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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732267/understanding-the-holobiont-the-interdependence-of-plants-and-their-microbiome
#1
REVIEW
Carmen Sánchez-Cañizares, Beatriz Jorrín, Philip S Poole, Andrzej Tkacz
The holobiont is composed by the plant and its microbiome. In a similar way to ecological systems of higher organisms, the holobiont shows interdependent and complex dynamics [1,2]. While plants originate from seeds, the microbiome has a multitude of sources. The assemblage of these communities depends on the interaction between the emerging seedling and its surrounding environment, with soil being the main source. These microbial communities are controlled by the plant through different strategies, such as the specific profile of root exudates and its immune system...
July 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732264/insights-into-plant-phosphate-sensing-and-signaling
#2
REVIEW
Byung-Kook Ham, Jieyu Chen, Yan Yan, William J Lucas
Phosphorus (P) is a macronutrient essential for plant growth, therefore, soil P level is critical to crop yield potential in agriculture. As Pi levels limit crop yield under many soil conditions, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms by which plants adapt to low-phosphate (Pi) soil conditions and interact with their soil microbiome to improve crop P use efficiency, in order to ensure global food security. Recent advances have been made towards achieving this goal through advancing our understanding of the plant's response to limiting Pi conditions to maintain P homeostasis...
July 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731473/ninety-nine-de-novo-assembled-genomes-from-the-moose-alces-alces-rumen-microbiome-provide-new-insights-into-microbial-plant-biomass-degradation
#3
Olov Svartström, Johannes Alneberg, Nicolas Terrapon, Vincent Lombard, Ino de Bruijn, Jonas Malmsten, Ann-Marie Dalin, Emilie El Muller, Pranjul Shah, Paul Wilmes, Bernard Henrissat, Henrik Aspeborg, Anders F Andersson
The moose (Alces alces) is a ruminant that harvests energy from fiber-rich lignocellulose material through carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) produced by its rumen microbes. We applied shotgun metagenomics to rumen contents from six moose to obtain insights into this microbiome. Following binning, 99 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) belonging to 11 prokaryotic phyla were reconstructed and characterized based on phylogeny and CAZyme profile. The taxonomy of these MAGs reflected the overall composition of the metagenome, with dominance of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes...
July 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730551/pseudomonas-fluorescens-r68-assisted-enhancement-in-growth-and-fertilizer-utilization-of-amaranthus-tricolor-l
#4
C Jimtha John, P Jishma, N R Karthika, K S Nidheesh, J G Ray, Jyothis Mathew, E K Radhakrishnan
Plant probiotic potential of rhizosphere microbiome and its role in phytofertilizer mobilization are largely unexplored. In the current study, the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens R68 (PFR68) isolated from Western Ghat was analyzed for its growth enhancement effect on the leafy vegetable Amaranthus tricolor (L.). One month of field growth of PFR68 inoculated A. tricolor has found to have enhanced growth parameters such as leaf number (1.57 fold), root number (1.76 fold), shoot length (1.28 fold) and fresh weight (2...
August 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730144/molecular-characterization-of-the-human-stomach-microbiota-in-gastric-cancer-patients
#5
Guoqin Yu, Javier Torres, Nan Hu, Rafael Medrano-Guzman, Roberto Herrera-Goepfert, Michael S Humphrys, Lemin Wang, Chaoyu Wang, Ti Ding, Jacques Ravel, Philip R Taylor, Christian C Abnet, Alisa M Goldstein
Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is the primary cause of gastric cancer but we know little of its relative abundance and other microbes in the stomach, especially at the time of gastric cancer diagnosis. Here we characterized the taxonomic and derived functional profiles of gastric microbiota in two different sets of gastric cancer patients, and compared them with microbial profiles in other body sites. Paired non-malignant and tumor tissues were sampled from 160 gastric cancer patients with 80 from China and 80 from Mexico...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729860/burn-injury-leads-to-increase-in-relative-abundance-of-opportunistic-pathogens-in-the-rat-gastrointestinal-microbiome
#6
Guangtao Huang, Kedai Sun, Supeng Yin, Bei Jiang, Yu Chen, Yali Gong, Yajie Chen, Zichen Yang, Jing Chen, Zhiqiang Yuan, Yizhi Peng
The gastrointestinal microbiome is crucial in human health. With greater than 10 times the cell count of an individual, the gastrointestinal microbiome provides many benefits to the host. It plays an important role in chronic illnesses and immune diseases and also following burns and trauma. This study aimed to determine whether severe burns affect the gastrointestinal microbiome during the early stages of after burn injury and the extent to which the microbiome is disturbed by such burns. We used a rat burn model to investigate any changes occurring in the microbiome after the burn trauma using 16S rRNA sequencing and downstream α-diversity, β-diversity, and taxonomy analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729854/microbiome-of-trichodesmium-colonies-from-the-north-pacific-subtropical-gyre
#7
Mary R Gradoville, Byron C Crump, Ricardo M Letelier, Matthew J Church, Angelicque E White
