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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189587/the-effect-of-cold-14-%C3%A2-c-versus-ice-5%C3%A2-c-water-immersion-on-recovery-from-intermittent-running-exercise
#1
Daniel Anderson, James Nunn, Christopher J Tyler
The purpose was to compare 14°C (CWI14°C) and 5°C (CWI5°C) cold water immersion following intermittent running. On three occasions, nine male team-sport players undertook 12 min of CWI14°C, CWI5°C or non-immersed seated recovery (CON) following 45 min of intermittent running exercise. Maximal cycling performance and markers of recovery were measured before and in the 0 - 72 h after exercise. Peak power output (PPO) was immediately reduced following all interventions (d = 1.8). CWI5°C was more effective at restoring PPO than CWI14°C (d = 0...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163232/considerations-on-the-assessment-and-use-of-cycling-performance-metrics-and-their-integration-in-the-athlete-s-biological-passport
#2
Paolo Menaspà, Chris R Abbiss
Over the past few decades the possibility to capture real-time data from road cyclists has drastically improved. Given the increasing pressure for improved transparency and openness, there has been an increase in publication of cyclists' physiological and performance data. Recently, it has been suggested that the use of such performance biometrics may be used to strengthen the sensitivity and applicability of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) and aid in the fight against doping. This is an interesting concept which has merit, although there are several important factors that need to be considered...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119418/low-level-laser-therapy-improves-the-vo2-kinetics-in-competitive-cyclists
#3
Fábio J Lanferdini, Renata L Krüger, Bruno M Baroni, Caetano Lazzari, Pedro Figueiredo, Alvaro Reischak-Oliveira, Marco A Vaz
Some evidence supports that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) reduces neuromuscular fatigue, so incrementing sports performance. A previous randomized controlled trial of our group showed increased exercise tolerance in male competitive cyclists treated with three different LLLT doses (3, 6, and 9 J/diode; or 135, 270, and 405 J/thigh) before time-to-exhaustion cycling tests. Now, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of these LLLT doses on the VO2 kinetics of athletes during cycling tests. Twenty male competitive cyclists (29 years) participated in a crossover, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial...
November 9, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113535/effects-of-erythropoietin-abuse-on-exercise-performance
#4
Paolo Sgrò, Massimiliano Sansone, Andrea Sansone, Francesco Romanelli, Luigi Di Luigi
The present review provides a comprehensive overview on the erythropoietic and non-erythropoietic effects of rHuEpo on human sport performance, paying attention to quantifying numerically how rHuEpo affects exercise performance and describing physiological changes regarding the most important exercise variables. Much attention has been paid to treatment schedules, in particular, to assess the effects of microdoses of rHuEpo and the prolonged effects on sport performance following withdrawal. Moreover, the review takes into account non-erythropoietic ergogenic effects of rHuEpo, including cognitive benefits of rHuEpo...
November 8, 2017: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112625/ischemic-preconditioning-improves-time-trial-performance-at-moderate-altitude
#5
Pénélope Paradis-Deschênes, Denis R Joanisse, François Billaut
PURPOSE: Endurance athletes often compete and train at altitude where exercise capacity is reduced. Investigating acclimation strategies is therefore critical. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) can improve endurance performance at sea level through improved O2 delivery and utilization, which could also prove beneficial at altitude. However, data are scarce and there is no study at altitudes commonly visited by endurance athletes. METHODS: In a randomized, crossover study, we investigated performance and physiological responses in thirteen male endurance cyclists during four 5-km cycling time trials (TT), preceded by either IPC (3x5-minutes ischemia/5-minutes reperfusion cycles at 220 mmHg) or SHAM (20 mmHg) administered to both thighs, at simulated low (FIO2 0...
November 6, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072032/training-induced-annual-changes-in-red-blood-cell-profile-in-highly-trained-endurance-and-speed-power-athletes
#6
Monika Ciekot-Sołtysiak, Krzysztof Kusy, Tomasz Podgórski, Jacek Zieliński
BACKGROUND: An extensive body of literature exists on the effects of training on haematological parameters, but the previous studies have not reported how hematological parameters respond to changes in training loads within consecutive phases of the training cycle in highly-trained athletes in extremely different sport disciplines. The aim of this study was to identify changes in red blood cell (RBC) profile in response to training loads in consecutive phases of the annual training cycle in highly-trained sprinters (8 men, aged 24 ± 3 years) and triathletes (6 men, aged 24 ± 4 years) who competed at the national and international level...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033847/a-monetary-reward-alters-pacing-but-not-performance-in-competitive-cyclists
#7
Sabrina Skorski, Kevin G Thompson, Richard J Keegan, Tim Meyer, Chris R Abbiss
Money has frequently been used as an extrinsic motivator since it is assumed that humans are willing to invest more effort for financial reward. However, the influence of a monetary reward on pacing and performance in trained athletes is not well-understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse the influence of a monetary reward in well-trained cyclists on their pacing and performance during short and long cycling time trials (TT). Twentythree cyclists (6 ♀, 17 ♂) completed 4 self-paced time trials (TTs, 2 short: 4 km and 6 min; 2 long: 20 km and 30 min); in a randomized order...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032729/impact-of-inserted-long-rest-periods-during-repeated-sprint-exercise-on-performance-adaptation
#8
Akiho Ikutomo, Nobukazu Kasai, Kazushige Goto
Repeated sprint training consists of a series of brief maximal sprints, 3-7 s in duration, separated by short rest periods of <60 s. However, little is known about the influence of different rest period lengths between sprints on performance adaptation. We determined the influence of inserting long rest periods during repeated sprint training on performance adaptation in competitive athletes. Twenty-one well-trained athletes were separated into either the short rest period group (SHORT; n = 10) or the long rest period group (LONG; n = 11)...
