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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534880/a-tale-of-two-risks-smoking-diabetes-and-the-subgingival-microbiome
#1
Sukirth M Ganesan, Vinayak Joshi, Megan Fellows, Shareef M Dabdoub, Haikady N Nagaraja, Benjamin O'Donnell, Neeta Rohit Deshpande, Purnima S Kumar
Although smoking and diabetes have been established as the only two risk factors for periodontitis, their individual and synergistic impacts on the periodontal microbiome are not well studied. The present investigation analyzed 2.7 million 16S sequences from 175 non-smoking normoglycemic individuals (controls), smokers, diabetics and diabetic smokers with periodontitis as well as periodontally healthy controls, smokers and diabetics to assess subgingival bacterial biodiversity and co-occurrence patterns. The microbial signatures of periodontally healthy smokers, but not diabetics, were highly aligned with the disease-associated microbiomes of their respective cohorts...
May 23, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534879/epibionts-dominate-metabolic-functional-potential-of-trichodesmium-colonies-from-the-oligotrophic-ocean
#2
Kyle R Frischkorn, Mónica Rouco, Benjamin A S Van Mooy, Sonya T Dyhrman
Trichodesmium is a genus of marine diazotrophic colonial cyanobacteria that exerts a profound influence on global biogeochemistry, by injecting 'new' nitrogen into the low nutrient systems where it occurs. Colonies of Trichodesmium ubiquitously contain a diverse assemblage of epibiotic microorganisms, constituting a microbiome on the Trichodesmium host. Metagenome sequences from Trichodesmium colonies were analyzed along a resource gradient in the western North Atlantic to examine microbiome community structure, functional diversity and metabolic contributions to the holobiont...
May 23, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534089/comparison-of-microbiomes-between-red-poultry-mite-populations-dermanyssus-gallinae-predominance-of-bartonella-like-bacteria
#3
Jan Hubert, Tomas Erban, Jan Kopecky, Bruno Sopko, Marta Nesvorna, Martina Lichovnikova, Sabine Schicht, Christina Strube, Olivier Sparagano
Blood feeding red poultry mites (RPM) serve as vectors of pathogenic bacteria and viruses among vertebrate hosts including wild birds, poultry hens, mammals, and humans. The microbiome of RPM has not yet been studied by high-throughput sequencing. RPM eggs, larvae, and engorged adult/nymph samples obtained in four poultry houses in Czechia were used for microbiome analyses by Illumina amplicon sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene V4 region. A laboratory RPM population was used as positive control for transcriptome analysis by pyrosequencing with identification of sequences originating from bacteria...
May 22, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534028/mechanisms-affecting-the-gut-of-preterm-infants-in-enteral-feeding-trials
#4
Nicholas D Embleton, Janet E Berrington, Jon Dorling, Andrew K Ewer, Edmund Juszczak, John A Kirby, Christopher A Lamb, Clare V Lanyon, William McGuire, Christopher S Probert, Stephen P Rushton, Mark D Shirley, Christopher J Stewart, Stephen P Cummings
Large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in preterm infants offer unique opportunities for mechanistic evaluation of the risk factors leading to serious diseases, as well as the actions of interventions designed to prevent them. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) a serious inflammatory gut condition and late-onset sepsis (LOS) are common feeding and nutrition-related problems that may cause death or serious long-term morbidity and are key outcomes in two current UK National Institutes for Health Research (NIHR) trials...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533966/microbiome-patterns-across-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-the-rabbitfish-siganus-fuscescens
#5
Shaun Nielsen, Jackson Wilkes Walburn, Adriana Vergés, Torsten Thomas, Suhelen Egan
Most of our knowledge regarding the biodiversity of gut microbes comes from terrestrial organisms or marine species of economic value, with less emphasis on ecologically important species. Here we investigate the bacterial composition associated with the gut of Siganus fuscescens, a rabbitfish that plays an important ecological role in coastal ecosystems by consuming seaweeds. Members of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and delta-Proteobacteria were among the dominant taxa across samples taken from the contents and the walls (sites) of the midgut and hindgut (location)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533949/worldwide-exploration-of-the-microbiome-harbored-by-the-cnidarian-model-exaiptasia-pallida-agassiz-in-verrill-1864-indicates-a-lack-of-bacterial-association-specificity-at-a-lower-taxonomic-rank
#6
Tanya Brown, Christopher Otero, Alejandro Grajales, Estefania Rodriguez, Mauricio Rodriguez-Lanetty
