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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682514/cutaneous-metastases-of-breast-cancer-during-adjuvant-chemotherapy-correlates-with-increasing-cd44-cd24-and-aldh-1-expression-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#1
Jung Sun Lee, Woo Gyeong Kim
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) within a tumor are scarce and self-sustaining and they have the abilities for self-renewal and the potential of giving rise to diverse types of cells that compose the tumor. These cells are suggested to be associated with therapeutic failure, and therefore they remain as an important issue in this regard. We report the cases of two breast cancer patients diagnosed with rapid cutaneous metastases during adjuvant cytotoxic chemotherapy after curative mastectomy. For elucidating a relationship between CSCs and resistance to chemotherapy, we evaluated primary tumor and metastatic cutaneous lesions by CSC markers in immunohistochemical stains (CD44+ /CD24- and ALDH-1)...
2018: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682513/lung-cancer-stem-cells-origin-characteristics-and-therapy
#2
REVIEW
D Prabavathy, Y Swarnalatha, Niveditha Ramadoss
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have gained an increasing attention recently in cancer research. CSCs have ability to generate new tumor through their stem cell properties, essentially self-renewal potential and differentiation into multiple cell lineages. Extensive evidences report that CSCs are resistant to many conventional therapies and mediate tumor recurrence. CSCs of lung cancer are well recognized by their specific markers such as CD133, CD44, ABCG2 and ALDH1A1 together with the CSC characteristics including spheroid and colony formation...
2018: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665654/hypericin-affects-cancer-side-populations-via-competitive-inhibition-of-bcrp
#3
Jana Vargová, Jaromír Mikeš, Rastislav Jendželovský, Lucia Mikešová, Barbora Kuchárová, Ľubomír Čulka, Radek Fedr, Ján Remšík, Karel Souček, Alois Kozubík, Peter Fedoročko
OBJECTIVE: Cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) are considered a root of tumorigenicity and resistance. However, their identification remains challenging. The use of the side population (SP) assay as a credible marker of CSLCs remains controversial. The SP assay relies on the elevated activity of ABC transporters that, in turn, can be modulated by hypericin (HYP), a photosensitizer and bioactive compound of St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum), a popular over-the-counter antidepressant. Here we aimed to comprehensively characterize the SP phenotype of cancer cells and to determine the impact of HYP on these cells...
March 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665144/disulfiram-copper-targets-stem-cell-like-aldh-population-of-multiple-myeloma-by-inhibition-of-aldh1a1-and-hedgehog-pathway
#4
Na Jin, Xiaojian Zhu, Fanjun Cheng, Liling Zhang
Multiple myeloma stem cells (MMSCs) have been considered as the major cause resulting in relapse. Eradicating MMSCs may be an effective strategy to improve the outcome of multiple myeloma (MM). Increased activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) has been found in MMSCs, but whether inhibiting ALDH activity can eliminate MMSCs remains unknown. Disulfiram (DS) has been reported as an inhibitor of ALDH, and increasing studies showed it has anti-cancer effects in a copper (Cu)-dependent manner. In this study, we isolated ALDH+ cells of MM by Aldefluor assay and demonstrated they possessed tumorigenesis capacities in vitro and in vivo...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656202/syntheses-and-anti-pancreatic-cancer-activities-of-rakicidin-a-analogues
#5
Jian Chen, Jingpei Li, Lingling Wu, Yan Geng, Jianming Yu, Chuanke Chong, Mengmeng Wang, Yuan Gao, Cuigai Bai, Yahui Ding, Yue Chen, Quan Zhang
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly aggressive malignant tumor and resistant to most therapies. Pancreatic cancer stem cells (PCSCs) had critical role in regulating PDAC progression, metastasis, and drug resistance. Therefore, targeting PCSCs is considered to be a promising strategy for treatment of PDAC. However, there is no effective drug that can selectively ablate PCSCs. A series of twenty rakicidin A analogues were synthesized via a combinatorial strategy and evaluated for their anti-PDAC activities, and the structure-activity relationship was also discussed...