October 14, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980321/post-exercise-recovery-of-contractile-function-and-endurance-in-humans-and-mice-is-accelerated-by-heating-and-slowed-by-cooling-skeletal-muscle
#9
Arthur J Cheng, Sarah J Willis, Christoph Zinner, Thomas Chaillou, Niklas Ivarsson, Niels Ørtenblad, Johanna T Lanner, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Håkan Westerblad
Manipulation of muscle temperature is believed to improve post-exercise recovery, with cooling being especially popular among athletes. However, it is unclear whether such temperature manipulations actually have positive effects. Accordingly, we studied the effect of muscle temperature on the acute recovery of force and fatigue resistance after endurance exercise. One hour of moderate-intensity arm cycling exercise in humans was followed by two hours recovery in which the upper arms were either heated to 38°C, not treated (33°C), or cooled to ∼15°C...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936625/the-reproducibility-of-4-km-time-trial-tt-performance-following-individualised-sodium-bicarbonate-supplementation-a-randomised-controlled-trial-in-trained-cyclists
#10
Lewis Anthony Gough, Sanjoy Kumar Deb, Andy Sparks, Lars Robert McNaughton
BACKGROUND: Individual time to peak blood bicarbonate (HCO3(-)) has demonstrated good to excellent reproducibility following ingestion of both 0.2 g kg(-1) body mass (BM) and 0.3 g kg(-1) BM sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), but the consistency of the time trial (TT) performance response using such an individualised NaHCO3 ingestion strategy remains unknown. This study therefore evaluated the reproducibility of 4-km TT performance following NaHCO3 ingestion individualised to time to peak blood bicarbonate...
September 21, 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930880/cycling-power-outputs-predict-functional-threshold-power-and-maximum-oxygen-uptake
#11
Joshua Denham, John Scott-Hamilton, Amanda D Hagstrom, Adrian J Gray
Functional threshold power (FTP) has emerged as a correlate of lactate threshold and is commonly assessed by recreational and professional cyclists for tailored exercise programing. To identify whether results from traditional aerobic and anaerobic cycling tests could predict FTP and V˙ O2max, we analysed the association between estimated FTP, maximum oxygen uptake (V˙ O2max [mlkgmin]) and power outputs obtained from a maximal cycle ergometry cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) and a 30-s Wingate test in a heterogeneous cohort of cycle-trained and untrained individuals (N=40, mean±SD; age: 32...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919166/kinetic-analysis-of-oxygen-dynamics-under-a-variable-work-rate
#12
Alexander Artiga Gonzalez, Raphael Bertschinger, Fabian Brosda, Thorsten Dahmen, Patrick Thumm, Dietmar Saupe
Measurements of oxygen uptake are central to methods for the assessment of physical fitness and endurance capabilities in athletes. Two important parameters extracted from such data of incremental exercise tests are the maximal oxygen uptake and the critical power. A commonly accepted model of the dynamics of oxygen uptake during exercise at a constant work rate comprises a constant baseline oxygen uptake, an exponential fast component, and another exponential slow component for heavy and severe work rates...