Examination of host-microbe interactions in early diverging metazoans, such as cnidarians, is of great interest from an evolutionary perspective to understand how host-microbial consortia have evolved. To address this problem, we analyzed whether the bacterial community associated with the cosmopolitan and model sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida shows specific patterns across worldwide populations ranging from the Caribbean Sea, and the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. By comparing sequences of the V1-V3 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, we revealed that anemones host a complex and diverse microbial community...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533782/towards-an-integrative-understanding-of-diet-host-gut-microbiome-interactions
#7
Mark N Read, Andrew J Holmes
Over the last 20 years, a sizeable body of research has linked the microbiome and host diet to a remarkable diversity of diseases. Yet, unifying principles of microbiome assembly or function, at levels required to rationally manipulate a specific individual's microbiome to their benefit, have not emerged. A key driver of both community composition and activity is the host diet, but diet-microbiome interactions cannot be characterized without consideration of host-diet interactions such as appetite and digestion...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533770/from-vineyard-soil-to-wine-fermentation-microbiome-approximations-to-explain-the-terroir-concept
#8
REVIEW
Ignacio Belda, Iratxe Zarraonaindia, Matthew Perisin, Antonio Palacios, Alberto Acedo
Wine originally emerged as a serendipitous mix of chemistry and biology, where microorganisms played a decisive role. From these ancient fermentations to the current monitored industrial processes, winegrowers and winemakers have been continuously changing their practices according to scientific knowledge and advances. A new enology direction is emerging and aiming to blend the complexity of spontaneous fermentations with industrial safety of monitored fermentations. In this context, wines with distinctive autochthonous peculiarities have a great acceptance among consumers, causing important economic returns...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533766/predicting-the-hma-lma-status-in-marine-sponges-by-machine-learning
#9
Lucas Moitinho-Silva, Georg Steinert, Shaun Nielsen, Cristiane C P Hardoim, Yu-Chen Wu, Grace P McCormack, Susanna López-Legentil, Roman Marchant, Nicole Webster, Torsten Thomas, Ute Hentschel
The dichotomy between high microbial abundance (HMA) and low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges has been observed in sponge-microbe symbiosis, although the extent of this pattern remains poorly unknown. We characterized the differences between the microbiomes of HMA (n = 19) and LMA (n = 17) sponges (575 specimens) present in the Sponge Microbiome Project. HMA sponges were associated with richer and more diverse microbiomes than LMA sponges, as indicated by the comparison of alpha diversity metrics. Microbial community structures differed between HMA and LMA sponges considering Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) abundances and across microbial taxonomic levels, from phylum to species...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533691/microbiome-disruption-and-recovery-in-the-fish-gambusia-affinis-following-exposure-to-broad-spectrum-antibiotic
#10
Jeanette M Carlson, Annie B Leonard, Embriette R Hyde, Joseph F Petrosino, Todd P Primm
Antibiotics are a relatively common disturbance to the normal microbiota of humans and agricultural animals, sometimes resulting in severe side effects such as antibiotic-associated enterocolitis. Gambusia affinis was used as a vertebrate model for effects of a broad-spectrum antibiotic, rifampicin, on the skin and gut mucosal microbiomes. The fish were exposed to the antibiotic in the water column for 1 week, and then monitored during recovery. As observed via culture, viable counts from the skin microbiome dropped strongly yet returned to pretreatment levels by 1...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533520/the-response-of-a-boreal-deep-sea-sponge-holobiont-to-acute-thermal-stress
#11
R Strand, S Whalan, N S Webster, T Kutti, J K H Fang, H M Luter, R J Bannister
Effects of elevated seawater temperatures on deep-water benthos has been poorly studied, despite reports of increased seawater temperature (up to 4 °C over 24 hrs) coinciding with mass mortality events of the sponge Geodia barretti at Tisler Reef, Norway. While the mechanisms driving these mortality events are unclear, manipulative laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify the effects of elevated temperature (up to 5 °C, above ambient levels) on the ecophysiology (respiration rate, nutrient uptake, cellular integrity and sponge microbiome) of G...