March 29, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626418/bergamot-natural-products-eradicate-cancer-stem-cells-cscs-by-targeting-mevalonate-rho-gdi-signalling-and-mitochondrial-metabolism
#6
Marco Fiorillo, Maria Peiris-Pagès, Rosa Sanchez-Alvarez, Lucia Bartella, Leonardo Di Donna, Vincenza Dolce, Giovanni Sindona, Federica Sotgia, Anna Rita Cappello, Michael P Lisanti
Here, we show that a 2:1 mixture of Brutieridin and Melitidin, termed "BMF", has a statin-like properties, which blocks the action of the rate-limiting enzyme for mevalonate biosynthesis, namely HMGR (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA-reductase). Moreover, our results indicate that BMF functionally inhibits several key characteristics of CSCs. More specifically, BMF effectively i) reduced ALDH activity, ii) blocked mammosphere formation and iii) inhibited the activation of CSC-associated signalling pathways (STAT1/3, Notch and Wnt/beta-catenin) targeting Rho-GDI-signalling...
April 4, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622580/disruption-of-ifn-i-signaling-promotes-her2-neu-tumor-progression-and-breast-cancer-stem-cells
#7
Luciano Castiello, Paola Sestili, Giovanna Schiavoni, Rosanna Dattilo, Domenica M Monque, Fiorella Ciaffoni, Manuela Iezzi, Alessia Lamolinara, Antonella Sistigu, Federica Moschella, Anna Maria Pacca, Daniele Macchia, Maria Ferrantini, Ann Zeuner, Mauro Biffoni, Enrico Proietti, Filippo Belardelli, Eleonora Arico
Type I interferon (IFN-I) is a class of antiviral immunomodulatory cytokines involved in many stages of tumor initiation and progression. IFN-I acts directly on tumor cells to inhibit cell growth, and indirectly by activating immune cells to mount antitumor responses. To understand the role of endogenous IFN-I in spontaneous, oncogene-driven carcinogenesis, we characterized tumors arising in Her2/neu transgenic (neuT) mice carrying a nonfunctional mutation in the IFN-I receptor (IFNAR1). Such mice are unresponsive to this family of cytokines...
April 5, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620216/doxycycline-targets-aldehyde-dehydrogenase%C3%A2-positive-breast-cancer-stem-cells
#8
Chang-Ching Lin, Miao-Chia Lo, Rebecca R Moody, Nicholas O Stevers, Samantha L Tinsley, Duxin Sun
Targeting cancer stem cells (CSCs) is a key strategy to prevent cancers from developing drug resistance and metastasis. Mitochondria have been reported to be a vulnerability of CSCs by multiple studies. Here, we report that doxycycline, functioning as an inhibitor of mitochondrial biogenesis, can effectively target breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). Our results revealed that doxycycline significantly decreased the frequency of aldehyde dehydrogenase‑positive (ALDH+) BCSCs as well as mammosphere formation efficiency in HER2+ and triple‑negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtypes...
March 27, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606612/heterogeneity-of-human-breast-stem-and-progenitor-cells-as-revealed-by-transcriptional-profiling
#9
Justin A Colacino, Ebrahim Azizi, Michael D Brooks, Ramdane Harouaka, Shamileh Fouladdel, Sean P McDermott, Michael Lee, David Hill, Julie Madden, Julie Boerner, Michele L Cote, Maureen A Sartor, Laura S Rozek, Max S Wicha
During development, the mammary gland undergoes extensive remodeling driven by stem cells. Breast cancers are also hierarchically organized and driven by cancer stem cells characterized by CD44+ CD24low/- or aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) expression. These markers identify mesenchymal and epithelial populations both capable of tumor initiation. Less is known about these populations in non-cancerous mammary glands. From RNA sequencing, ALDH+ and ALDH- CD44+ CD24- human mammary cells have epithelial-like and mesenchymal-like characteristics, respectively, with some co-expressing ALDH+ and CD44+ CD24- by flow cytometry...
March 20, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603383/tgf-%C3%AE-mediated-lefty-akt-gsk-3%C3%AE-snail-axis-modulates-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-cancer-stem-cell-properties-in-ovarian-clear-cell-carcinomas
#10
Toshihide Matsumoto, Ako Yokoi, Miki Hashimura, Yasuko Oguri, Masashi Akiya, Makoto Saegusa
Advanced ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCCa) shows poor prognosis with chemoresistance, which is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)/cancer stem cell (CSC) features. The left-right determination factor (LEFTY), a novel member of the TGF-β superfamily, is a marker of stemness. Here we focused on the functional roles of LEFTY in OCCCas. OCCCa cell lines that were cultured in STK2, a serum-free medium for mesenchymal stem cells, or treated with TGF-β1 underwent morphological changes toward an EMT appearance, along with increased expression of LEFTY and Snail...
