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Aldh cancer

Ling-Yan Jia, Hui-Long Xia, Zhi-Da Chen, Casey Compton, Heather Bucur, Devendra A Sawant, Gary O Rankin, Bo Li, You-Ying Tu, Yi Charlie Chen
Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate of all gynecological malignancies and the five-year death rate of patients has remained high in the past five decades. Recently, with the rise of cancer stem cells (CSCs) theory, an increasing amount of research has suggested that CSCs give rise to tumor recurrence and metastasis. Theasaponin E₁ (TSE₁), which was isolated from green tea ( Camellia sinensis ) seeds, has been proposed to be an effective compound for tumor treatment. However, studies on whether TSE₁ takes effect through CSCs have rarely been reported...
June 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Z Kozovska, A Patsalias, V Bajzik, E Durinikova, L Demkova, S Jargasova, B Smolkova, J Plava, L Kucerova, M Matuskova
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence in cancer research, developed the notion that malignant tumors consist of different subpopulations of cells, one of them, known as cancer stem cells, being attributed many important properties such as enhanced tumorigenicity, proliferation potential and profound multidrug resistance to chemotherapy. Several key stem cells markers were identified in colon cancer. In our study we focused on the aldehyde dehydrogenase type 1 (ALDH1) expression in colon cancer-derived cell lines HT-29/eGFP, HCT-116/eGFP and LS-180/eGFP, and its role in the chemoresistance and tumorigenic potential...
June 15, 2018: BMC Cancer
Tuyen N M Hua, Jun Namkung, Ai N H Phan, Vu T A Vo, Min-Kyu Kim, Yangsik Jeong, Jong-Whan Choi
CONTEXT: The metabolic function of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in lung cancer remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationship of PPARγ on ALDH1A3-induced lipid peroxidation to inhibit lung cancer cell growth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In silico analysis using microarray dataset was performed to screen the positive correlation between PPARγ and all ALDH isoforms. NUBIscan software and ChIP assay were used to identify the binding sites (BSs) of PPARγ on ALDH1A3 promoter...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction Research
Sarah C McDermott, Christie Rodriguez-Ramirez, Sean P McDermott, Max S Wicha, Jacques E Nör
Patients with recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) have poor prognosis with less than 1-year median survival. Platinum-based chemotherapy remains the first-line treatment for HNSCC. The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis postulates that tumors are maintained by a self-renewing CSC population that is also capable of differentiating into non-self renewing cell populations that constitute the bulk of the tumor. A small population of CSC exists within HNSCC that are relatively resistant to chemotherapy and clinically predicted to contribute to tumor recurrence...
May 18, 2018: Oncotarget
Min Ji Bak, Philip Furmanski, Naing Lin Shan, Hong Jin Lee, Cheng Bao, Yong Lin, Weichung Joe Shih, Chung S Yang, Nanjoo Suh
Estrogen plays an important role in breast cancer development. While the mechanism of the estrogen effects is not fully elucidated, one possible route is by increasing the stem cell-like properties in the tumors. Tocopherols are known to reduce breast cancer development and progression. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of tocopherols on the regulation of breast cancer stemness mediated by estrogen. To determine the effects of tocopherols on estrogen-influenced breast cancer stem cells, the MCF-7 tumorsphere culture system, which enriches for mammary progenitor cells and putative breast cancer stem cells, was utilized...
May 26, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Nazilah Abdul Satar, Kamal Shaik Fakiruddin, Moon Nian Lim, Pooi Ling Mok, Norashikin Zakaria, Noor Atiqah Fakharuzi, Ahmad Zuhairi Abd Rahman, Zubaidah Zakaria, Badrul Hisham Yahaya, Puteri Baharuddin
Through the specific identification and direct targeting of cancer stem cells (CSCs), it is believed that a better treatment efficacy of cancer may be achieved. Hence, the present study aimed to identify a CSC subpopulation from adenocarcinoma cells (A549) as a model of non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Ιnitially, we sorted two subpopulations known as the triple‑positive (EpCAM+/CD166+/CD44+) and triple‑negative (EpCAM-/CD166-/CD44-) subpopulation using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Sorted cells were subsequently evaluated for proliferation and chemotherapy-resistance using a viability assay and were further characterized for their clonal heterogeneity, self-renewal characteristics, cellular migration, alkaline dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity and the expression of stemness-related genes...
May 24, 2018: Oncology Reports
Yanan Xu, Jiumei Hu, Qiangyuan Zhu, Qi Song, Ying Mu
Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) displaying the properties of normal stem cells have become the main culprit associated with cancer transportation and recurrence. As of now, various CSC functions and marker genes have been identified due to the heterogeneity of cancer, such as aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), the second member of the ABC transporter G-subfamily (ABCG2), activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) and CD133. To investigate these markers, most conventional approaches are bulk-based strategies, which may veil the disparity of single cells' gene expression...
