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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645468/aldhs-in-normal-and-malignant-hematopoietic-cells-potential-new-avenues-for-treatment-of-aml-and-other-blood-cancers
#1
Maura Gasparetto, Clayton A Smith
Multiple studies have demonstrated that ALDH1A1 is elevated in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). As a means to better characterize such cells, we previously developed the fluorescent ALDH1A1 substrate Aldefluor to facilitate HSC identification and isolation. This has proven useful for counting and isolating HSCs from human bone marrow, peripheral blood and cord blood as well as stem cells in other tissues and organisms. Given the high level expression of ALDH1A1, we explored its biology and that of other ALDHs in HSCs and found that ALDH1A1 and ALDH3A1 were important in metabolizing reactive aldehydes (RAlds) and reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
June 20, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645180/alcohol-metabolism-and-oesophageal-cancer-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence
#2
Marco Matejcic, M J Gunter, Pietro Ferrari
Alcohol is a major risk factor for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), the most prevalent histological subtype of oesophageal cancer (OC) worldwide. The metabolism of alcohol is regulated by specific enzymes whose activity and expression is influenced by genetic polymorphisms. We conducted a systematic review of current epidemiological evidence of the relationship between alcohol intake and OC risk, including the role of tobacco smoking and functional polymorphisms of dehydrogenases (ADHs) and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs)...
June 22, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624784/mitochondrial-pyruvate-carrier-function-determines-cell-stemness-and-metabolic-reprogramming-in-cancer-cells
#3
Xiaoli Li, Gaoyang Han, Xiaoran Li, Quancheng Kan, Zhirui Fan, Yaqing Li, Yasai Ji, Jing Zhao, Mingzhi Zhang, Mantas Grigalavicius, Viktor Berge, Mariusz Adam Goscinski, Jahn M Nesland, Zhenhe Suo
One of the remarkable features of cancer cells is aerobic glycolysis, a phenomenon known as the "Warburg Effect", in which cells rely preferentially on glycolysis instead of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) as the main energy source even in the presence of high oxygen tension. Cells with dysfunctional mitochondria are unable to generate sufficient ATP from mitochondrial OXPHOS, and then are forced to rely on glycolysis for ATP generation. Here we report our results in a prostate cancer cell line in which the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 1 (MPC1) gene was knockout...
May 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604744/emp2-is-a-novel-therapeutic-target-for-endometrial-cancer-stem-cells
#4
M H Kiyohara, C Dillard, J Tsui, S R Kim, J Lu, D Sachdev, L Goodglick, M Tong, V F Torous, C Aryasomayajula, W Wang, P Najafzadeh, L K Gordon, J Braun, S McDermott, M S Wicha, M Wadehra
Previous studies have suggested that overexpression of the oncogenic protein epithelial membrane protein-2 (EMP2) correlates with endometrial carcinoma progression and ultimately poor survival from disease. To understand the role of EMP2 in the etiology of disease, gene analysis was performed to show transcripts that are reciprocally regulated by EMP2 levels. In particular, EMP2 expression correlates with and helps regulate the expression of several cancer stem cell associated markers including aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1)...
June 12, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603607/co-delivery-of-carboplatin-and-paclitaxel-via-cross-linked-multilamellar-liposomes-for-ovarian-cancer-treatment
#5
Xiaoyang Zhang, Yarong Liu, Yu Jeong Kim, John Mac, Rachel Zhuang, Pin Wang
Carboplatin (CPT) and paclitaxel (PTX) used in combination is one of the most effective treatments for ovarian cancer. However, the traditional combination methods used to co-administrate CPT and PTX showed limited clinical efficacy due to their distinct pharmacokinetics. Although much effort has been devoted to developing nanoparticles capable of encapsulating drugs with different lipophilicites, co-delivery of carboplatin with paclitaxel by a single nanoparticle has rarely been reported. Here, we encapsulated and delivered this drug combination to ovarian cancer cells at a controlled ratio by a previously reported crosslinked multilamellar liposome vesicle (cMLV)...
