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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819374/variant-cd44-expression-is-enriching-for-a-cell-population-with-cancer-stem-cell-like-characteristics-in-human-lung-adenocarcinoma
#1
Makoto Nishino, Mari Ozaki, Ahmed E Hegab, Junko Hamamoto, Shizuko Kagawa, Daisuke Arai, Hiroyuki Yasuda, Katsuhiko Naoki, Kenzo Soejima, Hideyuki Saya, Tomoko Betsuyaku
Background: Preliminary studies have identified cancer stem cells (CSCs) in various cancers and there are several ongoing clinical studies targeting these cells. CD44 (standard or variant isoforms) and/or aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) expression is the most commonly used markers for the identification of CSCs. The goal of the current study was to examine the ability of CD44v, either alone or in combination with ALDH, to identify CSCs within human lung cancer cells lines. Methods: We examined several lung adenocarcinoma cell lines for the ability of CD44v and/or ALDH expression to enrich for cells with CSC characteristics such as in vitro differential proliferation rate, chemotherapeutic-resistance, tumorsphere formation, and in vivo tumorigenicity...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814433/personalized-medicine-based-approach-to-model-patterns-of-chemoresistance-and-tumor-recurrence-using-ovarian-cancer-stem-cell-spheroids
#2
Shreya Raghavan, Pooja Mehta, Maria W Ward, Michael E Bregenzer, Elyse M A Fleck, Lijun Tan, Karen McLean, Ronald Buckanovich, Geeta Mehta
PURPOSE: Chemoresistant ovarian cancers grow in suspension within the ascites fluid. In order to screen the effect of chemotherapeutics and biologics on resistant ovarian cancers with a personalized basis, we developed a 3D hanging drop spheroid platform. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We initiated spheroids with primary ALDH+ CD133+ ovarian cancer stem cells (OvCSCs) from different patient samples, and demonstrated that stem cell progeny from harvested spheroids was similar to the primary tumor...
August 16, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796245/dioscin-induces-prostate-cancer-cell-apoptosis-through-activation-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE
#3
Xufeng Tao, Lina Xu, Lianhong Yin, Xu Han, Yan Qi, Youwei Xu, Shasha Song, Yanyan Zhao, Jinyong Peng
Recent researches have shown that estrogen receptor-β (ERβ) activator may be a potent anticancer agent for prostate cancer (PCa), and our previous study also indicated that dioscin can upregulate the expression of ERβ in MC3T3-E1 cell. In the present work, the activity and mechanism of dioscin, a natural product, against PCa were investigated. The results showed that dioscin markedly inhibited cell viability, colony formation, motility and induced apoptosis in PC3 cells. Moreover, dioscin disrupted the formation of PC3 cell-derived mammospheres and reduced aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) level and the CD133(+)/CD44(+) cells, indicating that dioscin had a potent inhibitory activity on prostate cancer stem cells (PCSCs)...
August 10, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766683/pristimerin-effectively-inhibits-the-malignant-phenotypes-of-uveal-melanoma-cells-by-targeting-nf%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#4
Biao Zhang, Jing Zhang, Jingxuan Pan
Uveal melanoma (UM) is a highly aggressive intraocular malignancy that lacks any effective targeted-therapy. Neither survival nor prognosis has been improved for the past decades in patients with metastatic UM. NF‑κB pathway is reported to be abnormally activated in UM. However, the role of NF‑κB pathway as a potential therapeutical target in UM remains unclear. Here, the effect of pristimerin, a potent inhibitor of NF‑κB pathway, on UM cells in terms of growth, apoptosis, motility, invasion and cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) was evaluated in vitro...
September 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759873/the-alterations-in-alcohol-dehydrogenase-and-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-activities-in-the-sera-of-patients-with-renal-cell-carcinoma
#5
Karolina Orywal, Wojciech Jelski, Tadeusz Werel, Maciej Szmitkowski
PURPOSE: In a previous study we showed that the total activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and its isoenzyme class I was significantly higher in renal cancer (RCC) cells compared to normal kidney. The aim of this study was to compare the activities of ADH isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in the sera of patients with different stages of RCC and healthy subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serum samples were taken from 54 patients with clear cell RCC (17 patients in stage II, 22 in stage III and 15 in stage IV) and 52 healthy patients...
