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Athlete cycling power

David A Shearer, William Sparkes, Jonny Northeast, Daniel J Cunningham, Christian J Cook, Liam P Kilduff
OBJECTIVES: Biochemical (e.g. creatine kinase (CK)) and neuromuscular (e.g. peak power output (PPO)) markers of recovery are expensive and require specialist equipment. Perceptual measures are an effective alternative, yet most validated scales are too long for daily use. DESIGN: This study utilises a longitudinal multi-level design to test an adapted Brief Assessment of Mood (BAM+), with four extra items and a 100mm visual analogue scale to measure recovery. METHODS: Elite under-21 academy soccer players (N=11) were monitored across five games with data (BAM+, CK and PPO) collected for each game at 24h pre, 24h and 48h post-match...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Matthew C Miller, Paul W Macdermid, Phil W Fink, Stephen R Stannard
This study investigated the performance-related feasibility and physiological benefits of purposefully eliminating propulsive work while descending in mountain biking and compared values to those measured during road descending. Participants cycled uphill on a road at race pace before descending over three conditions (off-road pedalling; off-road coasting; road coasting). Relatively low power output during off-road pedalling was associated with a greater oxygen uptake (p < .01) when compared with off-road coasting despite no difference in vibration exposure (p > ...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
Joseph Kizzi, Alvin Sum, Fraser E Houston, Lawrence D Hayes
Attenuated performance during intense exercise with limited endogenous carbohydrate (CHO) is well documented. Therefore, this study examined whether caffeine (CAF) mouth rinsing would augment performance during repeated sprint cycling in participants with reduced endogenous CHO. Eight recreationally active males (aged 23 ± 2 yr, body mass 84 ± 4 kg, stature 178 ± 7 cm) participated in this randomized, single-blind, repeated-measures crossover investigation. Following familiarization, participants attended two separate evening glycogen depletion sessions...
November 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
Luis Manuel Martinez-Aranda, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalo
Exercise load is a key component in determining end-point adaptations to resistance exercise. Yet, there is no information regarding the use of different inertia (i.e. loads) during iso-inertial flywheel resistance exercise, a very popular high-intensity training model. Thus, this study examined power, work, force and eccentric-overload produced during flywheel resistance exercise with different inertial settings in men and women. Twenty-two women (n=11) and men (n=11) performed unilateral (in both legs) isolated concentric (CON) and coupled CON and eccentric (ECC) exercise in a flywheel knee extension device employing six inertias (0...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Jamie Douglas, Simon Pearson, Angus Ross, Mike McGuigan
BACKGROUND: Resistance training is an integral component of physical preparation for athletes. A growing body of evidence indicates that eccentric strength training methods induce novel stimuli for neuromuscular adaptations. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the effects of eccentric training in comparison to concentric-only or traditional (i.e. constrained by concentric strength) resistance training. METHODS: Searches were performed using the electronic databases MEDLINE via EBSCO, PubMed and SPORTDiscus via EBSCO...
September 19, 2016: Sports Medicine
Erica J Roelofs, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Eric T Trexler, Katie R Hirsch, Meredith G Mock
The effects of pomegranate extract (PE) supplementation were evaluated on high-intensity exercise performance, blood flow, vessel diameter, oxygen saturation (SPO2), heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP). In a randomized, crossover design, nineteen recreationally resistance-trained participants were randomly assigned to PE (1000 mg) or placebo (PL), which were consumed 30 min prior to a repeated sprint ability (RSA) test and repetitions to fatigue (RTF) on bench and leg press. The RSA consisted of ten six-second sprints on a friction-loaded cycle ergometer with 30 s recovery...
September 20, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
Jonathan M Oliver, Anthony L Almada, Leighsa E Van Eck, Meena Shah, Joel B Mitchell, Margaret T Jones, Andrew R Jagim, David S Rowlands
Athletes in sports demanding repeat maximal work outputs frequently train concurrently utilizing sequential bouts of intense endurance and resistance training sessions. On a daily basis, maximal work within subsequent bouts may be limited by muscle glycogen availability. Recently, the ingestion of a unique high molecular weight (HMW) carbohydrate was found to increase glycogen re-synthesis rate and enhance work output during subsequent endurance exercise, relative to low molecular weight (LMW) carbohydrate ingestion...