April 3, 2017: RSC Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579829/natural-and-synthetic-progestins-enrich-cancer-stem-cell-like-cells-in-hormone-responsive-human-breast-cancer-cell-populations-in-vitro
#6
Sandy Goyette, Yayun Liang, Benford Mafuvadze, Matthew T Cook, Moiz Munir, Salman M Hyder
Clinical trials and studies have shown that combination estrogen/progestin hormone replacement therapy, but not estrogen therapy alone or placebo, increases breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. Using animal models, we have previously shown that both natural and synthetic progestins (including medroxyprogesterone acetate [MPA], a synthetic progestin used widely in the clinical setting) accelerate the development of breast tumors in vivo and increase their metastasis to lymph nodes. Based on these observations, we have hypothesized that progestin-induced breast cancer tumor growth and metastasis may be mediated by an enrichment of the cancer stem cell (CSC) pool...
2017: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574664/ccl18-upregulates-slug-expression-to-promote-stem-cell-like-features-by-activating-mtor-pathway-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#7
Hongfei Wang, Xueyi Liang, Mianxiang Li, Xiaoan Tao, Shanshan Tai, Zhaona Fan, Zhi Wang, Bin Cheng, Juan Xia
Chemokine (CC motif) ligand 18 (CCL18) is involved in the remodeling of tumor microenvironment and have critical roles in oncogenesis, invasiveness and metastasis. We previously investigated that CCL18 was overexpressed in primary oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissues and associated with advanced clinical stage of OSCC patients. However, the underlying mechanisms of this CCL18-derived activity remains unidentified. This study showed exogenous CCL18 increased cell migration, invasion and induced cell epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), displaying that E-cadherin, an epithelial marker, decreased and N-cadherin, a mesenchymal marker, increased, compared to negative control in OSCC cells...
June 2, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565875/smoothened-antagonist-gdc-0449-vismodegib-inhibits-proliferation-and-triggers-apoptosis-in-colon-cancer-cell-lines
#8
Chuanqing Wu, Shaobo Hu, Ji Cheng, Guobin Wang, Kaixiong Tao
The sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway has been proven to be involved in embryonic development and cancer growth. GDC-0449, an antagonist of the hedgehog signaling receptor Smoothened (Smo), was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as a prescription for skin basal cell carcinoma. However, the efficacy of GDC-0449 in the treatment of colon cancer and other malignancies, such as basal cell carcinoma and pancreatic cancer, has remained to be proven. The present study assessed the effect of GDC-0449 on the colon cancer cell lines Caco-2 and Ht-29...
May 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538665/molecular-basis-of-alcohol-related-gastric-and-colon-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Hye-Kyung Na, Ja Young Lee
Many meta-analysis, large cohort studies, and experimental studies suggest that chronic alcohol consumption increases the risk of gastric and colon cancer. Ethanol is metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH), catalase or cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) to acetaldehyde, which is then further oxidized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Acetaldehyde has been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a Group 1 carcinogen to humans. The acetaldehyde level in the stomach and colon is locally influenced by gastric colonization by Helicobacter pylori or colonic microbes, as well as polymorphisms in the genes encoding tissue alcohol metabolizing enzymes, especially ALDH2...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532411/aldehyde-dehydrogenase-2-2-knock-in-mice-show-increased-reactive-oxygen-species-production-in-response-to-cisplatin-treatment
#10
Jeewon Kim, Che-Hong Chen, Jieying Yang, Daria Mochly-Rosen
BACKGROUND: The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzyme family metabolizes and detoxifies both exogenous and endogenous aldehydes. Since chemotherapeutic agents, such as cisplatin, generate cytotoxic aldehydes and oxidative stress, and chemoresistant cancer cells express high levels of ALDH enzymes, we hypothesized that different ALDH expression within cells may show different chemosensitivity. ALDH2 has the lowest Km for acetaldehyde among ALDH isozymes and detoxifies acetaldehydes in addition to other reactive aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxy-nonenal, malondialdehyde and acrolein produced from lipid peroxidation by reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521301/activation-of-signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-3-stat3-signaling-in-egfr-mutant-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc
#11
Carles Codony-Servat, Jordi Codony-Servat, Niki Karachaliou, Miguel Angel Molina, Imane Chaib, Jose Luis Ramirez, Maria de Los Llanos Gil, Flavio Solca, Trever G Bivona, Rafael Rosell
Gefitinib, erlotinib or afatinib are the current treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring an activating mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), but less than 5% of patients achieve a complete response and the median progression-free survival is no longer than 12 months. Early adaptive resistance can occur as soon as two hours after starting treatment by activating signal transducer and activation of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling. We investigated the activation of STAT3 in a panel of gefitinib-sensitive EGFR mutant cell lines, and gefitinib-resistant PC9 cell lines developed in our laboratory...