March 30, 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581858/depleting-ovarian-cancer-stem-cells-with-calcitriol
#11
Amit Kumar Srivastava, Asim Rizvi, Tiantian Cui, Chunhua Han, Ananya Banerjee, Imrana Naseem, Yanfang Zheng, Altaf A Wani, Qi-En Wang
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent the root of many solid tumors including ovarian cancer. Eradication of CSCs represents a novel cancer therapeutic strategy. Calcitriol, also known as 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2 D3 ], is an active metabolite of vitamin D, functioning as a potent steroid hormone. Calcitriol has shown anti-tumor effects in various cancers by regulating multiple signaling pathways. It has been reported that calcitriol can regulate the properties of normal and CSCs. However, the effect of calcitriol on the ovarian cancer growth and ovarian CSCs is still unclear...
March 6, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568377/molecular-profiling-of-aldh1-colorectal-cancer-stem-cells-reveals-preferential-activation-of-mapk-fak-and-oxidative-stress-pro-survival-signalling-pathways
#12
Radhakrishnan Vishnubalaji, Muthurangan Manikandan, Mohamed Fahad, Rimi Hamam, Musaad Alfayez, Moustapha Kassem, Abdullah Aldahmash, Nehad M Alajez
Tumour heterogeneity leads to variable clinical response and inaccurate diagnostic and prognostic assessment. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a subpopulation responsible for invasion, metastasis, therapeutic resistance, and recurrence in many human cancer types. However, the true identity of colorectal cancer (CRC) SCs remains elusive. Here, we aimed to characterize and define the gene expression portrait of CSCs in CRC-model SW403 cells. We found that ALDH+ positive cells are clonogenic and highly proliferative; their global gene expression profiling-based molecular signature revealed gene enrichment related to DNA damage, MAPK, FAK, oxidative stress response, and Wnt signalling...
March 2, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555661/salivary-gland-cancer-patient-derived-xenografts-enable-characterization-of-cancer-stem-cells-and-new-gene-fusions-associated-with-tumor-progression
#13
Stephen Keysar, Justin Eagles, Bettina Miller, Brian C Jackson, Farshad N Chowdhury, Julie Reisinger, Tugs-Saikhan Chimed, Phuong N Le, J Jason Morton, Hilary Somerset, Marileila Varella-Garcia, Aik-Choon Tan, John I Song, Daniel W Bowles, Mary E Reyland, Antonio Jimeno
PURPOSE: Salivary gland cancers (SGC) frequently present with distant metastases many years after diagnosis, suggesting a cancer stem cell (CSC) subpopulation that initiates late recurrences; however current models are limited both in their availability and suitability to characterize these rare cells. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patient-derived xenografts (PDX) were generated by engrafting patient tissue onto nude mice from one acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC), four adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), and three mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) cases, which were derived from successive relapses from the same MEC patient...
March 19, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552329/could-aldh2-2-be-the-reason-for-low-incidence-and-mortality-of-ovarian-cancer-for-east-asia-women
#14
REVIEW
Shaomin Yan, Guang Wu
It is curious that East Asian women have a low incidence and mortality of ovarian cancer in various epidemiological studies. Although different explanations were given, they appear unsubstantial. We notice that East Asian population usually are inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 mutation (ALDH2 * 2) carriers, and ALDH plays an important role in the resistance of ovarian cancer to chemotherapeutics, especially in ovarian cancer stem cells. Therefore, we hypothesize whether ALDH2 mutation is the major reason for low incidence and mortality of ovarian cancer in East Asian women, and use the evidence from literature, transcriptomic data with average 5-year overall survival to confirm our hypothesis...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547841/suppressing-autophagy-enhances-disulfiram-copper-induced-apoptosis-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#15
Xi Wu, Xue Xue, Lihui Wang, Wenjing Wang, Jian Han, Xiaoxue Sun, Haotian Zhang, Yueyang Liu, Xiaohang Che, Jingyu Yang, Chunfu Wu
Autophagy, a cellular survival mechanism, is thought to allow the recycling of cellular breakdown products when cancer cells are subjected to chemotherapy, thus decreasing drug-induced apoptosis. Disulfiram (DSF), a drug widely used to control alcoholism, possesses anticancer activity by inducing apoptosis in vitro and in vivo in a copper (Cu)-dependent manner. Our previous studies proved that DSF/Cu exerts increased anti-tumor effects on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) xenograft models, and inhibits NSCLC recurrence driven by ALDH-positive cancer stem cells...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545617/evaluation-of-the-selective-toxic-effect-of-the-charge-switchable-diethyldithiocarbamate-loaded-nanoparticles-between-hepatic-normal-and-cancerous-cells