May 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531216/impact-of-mutations-in-toll-like-receptor-pathway-genes-on-esophageal-carcinogenesis
#12
Daffolyn Rachael Fels Elliott, Juliane Perner, Xiaodun Li, Martyn F Symmons, Brett Verstak, Matthew Eldridge, Lawrence Bower, Maria O'Donovan, Nick J Gay, Rebecca C Fitzgerald
Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) develops in an inflammatory microenvironment with reduced microbial diversity, but mechanisms for these influences remain poorly characterized. We hypothesized that mutations targeting the Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway could disrupt innate immune signaling and promote a microenvironment that favors tumorigenesis. Through interrogating whole genome sequencing data from 171 EAC patients, we showed that non-synonymous mutations collectively affect the TLR pathway in 25/171 (14...
May 22, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530702/metformin-alters-the-gut-microbiome-of-individuals-with-treatment-naive-type-2-diabetes-contributing-to-the-therapeutic-effects-of-the-drug
#13
Hao Wu, Eduardo Esteve, Valentina Tremaroli, Muhammad Tanweer Khan, Robert Caesar, Louise Mannerås-Holm, Marcus Ståhlman, Lisa M Olsson, Matteo Serino, Mercè Planas-Fèlix, Gemma Xifra, Josep M Mercader, David Torrents, Rémy Burcelin, Wifredo Ricart, Rosie Perkins, José Manuel Fernàndez-Real, Fredrik Bäckhed
Metformin is widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but its mechanism of action is poorly defined. Recent evidence implicates the gut microbiota as a site of metformin action. In a double-blind study, we randomized individuals with treatment-naive T2D to placebo or metformin for 4 months and showed that metformin had strong effects on the gut microbiome. These results were verified in a subset of the placebo group that switched to metformin 6 months after the start of the trial. Transfer of fecal samples (obtained before and 4 months after treatment) from metformin-treated donors to germ-free mice showed that glucose tolerance was improved in mice that received metformin-altered microbiota...
May 22, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530140/associations-of-nasopharyngeal-metabolome-and-microbiome-with-severity-among-infants-with-bronchiolitis-a-multi-omic-analysis
#14
Christopher J Stewart, Jonathan M Mansbach, Matthew C Wong, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino, Carlos A Camargo, Kohei Hasegawa
RATIONALE: Bronchiolitis is the most common lower respiratory infection in infants; however, it remains unclear which infants with bronchiolitis will develop severe illness. In addition, while emerging evidence indicates associations of the upper-airway microbiome with bronchiolitis severity, little is known about the mechanisms linking airway microbes and host response to disease severity. OBJECTIVES: To determine the relations among the nasopharyngeal airway metabolome profiles, microbiome profiles, and severity in infants with bronchiolitis...
May 21, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529325/anticancer-effects-of-the-microbiome-and-its-products
#15
REVIEW
Laurence Zitvogel, Romain Daillère, María Paula Roberti, Bertrand Routy, Guido Kroemer
The human gut microbiome modulates many host processes, including metabolism, inflammation, and immune and cellular responses. It is becoming increasingly apparent that the microbiome can also influence the development of cancer. In preclinical models, the host response to cancer treatment has been improved by modulating the gut microbiome; this is known to have an altered composition in many diseases, including cancer. In addition, cancer treatment with microbial agents or their products has the potential to shrink tumours...