May 29, 2018: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
Benjamin N Ostendorf, Eva Flenner, Anne Flörcken, Jörg Westermann
Recent reports have revealed myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) to arise from cancer stem cells phenotypically similar to physiological hematopoietic stem cells. Myelodysplastic hematopoiesis maintains a hierarchical organization, but the proportion of several hematopoietic compartments is skewed and multiple surface markers are aberrantly expressed. These aberrant antigen expression patterns hold diagnostic and therapeutic promise. However, eradication of MDS requires targeting of early myelodysplasia propagating stem cells...
2018: PloS One
Shyh-Ming Yang, Natalia J Martinez, Adam Yasgar, Carina Danchik, Catrine Johansson, Yuhong Wang, Bolormaa Baljinnyam, Amy Q Wang, Xin Xu, Pranav Shah, Dorian Cheff, Xinran S Wang, Jacob Roth, Madhu Lal-Nag, James Edward Dunford, Udo C T Oppermann, Vasilis Vasiliou, Anton Simeonov, Ajit Jadhav, David J Maloney
Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are responsible for the metabolism of aldehydes (exogenous and endogenous) and possess vital physiological and toxicological functions in areas such as CNS, inflammation, metabolic disorders, and cancers. Overexpression of certain ALDHs (e.g. ALDH1A1) are important biomarkers in cancers and cancer stem cells (CSCs) indicating the potential need for the identification and development of small molecule ALDH inhibitors. Herein, a newly designed series of quinoline-based analogs of ALDH1A1 inhibitors is described...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Peng Deng, Jiongke Wang, Xuefeng Zhang, Xingyu Wu, Ning Ji, Jing Li, Min Zhou, Lu Jiang, Xin Zeng, Qianming Chen
Super elongation complex (SEC) controls gene transcription by releasing Pol II from pausing. Previous studies have shown that dysfunction of SEC was associated with multiple human cancers, such as leukemia and breast cancer. However, the role of SEC in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) development remains largely unknown. In this study, we found expression of AF4/FMR2 family member 4 (AFF4), the core component of SEC, was upregulated dramatically in HNSCC cell lines and tumor tissues. By using siRNA-mediated depletion and overexpression of AFF4, we demonstrated AFF4 promoted proliferation, migration and invasion of HNSCC cells...
May 8, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Naoya Matsunaga, Takashi Ogino, Yukinori Hara, Takahiro Tanaka, Satoru Koyanagi, Shigehiro Ohdo
Although malignant phenotypes of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) are subject to circadian alterations, the role of cancer stem cells (CSC) in defining this circadian change remains unclear. CSC are often characterized by high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, which is associated with the malignancy of cancer cells and used for identification and isolation of CSC. Here we show that the popultation of ALDH-positive cells in a mouse 4T1 breast tumor model exhibits pronounced circadian alterations. Alterations in the number of ALDH-positive cells was generated by time-dependent increases and decreases in the expression of Aldh3a1...
May 7, 2018: Cancer Research
Yuyi Wang, Ming Jiang, Chi Du, Yang Yu, Yanyang Liu, Mei Li, Feng Luo
Lung cancer is one of the most l ethal types of cancer, and its poor prognosis is primarily due to drug resistance and cancer recurrence. As it is associated with a low five-year survival rate, lung cancer stem cells (LCSCs) have been the subject of numerous recent studies. For these studies of LCSCs, lung cancer cell lines are more commonly used than lung cancer tissues obtained from patients, as they are easier to acquire. The methods utilized for the identification of LCSCs from lung cancer cell lines include fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS), sphere-forming assay and bacterial surface display library screening...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
Tianyu Zhang, Jielin Xu, Siyuan Deng, Fengqi Zhou, Jin Li, Liwei Zhang, Lang Li, Qi-En Wang, Fuhai Li
Tumor recurrence occurs in more than 70% of ovarian cancer patients, and the majority eventually becomes refractory to treatments. Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells (OCSCs) are believed to be responsible for the tumor relapse and drug resistance. Therefore, eliminating ovarian CSCs is important to improve the prognosis of ovarian cancer patients. However, there is a lack of effective drugs to eliminate OCSCs because the core signaling pathways regulating OCSCs remain unclear. Also it is often hard for biologists to identify a few testable targets and infer driver signaling pathways regulating CSCs from a large number of differentially expression genes in an unbiased manner...