July 28, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745314/a-muscle-specific-protein-myoferlin-modulates-il-6-stat3-signaling-by-chaperoning-activated-stat3-to-nucleus
#6
A Yadav, B Kumar, J C Lang, T N Teknos, P Kumar
Myoferlin, a member of ferlin family of proteins, was first discovered as a candidate gene for muscular dystrophy and cardiomyopathy. Recently, myoferlin was shown to be also expressed in endothelial and cancer cells where it was shown to modulate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFR)-2 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling by enhancing their stability and recycling. Based on these reports, we hypothesized that myoferlin might be regulating IL-6 signaling by modulating IL-6R stabilization and recycling...
July 24, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744156/cholesterol-biosynthesis-inhibitor-ro-48-8071-reduces-progesterone-receptor-expression-and-inhibits-progestin-dependent-stem-cell-like-cell-growth-in-hormone-dependent-human-breast-cancer-cells
#7
Yayun Liang, Sandy Goyette, Salman M Hyder
Clinical trials and studies have shown that postmenopausal women undergoing combination hormone replacement therapy containing estrogen and progestin have an increased risk of breast cancer compared with women taking estrogen or placebo alone. Using animal models, we have previously shown that synthetic progestins, including medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), which is widely used clinically, accelerate breast cancer tumor growth and promote metastasis. Furthermore, we have found that MPA elevates CD44 protein expression and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, two markers of cancer stem cells (CSCs), and increases mammosphere formation, another hallmark of stem cells, in hormone-dependent T47-D human breast cancer cells...
2017: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737489/nfatc2-enhances-tumor-initiating-phenotypes-through-the-nfatc2-sox2-aldh-axis-in-lung-adenocarcinoma
#8
Zhi-Jie Xiao, Jing Liu, Si-Qi Wang, Yun Zhu, Xu-Yuan Gao, Vicky Pui-Chi Tin, Jing Qin, Jun-Wen Wang, Maria Pik Wong
Tumor initiating cells (TIC) are dynamic cancer cell subsets that display enhanced tumor functions and resilience to treatment but the mechanism of TIC induction or maintenance in lung cancer is not fully understood. In this study, we show the calcium pathway transcription factor NFATc2 is a novel regulator of lung TIC phenotypes, including tumorspheres, cell motility, tumorigenesis, as well as in vitro and in vivo responses to chemotherapy and targeted therapy. In human lung cancers, high NFATc2 expression predicted poor tumor differentiation, adverse recurrence-free and cancer-specific overall survivals...
July 24, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731185/snail-maintains-metastatic-potential-cancer-stem-like-properties-and-chemoresistance-in-mesenchymal-mouse-breast-cancer-tubo%C3%A2-p2j-cells
#9
Sun Young Ma, Jin-Hee Park, Hana Jung, Sung-Min Ha, Yeonye Kim, Dong Hyen Park, Deuk Hee Lee, Sooyong Lee, In-Ho Chu, So Young Jung, Il-Hwan Kim, Il-Whan Choi, Chang Soo Choi, Saegwang Park
Snail, a zinc-finger transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin expression, is one of the key inducers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in epithelial cancer. In breast cancer, EMT has been associated with malignancies, including metastasis, cancer stem-like properties, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this study, we analysed the role of Snail in the highly metastatic mesenchymal TUBO‑P2J mouse breast cancer cells, by loss of function using short hairpin RNA. Though silencing Snail did not restore the E-cadherin expression or induce morphological changes, Snail silencing significantly ablated in vitro and in vivo metastatic potentials...