May 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528651/manganese-in-marine-microbiology
#16
Colleen M Hansel
The importance of manganese in the physiology of marine microbes, the biogeochemistry of the ocean and the health of microbial communities of past and present is emerging. Manganese is distributed widely throughout the global ocean, taking the form of an essential antioxidant (Mn(2+)), a potent oxidant (Mn(3+)) and strong adsorbent (Mn oxides) sequestering disproportionately high levels of trace metals and nutrients in comparison to the surrounding seawater. Manganese is, in fact, linked to nearly all other elemental cycles and intricately involved in the health, metabolism and function of the ocean's microbiome...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528593/polymannuronic-acid-ameliorated-obesity-and-inflammation-associated-with-a-high-fat-and-high-sucrose-diet-by-modulating-the-gut-microbiome-in-a-murine-model
#17
Fang Liu, Xiong Wang, Hongjie Shi, Yuming Wang, Changhu Xue, Qing-Juan Tang
Polymannuronic acid (PM), one of numerous alginates isolated from brown seaweeds, is known to possess antioxidant activities. In this study, we examined its potential role in reducing body weight gain and attenuating inflammation induced by a high-fat and high-sucrose diet (HFD) as well as its effect on modulating the gut microbiome in mice. A 30-d PM treatment significantly reduced the diet-induced body weight gain and blood TAG levels (P2·0). PM also had a profound impact on the microbial composition in the gut microbiome and resulted in a distinct microbiome structure...
May 22, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528399/bacterial-microbiome-and-nematode-occurrence-in-different-potato-agricultural-soils
#18
Juan D Castillo, Jorge M Vivanco, Daniel K Manter
Pratylenchus neglectus and Meloidogyne chitwoodi are the main plant-parasitic nematodes in potato crops of the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Bacterial microbiome (16S rRNA copies per gram of soil) and nematode communities (nematodes per 200 g of soil) from five different potato farms were analyzed to determine negative and positive correlations between any bacterial genus and P. neglectus and M. chitwoodi. Farms showed differences in bacterial communities, percentage of bacterivorous and fungivorous nematodes, and numbers of P...
May 20, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527946/the-microbiome-and-hepatobiliary-pancreatic-cancers
#19
Kosuke Mima, Shigeki Nakagawa, Hiroshi Sawayama, Takatsugu Ishimoto, Katsunori Imai, Masaaki Iwatsuki, Daisuke Hashimoto, Yoshifumi Baba, Yo-Ichi Yamashita, Naoya Yoshida, Akira Chikamoto, Hideo Baba
The human intestinal microbiome encompasses at least 100 trillion microorganisms that can influence host immunity and disease conditions, including cancer. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic cancers have been associated with poor prognosis owing to their high level of tumor invasiveness, distant metastasis, and resistance to conventional treatment options, such as chemotherapy. Accumulating evidence from animal models suggests that specific microbes and microbial dysbiosis can potentiate hepatobiliary-pancreatic tumor development by damaging DNA, activating oncogenic signaling pathways, and producing tumor-promoting metabolites...
May 17, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527760/restoration-of-cefixime-induced-gut-microbiota-changes-by-lactobacillus-cocktails-and-fructooligosaccharides-in-a-mouse-model
#20
Ying Shi, Qixiao Zhai, Dongyao Li, Bingyong Mao, Xiaoming Liu, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen
Probiotics have been used to rebuild the antibiotic-induced dysfunction in gut microbiota, but whether the different strains of probiotics result in similar or reverse effects remains unclear. In this study, the different recovery effects of two cocktails (each contains four strains) of Lactobacillus and fructooligosaccharide against cefixime-induced change of gut microbiota were evaluated in C57BL/6J mice. The results show that the use of cefixime caused a reduction in the diversities of the microbial community and led to significantly decreasing to one preponderant Firmicutes phylum, which was difficult to restore naturally in the short term...
July 2017: Microbiological Research
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