September 14, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902115/repeated-high-intensity-cycling-performance-is-unaffected-by-timing-of-carbohydrate-ingestion
#13
Ren-Jay Shei, Hunter L Paris, Christopher P Beck, Robert F Chapman, Timothy D Mickleborough
To determine whether carbohydrate feeding taken immediately before, early, or late in a series of high-intensity cycling exercises affected cycling performance 16 trained, male cyclists (> 6hr post-prandial) performed three, 4-km cycling time trials (TT1, TT2, TT3) separated by 15 min of active recovery on four separate occasions. Carbohydrate feeding (80g) was given either before TT1 (PRE1), before TT2 (PRE2), before TT3 (PRE3), or not at all (control, CTL). Treatment order was randomized. Sweet-placebo was given prior to the other time trials...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872385/new-records-in-human-power
#14
Thomas Haugen, Gøran Paulsen, Stephen Seiler, Øyvind Sandbakk
Maximal aerobic and anaerobic power are crucial performance determinants in most sports disciplines. Numerous studies have published power data from elite athletes over the years, particularly in runners, cyclists, rowers and cross-country skiers. In this invited review, we define the current "world records" in human upper limits of aerobic and anaerobic power. Currently, V̇O2max values of ~7.5 and 7.0 L·min(-1) in male cross-country (XC) skiers and rowers, respectively, and/or ~90 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) in XC skiers, cyclists and runners can be described as upper human limits for aerobic power...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872380/optimizing-heat-acclimation-for-endurance-athletes-high-vs-low-intensity-training
#15
Cyril Schmit, Rob Duffield, Christophe Hausswirth, Jeanick Brisswalter, Yann Le Meur
PURPOSE: We sought to determine the effect of high- vs. low-intensity training in the heat and ensuing taper period in the heat on endurance performance. METHODS: Nineteen well-trained triathletes undertook 5 days of normal training and a 1-week taper, including either low- (HA-L, n=10) or high-intensity (HA-H, n=9) training sessions in the heat (30°C, 50% of relative humidity). A control group (n=10) reproduced their usual training in thermoneutral conditions...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759538/validity-and-reliability-of-the-hexoskin%C3%A2-wearable-biometric-vest-during-maximal-aerobic-power-testing-in-elite-cyclists
#16
Catherine A Elliot, Michael J Hamlin, Catherine A Lizamore
The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity and reliability of the Hexoskin® vest for measuring respiration and heart rate (HR) in elite cyclists during a progressive test to exhaustion. Ten male elite cyclists (age 28.8 ± 12.5 yr, height 179.3 ± 6.0 cm, weight 73.2 ± 9.1 kg, V˙ O2max 60.7 ± 7.8 ml.kg.min mean ± SD) conducted a maximal aerobic cycle ergometer test using a ramped protocol (starting at 100W with 25W increments each min to failure) during two separate occasions over a 3-4 day period...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742832/the-relationship-between-movement-speed-and-duration-during-soccer-matches
#17
Kai Roecker, Hubert Mahler, Christian Heyde, Mareike Röll, Albert Gollhofer
The relationship between the time duration of movement (t(dur)) and related maximum possible power output has been studied and modeled under many conditions. Inspired by the so-called power profiles known for discontinuous endurance sports like cycling, and the critical power concept of Monod and Scherrer, the aim of this study was to evaluate the numerical characteristics of the function between maximum horizontal movement velocity (HSpeed) and t(dur) in soccer. To evaluate this relationship, GPS data from 38 healthy soccer players and 82 game participations (≥30 min active playtime) were used to select maximum HSpeed for 21 distinct t(dur) values (between 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671853/physiological-and-anthropometric-characteristics-of-top-level-youth-cross-country-cyclists
#18
Alessandro Fornasiero, Aldo Savoldelli, Roberto Modena, Gennaro Boccia, Barbara Pellegrini, Federico Schena
In the literature there is a lack of data about the development of top level athletes in cross-country mountain biking (XCO). The purpose of this study was to analyze anthropometric and physiological characteristics of some of the best XCO bikers aged between 13 and 16. The study involved 45 bikers (26 males and 19 females) belonging to a youth national team. The evaluations, consisting of anthropometric measures, incremental cycling tests (VO2max, PPO, P@RCP), and 30 s Wingate Tests (PMax, PMean), were conducted over a lapse of 4 years...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605609/effects-of-macro-and-micronutrients-on-exercise-induced-hepcidin-response-in-highly-trained-endurance-athletes
#19
Dylan T Dahlquist, Trent Stellingwerff, Brad P Dieter, Donald C McKenzie, Michael S Koehle
Iron deficiency has ergolytic effects on athletic performance. Exercise-induced inflammation impedes iron absorption in the digestive tract by upregulating the expression of the iron regulatory protein, hepcidin. Limited research indicates the potential of specific macro- and micronutrients on blunting exercise-induced hepcidin. Therefore, we investigated the effects of postexercise supplementation with protein and carbohydrate (CHO) and vitamins D3 and K2 on the postexercise hepcidin response. Ten highly trained male cyclists (age: 26...
October 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605210/pacing-strategy-during-simulated-mountain-bike-racing
#20
Bruno Ferreira Viana, Flávio Oliveira Pires, Allan Inoue, Tony Meireles Santos
Cross-country mountain biking (XCO) is a popular high-intensity cycling endurance event, however, XCO pacing strategy has not been fully examined. This study examined the pacing strategies of different XCO athletes, during a laboratory-simulated XCO performance test. Brazilian cyclists classified as performance cohort level three (PL3-trained) performed an XCO race simulation. The simulation consisted of four 10 km laps with a gradient of 0-10%. No group vs. time interaction was found in lap time (P = 0.169), absolute (P = 0...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
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