May 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503055/protein-markers-associated-with-an-aldh-sub-population-in-colorectal-cancer
#12
Rui Yang, Xinhua Liu, Smathorn Thakolwiboon, Jianhui Zhu, Xiucong Pei, Mingrui An, Zhijing Tan, David M Lubman
ALDH has been shown to be a marker that denotes a sub-population of cancer stem cells in colorectal and other cancers. This sub-population of cells shows an increased risk for tumor initiation, metastasis, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiation resulting in recurrence and death. It is thus essential to identify the important signaling pathways related to ALDH1+ CSCs in colon cancer. The essential issue becomes to isolate pure sub-populations of cells from heterogeneous tissues for further analysis. To achieve this goal, tissues from colorectal cancer Stage III patients were immuno-stained with ALDH1 antibody...
October 2016: Journal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498874/soluble-bone-derived-osteopontin-promotes-migration-and-stem-like-behavior-of-breast-cancer-cells
#13
Graciella M Pio, Ying Xia, Matthew M Piaseczny, Jenny E Chu, Alison L Allan
Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women, with the majority of these deaths caused by metastasis to distant organs. The most common site of breast cancer metastasis is the bone, which has been shown to provide a rich microenvironment that supports the migration and growth of breast cancer cells. Additionally, growing evidence suggests that breast cancer cells that do successfully metastasize have a stem-like phenotype including high activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and/or a CD44+CD24- phenotype...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487386/an-mirna-expression-signature-for-the-human-colonic-stem-cell-niche-distinguishes-malignant%C3%A2-from-normal-epithelia
#14
Vignesh Viswanathan, Shirish Damle, Tao Zhang, Lynn M Opdenaker, Shirin Modarai, Monica Accerbi, Skye Schmidt, Pamela J Green, Deni Galileo, Juan P Palazzo, Jeremy Fields, Sepehr Haghighat, Isidore Rigoutsos, Gregory E Gonye, Bruce M Boman
Malignant transformation of tissue stem cells may be the root of most cancer. Accordingly, we identified miRNA expression patterns in the normal human colonic stem cell (SC) niche to understand how cancer stem cells (CSCs) may arise. In profiling miRNA expression in SC-enriched crypt subsections isolated from fresh, normal surgical specimens, we identified 16 miRNAs that were differentially expressed in the crypt bottom, creating a SC signature for normal colonic epithelia (NCE). A parallel analysis of colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues showed differential expression of 83 miRNAs relative to NCE...
May 9, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455980/targeting-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-activity-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-with-a-novel-small-molecule-inhibitor
#15
Jeewon Kim, June Ho Shin, Che-Hong Chen, Leslie Cruz, Lovisa Farnebo, Jieying Yang, Paula Borges, Gugene Kang, Daria Mochly-Rosen, John B Sunwoo
Chemoresistant cancer cells express high levels of aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs), particularly in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The ALDH family of enzymes detoxify both exogenous and endogenous aldehydes. Since many chemotherapeutic agents, such as cisplatin, result in the generation of cytotoxic aldehydes and oxidative stress, we hypothesized that cells expressing high levels of ALDH may be more chemoresistant due to their increased detoxifying capacity and that inhibitors of ALDHs may sensitize them to these drugs...
