn Ittiprasert, André N Miller, Lucie Henein, Margaret M Mentink-Kane, Michael H Hsieh
Schistosomiasis remains a health burden in many parts of the world. The complex life cycle of Schistosoma parasites and the economic and societal conditions present in endemic areas make the prospect of eradication unlikely in the foreseeable future. Continued and vigorous research efforts must therefore be directed at this disease, particularly since only a single World Health Organization (WHO)-approved drug is available for treatment. The National Institutes of Health (NIH)-National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Schistosomiasis Resource Center (SRC) at the Biomedical Research Institute provides investigators with the critical raw materials needed to carry out this important research...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Francesco Savino, Andrea Quartieri, Angela De Marco, Maria Garro, Alberto Amaretti, Stefano Raimondi, Marta Simone, Maddalena Rossi
AIM: This study compared the faecal microbial composition of formula-fed infants who did and did not have colic. METHODS: Faecal samples from formula-fed infants under 16 weeks of age with (n=38) and without (n=39) colic were collected at Department of Pediatrics in Turin, Italy, between February 2014 and October 2015. The pH and faecal ammonia were determined and total bacteria, bifidobacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and coliforms were quantified by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH)...
October 20, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Loreto Abusleme, Niki M Moutsopoulos
Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a multifaceted cytokine with diverse roles both in immune-protection and also immunopathology. IL-17 has a well-recognized role in immune surveillance at mucosal and barrier surfaces (Miossec & Kolls, 2012, Song et al., 2016) but also has been increasingly implicated as a driver of immunopathology in settings of autoimmunity and chronic inflammation (Gaffen et al., 2014). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 20, 2016: Oral Diseases
Lawrence P Wackett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Katherine R Amato
Research examining the gut microbiota is currently exploding, and results are providing new perspectives on human biology. Factors such as host diet and physiology influence the composition and function of the gut microbiota, which in turn affects human nutrition, health, and behavior via interactions with metabolism, the immune system, and the brain. These findings represent an exciting new twist on familiar topics, and as a result, gut microbiome research is likely to provide insight into unresolved biological mechanisms driving human health...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Walter H Moos, Carl A Pinkert, Michael H Irwin, Douglas V Faller, Krishna Kodukula, Ioannis P Glavas, Kosta Steliou
Preclinical Research Approximately 2,500 years ago, Hippocrates used the word herpes as a medical term to describe lesions that appeared to creep or crawl on the skin, advocating heat as a possible treatment. During the last 50 years, pharmaceutical research has made great strides, and therapeutic options have expanded to include small molecule antiviral agents, protease inhibitors, preventive vaccines for a handful of the papillomaviruses, and even cures for hepatitis C virus infections. However, effective treatments for persistent and recurrent viral infections, particularly the highly prevalent herpesviruses, continue to represent a significant unmet medical need, affecting the majority of the world's population...
October 20, 2016: Drug Development Research
Yushu Yin, Georgia Papavasiliou, Olga Y Zaborina, John C Alverdy, Fouad Teymour
The human gastrointestinal tract is the primary site of colonization of multidrug resistant pathogens and the major source of life-threatening complications in critically ill and immunocompromised patients. Eradication measures using antibiotics carry further risk of antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, antibiotic treatment can adversely shift the intestinal microbiome toward domination by resistant pathogens. Therefore, approaches directed to prevent replacement of health promoting microbiota with resistant pathogens should be developed...
October 19, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Sonja C Sawh, Santosh Deshpande, Sandy Jansen, Christopher J Reynaert, Philip M Jones
CONTEXT: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most frequent gastrointestinal emergency in neonates. The microbiome of the preterm gut may regulate the integrity of the intestinal mucosa. Probiotics may positively contribute to mucosal integrity, potentially reducing the risk of NEC in neonates. OBJECTIVE: To perform an updated systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy and safety of probiotics for the prevention of NEC in premature infants. DATA SOURCES: Structured searches were performed in: Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (all via Ovid, from 2013 to January 2015)...
2016: PeerJ
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