July 18, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707729/sox11-promotes-invasive-growth-and-dcis-progression
#10
Erik Oliemuller, Naoko Kogata, Philip Bland, Divya Kriplani, Frances Daley, Syed Haider, Vandna Shah, Elinor J Sawyer, Beatrice A Howard
Here, we show that SOX11, an embryonic mammary marker, normally silent in postnatal breast cells, is expressed in many ER-negative (ER-) preinvasive DCIS lesions. Mature mammary epithelial cells engineered to express SOX11 displayed alterations in progenitor cell populations, including an expanded basal-like population with increased ALDH activity, and increased mammosphere-forming capacity. DCIS.com cells engineered to express SOX11 displayed increased ALDH activity, a feature of cancer stem cells. The CD44+/CD24-/ALDH+ cell population was increased in DCIS...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699108/the-role-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-oral-cavity
#11
Nina Zidar, Emanuela Boštjančič, Marija Malgaj, Nina Gale, Tadej Dovšak, Vojko Didanovič
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has emerged as a possible mechanism of cancer metastasizing, but strong evidence for EMT involvement in human cancer is lacking. Our aim was to compare oral spindle cell carcinoma (SpCC) as an example of EMT with oral conventional squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with and without nodal metastases to test the hypothesis that EMT contributes to metastasizing in oral SCC. Thirty cases of oral SCC with and without nodal metastasis and 15 cases of SpCC were included. Epithelial (cytokeratin, E-cadherin), mesenchymal (vimentin, N-cadherin), and stem cell markers (ALDH-1, CD44, Nanog, Sox-2) and transcription repressors (Snail, Slug, Twist) were analyzed immunohistochemically...
July 12, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676857/salinomycin-exerts-anticancer-effects-on-pc-3-cells-and-pc-3-derived-cancer-stem-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#12
Yunsheng Zhang, Luogen Liu, Fang Li, Tao Wu, Hongtao Jiang, Xianxun Jiang, Xiaobo Du, Yi Wang
Salinomycin is an antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces albus that selectively kills cancer stem cells (CSCs). However, the antitumor mechanism of salinomycin is unclear. This study investigated the chemotherapeutic efficacy of salinomycin in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. We found that cytotoxicity of salinomycin to PC-3 cells was stronger than to nonmalignant prostate cell RWPE-1, and exposure to salinomycin induced G2/M phage arrest and apoptosis of PC-3 cells. A mechanistic study found salinomycin suppressed Wnt/β-catenin pathway to induce apoptosis of PC-3 cells...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668843/the-diagnostic-significance-of-serum-alcohol-dehydrogenase-isoenzymes-and-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-activity-in-urinary-bladder-cancer-patients
#13
Karolina Orywal, Wojciech Jelski, Tadeusz Werel, Maciej Szmitkowski
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate a potential role of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase as tumor markers for urinary bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serum samples were obtained from 41 patients with bladder cancer and 52 healthy individuals. Class III and IV of ADH and total ADH activity were measured by the photometric method. For measurement of class I and II ADH and ALDH activity, the fluorometric method was employed. RESULTS: Significantly higher total activity of ADH was found in sera of both, low-grade and high-grade bladder cancer patients...
July 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645468/aldhs-in-normal-and-malignant-hematopoietic-cells-potential-new-avenues-for-treatment-of-aml-and-other-blood-cancers
#14
Maura Gasparetto, Clayton A Smith
Multiple studies have demonstrated that ALDH1A1 is elevated in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). As a means to better characterize such cells, we previously developed the fluorescent ALDH1A1 substrate Aldefluor to facilitate HSC identification and isolation. This has proven useful for counting and isolating HSCs from human bone marrow, peripheral blood and cord blood as well as stem cells in other tissues and organisms. Given the high level expression of ALDH1A1, we explored its biology and that of other ALDHs in HSCs and found that ALDH1A1 and ALDH3A1 were important in metabolizing reactive aldehydes (RAlds) and reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
June 20, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645180/alcohol-metabolism-and-oesophageal-cancer-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence
#15
Marco Matejcic, M J Gunter, Pietro Ferrari
Alcohol is a major risk factor for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), the most prevalent histological subtype of oesophageal cancer (OC) worldwide. The metabolism of alcohol is regulated by specific enzymes whose activity and expression is influenced by genetic polymorphisms. We conducted a systematic review of current epidemiological evidence of the relationship between alcohol intake and OC risk, including the role of tobacco smoking and functional polymorphisms of dehydrogenases (ADHs) and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs)...