April 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455241/in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-anti-uveal-melanoma-activity-of-jsl-1-a-novel-hdac-inhibitor
#16
Yun Wang, Maoxing Liu, Yanli Jin, Sheng Jiang, Jingxuan Pan
Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common intraocular malignant neoplasm in adults. Despite the availability of enucleation, radiation and chemotherapy, the prognosis of patients with metastasis remains poor. Therefore, novel effective therapies for patients with metastatic UM are urgently needed. In the present study, we demonstrated that JSL-1, a novel HDAC inhibitor, effectively inhibited the proliferation. JSL-1 induced apoptosis with increased expression of proapoptotic BH3-only protein BIM in UM cells. JSL-1 suppressed migration and invasion of UM cells with MMP-2 decreased...
April 26, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440205/in-vitro-collapsing-colon-cancer-cells-by-selectivity-of-disulfiram-loaded-charge-switchable-nanoparticles-against-cancer-stem-cells
#17
Marwa Muhammad Abu-Serie, Fatma Hassan El-Rashidy
BACKGROUND: Different strategies against colon cancer are accompanied by treatment failure, because of drug toxicity toward normal cells and cancer stem cells (CSCs) resistance. However, previous patent evaluated liposome that encapsulated inhibitor of CSCs' aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)1; disulfiram, for targeting breast CSCs. Liposome has disadvantages due to its hydrophobicity. OBJECTIVES: Designing hydrophilic nanoparticles have selectivity to release disulfiram in CC cells rather than in normal colonocytes based on variation in microenvironment between normal and cancer cells...
April 24, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-cancer Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431562/effects-of-the-common-polymorphism-in-the-human-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-2-aldh2-gene-on-the-lung
#18
Aoi Kuroda, Ahmed E Hegab, Gao Jingtao, Shuji Yamashita, Nobuyuki Hizawa, Tohru Sakamoto, Hideyasu Yamada, Satoshi Suzuki, Makoto Ishii, Ho Namkoong, Takanori Asakura, Mari Ozaki, Hiroyuki Yasuda, Junko Hamamoto, Shizuko Kagawa, Kenzo Soejima, Tomoko Betsuyaku
BACKGROUND: Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) play a major role in detoxification of aldehydes. High expression of ALDHs is a marker for stem cells of many organs including the lungs. A common polymorphism in ALDH2 gene (ALDH2*2) results in inactivation of the enzyme and is associated with alcohol flushing syndrome and increased risk for cardiovascular and Alzheimer's diseases and some cancers. The effect of this ALDH2 polymorphism on the lung and its stem cells has not been thoroughly examined...
April 21, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430034/um-chor1-establishment-and-characterization-of-the-first-validated-clival-chordoma-cell-line
#19
John Henry Owen, Christine M Komarck, Anthony C Wang, Waleed M Abuzeid, Richard F Keep, Erin L McKean, Stephen Sullivan, Xing Fan, Mark E P Prince
OBJECTIVE Chordomas are rare malignant tumors thought to arise from remnants of the notochord. They can be located anywhere along the axial skeleton but are most commonly found in the clival and sacrococcygeal regions, where the notochord regresses during fetal development. Chordomas are resistant to many current therapies, leaving surgery as the primary method of treatment. Cancer cell lines have been useful for developing new cancer treatments in a laboratory setting that can then be transferred to the clinic, but there are only 4 validated chordoma cell lines available...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411198/correction-egfl6-regulates-the-asymmetric-division-maintenance-and-metastasis-of-aldh-ovarian-cancer-cells
#20
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 15, 2017: Cancer Research
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