2018: PloS One
Xinwei Yun, Keqiang Zhang, Jinhui Wang, Rajendra P Pangeni, Lu Yang, Melissa Bonner, Jun Wu, Jami Wang, Isaac K Nardi, Ming Gao, Dan J Raz
Loss of monoubiquitination of histone H2B (H2Bub1) was found to be associated with poor-differentiation and enhanced malignancy of lung adenocarcinoma. This study, investigated the association and impact of the ubiquitin specific peptidase 22 (USP22), an H2Bub1 deubiquitinase, on stem cell-like characteristics and cisplatin resistance in cancer-initiating cells (CICs) from primary lung adenocarcinoma. CICs were isolated, enriched, and characterized from patient-derived cancer tissues using both in vitro tumorsphere formation and in vivo xenograft assays...
May 2, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Makoto Kawamoto, Masayo Umebayashi, Hiroto Tanaka, Norihiro Koya, Sinichiro Nakagawa, Ken Kawabe, Hideya Onishi, Masafumi Nakamura, Takashi Morisaki
BACKGROUND/AIM: Metronidazole (MNZ) is a common antibiotic that exerts disulfiram-like effects when taken together with alcohol. However, the relationship between MNZ and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity remains unclear. This study investigated whether MNZ reduces cancer stemness by suppressing ALDH activity and accordingly reducing the malignancy of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed gemcitabine (GEM)-resistant TFK-1 cells and originally established CCA cell line from a patient with GEM-resistant CCA...
May 2018: Anticancer Research
Hamish William Clouston, Peter Adam Rees, Rebecca Lamb, Sarah Elizabeth Duff, Cliona Clare Kirwan
BACKGROUND/AIM: Tissue factor (TF) expression increases cancer stem cell (CSC) activity in breast and lung cancer. There are ongoing studies focused on targeting CSCs via anti-TF treatment, for breast and lung cancer therapy. Herein, the aim was to determine whether targeting TF could have an anti-CSC therapeutic role in colorectal cancer (CRC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Evaluation of colonosphere-forming efficiency (CFE) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) expression level was used to quantify CSC activity in two CRC cell lines, after TF knockdown (TFKD) or TF over-expression (TFOE)...
May 2018: Anticancer Research
Hang-Lung Chang, Hsin-An Chen, Oluwaseun Adebayo Bamodu, Kwai-Fong Lee, Yew-Min Tzeng, Wei-Hwa Lee, Jo-Ting Tsai
The cancer stem cells (CSCs) theory recently became a focus of heightened attention in cancer biology, with the proposition that CSCs may constitute an important therapeutic target for effective anticancer therapy, because of their demonstrated role in tumor initiation, chemo-, and radio-resistance. Liver CSCs are a small subpopulation of poorly- or undifferentiated liver tumor cells, implicated in tumorigenesis, metastasis, resistance to therapy and disease relapse, enriched with and associated with the functional markers corresponding to the CSCs-enriched side population (SP), high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, and enhanced formation of in vitro liver CSCs models, referred to herein as hepatospheres...
September 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Lanyan Ding, Lok-Wa Yuen, Ian M Newman, Duane F Shell
This study explored bystanders’ willingness to help a friend who flushes when drinking to reduce his/her drinking. Alcohol-related facial flushing is an indicator of an inherited variant enzyme, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), that impairs alcohol metabolism and increases drinkers’ lifetime risk of certain aerodigestive cancers. Individuals who flush should reduce their alcohol exposure, but they may continue to drink if social pressures and rules of etiquette make not drinking socially risky...
April 25, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Lei Zheng, Jingxuan Pan
BACKGROUND: Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults. So far, there have been no effective targeted therapeutic agents in patients with uveal melanoma. Artesunate is a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin extracted from traditional Chinese medicine Artemisia annua L for treatment of severe and multidrug-resistant malaria. Besides its anti-malarial activity, artesunate is identified as an anti-cancer drug due to the inhibition of Wnt/b-catenin pathway in multiple types of cancer...
April 25, 2018: Current Cancer Drug Targets
Jung Sun Lee, Woo Gyeong Kim
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) within a tumor are scarce and self-sustaining and they have the abilities for self-renewal and the potential of giving rise to diverse types of cells that compose the tumor. These cells are suggested to be associated with therapeutic failure, and therefore they remain as an important issue in this regard. We report the cases of two breast cancer patients diagnosed with rapid cutaneous metastases during adjuvant cytotoxic chemotherapy after curative mastectomy. For elucidating a relationship between CSCs and resistance to chemotherapy, we evaluated primary tumor and metastatic cutaneous lesions by CSC markers in immunohistochemical stains (CD44+ /CD24- and ALDH-1)...
2018: Stem Cell Investigation
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