2016: PloS One
Kris Beattie, Brian P Carson, Mark Lyons, Ian C Kenny
Cycling economy (CE), power at maximal oxygen uptake (WV̇O2max) and anaerobic function (i.e. sprinting ability) are considered to be the best physiological performance indicators in elite road cyclists. In addition to cardiovascular function, these physiological indicators are partly dictated by neuromuscular factors. One technique to improve neuromuscular function in athletes is through strength training. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 20 week maximal- and explosive-strength training intervention on strength (maximal- , explosive-strength & bike-specific explosive-strength), WV̇O2max, CE and body composition (body mass, fat & lean mass) in cyclists...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Gianluca Vernillo, Alfredo Brighenti, Eloisa Limonta, Pietro Trabucchi, Davide Malatesta, Grégoire P Millet, Federico Schena
PURPOSE: To quantify changes in skeletal muscle oxygenation and pulmonary O2 uptake after an extreme ultratrail running bout. METHODS: Before (PRE) and after (POST) the race (330-km, 24000 D±), profiles of vastus lateralis muscle oxygenation (i.e., oxyhaemoglobin, [O2Hb], deoxyhaemoglobin, [HHb], and tissue oxygenation index [TOI]) and O2 uptake (V̇O2) were determined in 14 athletes (EXP) and 12 control adults (CON) during two 4-min constant-load cycling bouts at power outputs of 1 (p1) and 1...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Benjamin L M Smits, Remco C J Polman, Bert Otten, Gert-Jan Pepping, Florentina J Hettinga
INTRODUCTION: To achieve personal goals in exercise task completion, exercisers have to regulate, distribute, and manage their effort. In endurance sports, it has become very commonplace for athletes to consult task-related feedback on external devices to do so. The aim of the present study was to explore the importance of the presence of this information by examining the influence of the absence of commonly available task-related feedback on effort distribution and performance in experienced endurance athletes...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Peter M Christensen, Jens Bangsbo
Athletes in intense endurance sports (e.g., 4000-m track cycling) often perform maximally (~4 min) twice a day due to qualifying and finals being placed on the same day. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate repeated performance on the same day in a competitive setting (part A) and the influence from prior intense exercise on subsequent performance and physiological response to moderate and maximal exercise with and without the use of cold water immersion (CWI) in recovery (part B). In part A, performance times during eight World championships for male track cyclists were extracted from the qualifying and final races in 4000-m individual pursuit...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Emerson Franchini, Ursula F Julio, Valéria L G Panissa, Fábio S Lira, José Gerosa-Neto, Braulio H M Branco
PURPOSE: The present study investigated the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on lower- and upper-body graded exercise and high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE, four Wingate bouts) performance, and on physiological and muscle damage markers responses in judo athletes. METHODS: Thirty-five subjects were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 8) or to one of the following HIIT groups (n = 9 for each) and tested pre- and post-four weeks (2 training d·wk(-1)): (1) lower-body cycle-ergometer; (2) upper-body cycle-ergometer; (3) uchi-komi (judo technique entrance)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
C Capelli, J Rittweger, P Bruseghini, E Calabria, E Tam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Ching-Feng Cheng, Wei-Chieh Hsu, Yu-Hsuan Kuo, Ming-Tsung Shih, Chia-Lun Lee
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of caffeine ingestion on the 3-min all-out test (3MT) performance and plasma electrolytes in athletes. METHODS: Fifteen collegiate male basketball players were recruited and completed two trials separated by at least 1 week in caffeine (CAF, 6 mg kg(-1)) and placebo conditions. During the first visit, participants performed an incremental cycling test to determine their 3MT resistance. After a familiarization trial, participants performed a CAF or PL trial according to a randomized crossover design...
September 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Alexis N Awdziejczyk, Ross A Sherman, Jeffrey A Potteiger, Sango Otieno
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Eric P Homestead, Benjamin J Ryan, Jesse A Goodrich, William C Byrnes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Daniel König, Denise Zdzieblik, Anja Holz, Stephan Theis, Albert Gollhofer
(1) OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of isomaltulose (Palatinose™, PSE) vs. maltodextrin (MDX) ingestion on substrate utilization during endurance exercise and subsequent time trial performance; (2) METHODS: 20 male athletes performed two experimental trials with ingestion of either 75 g PSE or MDX 45 min before the start of exercise. The exercise protocol consisted of 90 min cycling (60% VO₂max) followed by a time trial; (3) RESULTS: Time trial finishing time (-2.7%, 90% CI: ±3.0%, 89% likely beneficial; p = 0...
2016: Nutrients
Henrike Fischer, Daniel Weber, Ralph Beneke
: Mouthguards protect against orofacial and dental injuries in sports. However, special fitted dental splints have been claimed to improve strength and speed and therefore enhance athletic performance. PURPOSE: To test effects of a neuromuscular fitted dental splint in comparison with a habitual verticalizing splint and a no-splint condition on cycling sprint performance in the Wingate Anaerobic Test. METHODS: 23 males (26.0 ± 2.0 yrs; 1...
June 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
John P Porcari, Lauren Probst, Karlei Forrester, Scott Doberstein, Carl Foster, Maria L Cress, Katharina Schmidt
Altitude training and respiratory muscle training (RMT) have been reported to improve performance in elite and well-trained athletes. Several devices (altitude and RMT) have been developed to help athletes gain the competitive edge. The Elevation Training Mask 2.0 (ETM) purportedly simulates altitude training and has been suggested to increase aerobic capacity (VO2max), endurance performance, and lung function. Twenty-four moderately trained subjects completed 6 weeks of high-intensity cycle ergometer training...
June 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
N Jones, J Kiely, B Suraci, D J Collins, D de Lorenzo, C Pickering, K A Grimaldi
Association studies have identified dozens of genetic variants linked to training responses and sport-related traits. However, no intervention studies utilizing the idea of personalised training based on athlete's genetic profile have been conducted. Here we propose an algorithm that allows achieving greater results in response to high- or low-intensity resistance training programs by predicting athlete's potential for the development of power and endurance qualities with the panel of 15 performance-associated gene polymorphisms...
June 2016: Biology of Sport
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