Filamentous diazotrophic Cyanobacteria of the genus Trichodesmium, often found in colonial form, provide an important source of new nitrogen to tropical and subtropical marine ecosystems. Colonies are composed of several clades of Trichodesmium in association with a diverse community of bacterial and eukaryotic epibionts. We used high-throughput 16S rRNA and nifH gene sequencing, carbon (C) and dinitrogen (N2) fixation assays, and metagenomics to describe the diversity and functional potential of the microbiome associated with Trichodesmium colonies collected from the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729646/climate-oscillations-reflected-within-the-microbiome-of-arabian-sea-sediments
#8
William D Orsi, Marco J L Coolen, Cornelia Wuchter, Lijun He, Kuldeep D More, Xabier Irigoien, Guillem Chust, Carl Johnson, Jordon D Hemingway, Mitchell Lee, Valier Galy, Liviu Giosan
Selection of microorganisms in marine sediment is shaped by energy-yielding electron acceptors for respiration that are depleted in vertical succession. However, some taxa have been reported to reflect past depositional conditions suggesting they have experienced weak selection after burial. In sediments underlying the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), we performed the first metagenomic profiling of sedimentary DNA at centennial-scale resolution in the context of a multi-proxy paleoclimate reconstruction...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729641/the-rhizosphere-microbiome-of-burned-holm-oak-potential-role-of-the-genus-arthrobacter-in-the-recovery-of-burned-soils
#9
Antonio J Fernández-González, Pilar Martínez-Hidalgo, José F Cobo-Díaz, Pablo J Villadas, Eustoquio Martínez-Molina, Nicolás Toro, Susannah G Tringe, Manuel Fernández-López
After a forest wildfire, the microbial communities have a transient alteration in their composition. The role of the soil microbial community in the recovery of an ecosystem following such an event remains poorly understood. Thus, it is necessary to understand the plant-microbe interactions that occur in burned soils. By high-throughput sequencing, we identified the main bacterial taxa of burnt holm-oak rhizosphere, then we obtained an isolate collection of the most abundant genus and its growth promoting activities were characterised...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728967/impact-of-the-microbiota-on-bacterial-infections-during-cancer-treatment
#10
REVIEW
Jessica Galloway-Peña, Chelcy Brumlow, Samuel Shelburne
Patients being treated for cancer are at high risk for infectious complications, generally due to colonizing organisms that gain access to sterile sites via disrupted epithelial barriers. There is an emerging understanding that the ability of bacterial pathogens, including multidrug-resistant organisms, to colonize and subsequently infect humans is largely dependent on protective bacterial species present in the microbiome. Thus, herein we review recent studies demonstrating strong correlations between the microbiome of the oncology patient and infections occurring during chemotherapy...
July 17, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728934/beyond-body-mass-index-obesity-and-lung-disease
#11
REVIEW
Ubong Peters, Benjamin T Suratt, Jason H T Bates, Anne E Dixon
The worldwide prevalence of obesity has increased rapidly in the last three decades, and this has led to important changes in the pathogenesis and clinical presentation of many common diseases. This review article examines the relationship between obesity and lung disease, highlighting some of the major findings that have advanced our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to this relationship. Changes in pulmonary function related to fat mass are important, but obesity is much more than simply a state of mass loading, and body mass index is only a very indirect measure of metabolic health...
July 17, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728852/for-publication-in-vitro-characteristics-of-an-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salarl-hind-gut-microbial-community-in-relation-to-different-dietary-treatments
#12
Kamarul Zaman Zarkasi, Richard S Taylor, Brett D Glencross, Guy C J Abell, Mark L Tamplin, John P Bowman
In this study, microbial community dynamics were assessed within a simple in vitro model system in order to understand those changes influenced by diet.The abundance and diversity of bacteria were monitored within different treatment slurries inoculated with salmon faecal samples in order to mimic the effects of dietary variables. A total of five complete diets and two ingredients (plant meal)were tested. The total viable counts (TVCs) and sequencing data revealed that there was very clear separation between the complete diets and the plant meal treatments, suggesting a dynamic response by the allochthonous bacteria to the treatments...
July 17, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728057/integrating-the-microbiome-as-a-resource-in-the-forensics-toolkit
#13
Thomas H Clarke, Andres Gomez, Harinder Singh, Karen E Nelson, Lauren M Brinkac
The introduction of DNA fingerprinting to forensic science rapidly expanded the available evidence that could be garnered from a crime scene and used in court cases. Next generation sequencing technologies increased available genetic data that could be used as evidence by orders of magnitude, and as such, significant additional genetic information is now available for use in forensic science. This includes DNA from the bacteria that live in and on humans, known as the human microbiome. Next generation sequencing of the human microbiome demonstrates that its bacterial DNA can be used to uniquely identify an individual, provide information about their life and behavioral patterns, determine the body site where a sample came from, and estimate postmortem intervals...