June 22, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624784/mitochondrial-pyruvate-carrier-function-determines-cell-stemness-and-metabolic-reprogramming-in-cancer-cells
#16
Xiaoli Li, Gaoyang Han, Xiaoran Li, Quancheng Kan, Zhirui Fan, Yaqing Li, Yasai Ji, Jing Zhao, Mingzhi Zhang, Mantas Grigalavicius, Viktor Berge, Mariusz Adam Goscinski, Jahn M Nesland, Zhenhe Suo
One of the remarkable features of cancer cells is aerobic glycolysis, a phenomenon known as the "Warburg Effect", in which cells rely preferentially on glycolysis instead of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) as the main energy source even in the presence of high oxygen tension. Cells with dysfunctional mitochondria are unable to generate sufficient ATP from mitochondrial OXPHOS, and then are forced to rely on glycolysis for ATP generation. Here we report our results in a prostate cancer cell line in which the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 1 (MPC1) gene was knockout...
July 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604744/emp2-is-a-novel-therapeutic-target-for-endometrial-cancer-stem-cells
#17
M H Kiyohara, C Dillard, J Tsui, S R Kim, J Lu, D Sachdev, L Goodglick, M Tong, V F Torous, C Aryasomayajula, W Wang, P Najafzadeh, L K Gordon, J Braun, S McDermott, M S Wicha, M Wadehra
Previous studies have suggested that overexpression of the oncogenic protein epithelial membrane protein-2 (EMP2) correlates with endometrial carcinoma progression and ultimately poor survival from disease. To understand the role of EMP2 in the etiology of disease, gene analysis was performed to show transcripts that are reciprocally regulated by EMP2 levels. In particular, EMP2 expression correlates with and helps regulate the expression of several cancer stem cell associated markers including aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1)...
June 12, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603607/co-delivery-of-carboplatin-and-paclitaxel-via-cross-linked-multilamellar-liposomes-for-ovarian-cancer-treatment
#18
Xiaoyang Zhang, Yarong Liu, Yu Jeong Kim, John Mac, Rachel Zhuang, Pin Wang
Carboplatin (CPT) and paclitaxel (PTX) used in combination is one of the most effective treatments for ovarian cancer. However, the traditional combination methods used to co-administrate CPT and PTX showed limited clinical efficacy due to their distinct pharmacokinetics. Although much effort has been devoted to developing nanoparticles capable of encapsulating drugs with different lipophilicites, co-delivery of carboplatin with paclitaxel by a single nanoparticle has rarely been reported. Here, we encapsulated and delivered this drug combination to ovarian cancer cells at a controlled ratio by a previously reported crosslinked multilamellar liposome vesicle (cMLV)...
April 3, 2017: RSC Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579829/natural-and-synthetic-progestins-enrich-cancer-stem-cell-like-cells-in-hormone-responsive-human-breast-cancer-cell-populations-in-vitro
#19
Sandy Goyette, Yayun Liang, Benford Mafuvadze, Matthew T Cook, Moiz Munir, Salman M Hyder
Clinical trials and studies have shown that combination estrogen/progestin hormone replacement therapy, but not estrogen therapy alone or placebo, increases breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. Using animal models, we have previously shown that both natural and synthetic progestins (including medroxyprogesterone acetate [MPA], a synthetic progestin used widely in the clinical setting) accelerate the development of breast tumors in vivo and increase their metastasis to lymph nodes. Based on these observations, we have hypothesized that progestin-induced breast cancer tumor growth and metastasis may be mediated by an enrichment of the cancer stem cell (CSC) pool...
2017: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574664/chemokine-cc-motif-ligand-18-upregulates-slug-expression-to-promote-stem-cell-like-features-by-activating-the-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-pathway-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#20
Hongfei Wang, Xueyi Liang, Mianxiang Li, Xiaoan Tao, Shanshan Tai, Zhaona Fan, Zhi Wang, Bin Cheng, Juan Xia
Chemokine (CC motif) ligand 18 (CCL18) is involved in remodeling of the tumor microenvironment and plays critical roles in oncogenesis, invasiveness, and metastasis. We previously investigated the overexpression of CCL18 in primary oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissues and its association with advanced clinical stage in OSCC patients. However, the underlying mechanisms of this CCL18-derived activity remains unidentified. This study showed exogenous CCL18 increased cell migration and invasion and induced cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and that E-cadherin, an epithelial marker, decreased and N-cadherin, a mesenchymal marker, increased, compared to negative control in OSCC cells...
August 2017: Cancer Science
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