#16
Marwa M Abu-Serie
Liver cancer is mainly originated by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Due to difference in pH between normal and tumor cell microenvironments, targeting hepatic CSCs exploiting pH-dependent charge switchable nanoparticles (NPs) is extremely required to limit nonselective toxicity to normal hepatocytes (NHCs) and to completely eliminate the root of cancer origin. In this study, NPs were prepared from cationic chitosan and then coated with anionic albumin namely uncoated and coated NPs, respectively. Both NPs were loaded with diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) which is an inhibitor of the critical enzyme, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 1A1, for CSCs survival...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494563/graphene-oxide-silver-nanocomposite-enhances-cytotoxic-and-apoptotic-potential-of-salinomycin-in-human-ovarian-cancer-stem-cells-ovcscs-a-novel-approach-for-cancer-therapy
#17
Yun-Jung Choi, Sangiliyandi Gurunathan, Jin-Hoi Kim
The use of graphene to target and eliminate cancer stem cells (CSCs) is an alternative approach to conventional chemotherapy. We show the biomolecule-mediated synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-silver nanoparticle nanocomposites (rGO-Ag) using R-phycoerythrin (RPE); the resulting RPE-rGO-Ag was evaluated in human ovarian cancer cells and ovarian cancer stem cells (OvCSCs). The synthesized RPE-rGO-Ag nanocomposite (referred to as rGO-Ag) was characterized using various analytical techniques. rGO-Ag showed significant toxicity towards both ovarian cancer cells and OvCSCs...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477378/icam3-mediates-inflammatory-signaling-to-promote-cancer-cell-stemness
#18
Wenzhi Shen, Junling Xie, Shuangtao Zhao, Renle Du, Xiaohe Luo, Huiwen He, Shan Jiang, Na Hao, Chong Chen, Chunlei Guo, Yanhua Liu, Yanan Chen, Peiqing Sun, Shengyong Yang, Na Luo, Rong Xiang, Yunping Luo
In this study, we present a medium throughput siRNA screen platform to identify inflammation genes that regulate cancer cell stemness. We identified several novel candidates that decrease OCT4 expression and reduce the ALDH + subpopulation both of which are characteristic of stemness. Furthermore, one of the novel candidates ICAM3 up-regulates in the ALDH + subpopulation, the side population and the developed spheres. ICAM3 knockdown reduces the side population, sphere formation and chemo-resistance in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells and A549 lung cancer cells...
February 22, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475734/mir-145-antagonizes-snai1-mediated-stemness-and-radiation-resistance-in-colorectal-cancer
#19
Yun Zhu, Cindy Wang, Scott A Becker, Katie Hurst, Lourdes M Nogueira, Victoria J Findlay, E Ramsay Camp
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been closely linked with therapy resistance and cancer stem cells (CSCs). However, EMT pathways have proven challenging to therapeutically target. MicroRNA 145 (miR-145) targets multiple stem cell transcription factors and its expression is inversely correlated with EMT. Therefore, we hypothesized that miR-145 represents a therapeutic target to reverse snail family transcriptional repressor 1 (SNAI1)-mediated stemness and radiation resistance (RT). Stable expression of SNAI1 in DLD1 and HCT116 cells (DLD1-SNAI1; HCT116-SNAI1) increased expression of Nanog and decreased miR-145 expression compared to control cells...
March 7, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467457/adenylosuccinate-lyase-enhances-aggressiveness-of-endometrial-cancer-by-increasing-killer-cell-lectin-like-receptor-c3-expression-by-fumarate
#20
Haengki Park, Kenji Ohshima, Satoshi Nojima, Shinichiro Tahara, Masako Kurashige, Yumiko Hori, Daisuke Okuzaki, Naoki Wada, Jun-Ichiro Ikeda, Eiichi Morii
Adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL) is an enzyme that plays important roles in de novo purine synthesis. Although ADSL was reported to be upregulated in various malignancies, such as colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer, as well as gliomas, the mechanism by which elevated ADSL expression contributes to cancer has not been elucidated. We previously performed a shotgun proteomics analysis to characterize specific proteins associated with the properties of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-high cell population, which was reported to be involved in tumorigenic potential, and showed that ADSL expression is upregulated in the ALDH-high population of endometrial cancer...
February 21, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
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