June 27, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727425/the-database-and-bioinformatics-studies-of-probiotics
#14
Lin Tao, Bohua Wang, Yafen Zhong, Siok Hoon Pow, Xian Zeng, Chu Qin, Peng Zhang, Shangying Chen, Weidong He, Ying Tan, Hongxia Liu, Yuyang Jiang, Weiping Chen, Yu Zong Chen
Probiotics have been widely explored for health benefits, animal cares, and agricultural applications. Recent advances in microbiome, microbiota and microbial dark matter research have fueled greater interests in and paved ways for the study of the mechanisms of probiotics and the discovery of new probiotics from uncharacterized microbial sources. A probiotics database named PROBIO was developed to facilitate these efforts and the need for the information of the known probiotics, which provides the comprehensive information about the probiotic functions of 448 marketed, 167 clinical trial/field trial and 382 research probiotics for use or being studied for use in humans, animals, and plants...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727206/the-mother-offspring-dyad-microbial-transmission-immune-interactions-and-allergy-development
#15
REVIEW
Maria C Jenmalm
The increasing prevalence of allergy in affluent countries may be caused by reduced intensity and diversity of microbial stimulation, resulting in abnormal postnatal immune maturation. Most studies investigating the underlying immunomodulatory mechanisms have focused on postnatal microbial exposure, for example demonstrating that the gut microbiota differs in composition and diversity during the first months of life in children who later do or do not develop allergic disease. However, it is also becoming increasingly evident that the maternal microbial environment during pregnancy is important in childhood immune programming, and the first microbial encounters may occur already in utero...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727115/the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-as-a-key-regulator-of-neural-function-and-the-stress-response-implications-for-human-and-animal-health
#16
N C Wiley, T G Dinan, R P Ross, C Stanton, G Clarke, J F Cryan
The brain-gut-microbiota axis comprises an extensive communication network between the brain, the gut, and the microbiota residing there. Development of a diverse gut microbiota is vital for multiple features of behavior and physiology, as well as many fundamental aspects of brain structure and function. Appropriate early-life assembly of the gut microbiota is also believed to play a role in subsequent emotional and cognitive development. If the composition, diversity, or assembly of the gut microbiota is impaired, this impairment can have a negative impact on host health and lead to disorders such as obesity, diabetes, inflammatory diseases, and even potentially neuropsychiatric illnesses, including anxiety and depression...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727105/analysis-of-the-gut-bacterial-communities-in-beef-cattle-and-their-association-with-feed-intake-growth-and-efficiency
#17
P R Myer, H C Freetly, J E Wells, T P L Smith, L A Kuehn
The impetus behind the global food security challenge is direct, with the necessity to feed almost 10 billion people by 2050. Developing a food-secure world, where people have access to a safe and sustainable food supply, is the principal goal of this challenge. To achieve this end, beef production enterprises must develop methods to produce more pounds of animal protein with less. Selection for feed-efficient beef cattle using genetic improvement technologies has helped to understand and improve the stayability and longevity of such traits within the herd...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727093/effects-of-intravenous-lipopolysaccharide-administration-on-feed-intake-ruminal-forage-degradability-and-liquid-parameters-and-physiological-responses-in-beef-cattle
#18
K D Lippolis, R F Cooke, K M Schubach, R S Marques, D W Bohnert
This experiment compared DMI, ruminal forage degradability, and liquid parameters as well as physiological responses in beef cattle receiving a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge or not. Eight ruminally cannulated Angus × Hereford steers (485 ± 16 kg BW) were housed in individual pens on d -7, ranked by BW, and allocated to 1 of 2 treatments administered on d 0: 1) an intravenous (i.v.) bolus dose (0.5 μg/kg of BW, diluted in 5 mL of 0.9% sterile saline) of bacterial LPS ( 0111:B4) or 2) a 5-mL i.v. injection of 0...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727013/changes-in-the-rumen-bacterial-microbiome-of-cattle-exposed-to-ponderosa-pine-needles
#19
K D Welch, C A Stonecipher, D R Gardner, D Cook, J A Pfister
Consumption of ponderosa pine needles, as well as needles and bark from a number of other trees, can cause abortions in cattle. The abortifacient compounds in these trees are labdane resin acids, including isocupressic acid and agathic acid. Previous research has demonstrated that cattle conditioned to pine needles metabolize the labdane resin acids more quickly than naïve cattle. The results from that study indicated that changes had occurred in the rumen of conditioned cattle. Therefore, in this study, the changes that occurred in the rumen bacterial microflora of cattle during exposure to ponderosa pine needles were evaluated...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726511/how-do-probiotics-and-prebiotics-function-at-distant-sites
#20
G Reid, T Abrahamsson, M Bailey, L B Bindels, R Bubnov, K Ganguli, C Martoni, C O'Neill, H M Savignac, C Stanton, N Ship, M Surette, K Tuohy, S van Hemert
The realisation that microbes regarded as beneficial to the host can impart effects at sites distant from their habitat, has raised many possibilities for treatment of diseases. The objective of a workshop hosted in Turku, Finland, by the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics, was to assess the evidence for these effects and the extent to which early life microbiome programming influences how the gut microbiota communicates with distant sites. In addition, we examined how probiotics and prebiotics might affect the skin, airways, heart, brain and metabolism...
July 20, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
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