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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642095/ginsenoside-rg1-alleviates-corticosterone-induced-dysfunction-of-gap-junctions-in-astrocytes
#1
Cong-Yuan Xia, Shi-Feng Chu, Shuai Zhang, Yan Gao, Qian Ren, Yu-Xia Lou, Piao Luo, Man-Tong Tian, Zhi-Qi Wang, Guo-Hua Du, Yoshihisa Tomioka, Tohru Yamakuni, Yi Zhang, Zhen-Zhen Wang, Nai-Hong Chen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), one of the major bioactive ingredients of Panax Ginseng C. A. Mey, has neuroprotective effects in animal models of depression, but the mechanism underlying these effects is still largely unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: Gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) dysfunction is a potentially novel pathogenic mechanism for depression. Thus, we investigated that whether antidepressant-like effects of Rg1 were related to GJIC...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634862/effect-of-gapt-extract-on-expression-of-tau-protein-and-its-phosphorylation-related-enzymes-in-hippocampal-neurons-of-appv717i-transgenic-mice
#2
Jing-Nian Ni, Jing Shi, Xue-Kai Zhang, Yi-Chang Yang, Xiao-Meng Liu, Ming-Qing Wei, Ting Li, Peng-Wen Wang, Jin-Zhou Tian, Yong-Yan Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of GAPT, an extract mixture from Radix Ginseng, Rhizoma Acor tatarinowii, Radix Polygalae and Radix Curcuma (containing ingredient of turmeric), etc. on expression of tau protein and its phosphorylation related enzyme in hippocampal neurons of APPV717I transgenic mice. METHODS: Sixty three-month-old APPV717I transgenic mice were randomly divided into model group, donepezil group [0.92 mg/(kg d)], the low, medium and high dosage of GAPT groups [0...
June 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629290/functional-foods-how-functional-are-they-a-case-report-of-supplement-induced-psychosis
#3
Priyanka Yadav, Kyle Stigall, Hannah E Johnson, Abner O Rayapati, Nitin Chopra
There is rising evidence of patients' use of alternative and complementary medicine. The percentage of the U.S. population who used at least one dietary supplement increased from 42% in 1988-1994 to 53% in 2003-2006. We present a case of an Asian female in her 40s, with no previous psychiatric illness, who presented to the emergency room following a brief psychotic episode, during which she self-amputated the tips of her fingers, after using multivitamins and herbal supplements including ginseng, gui yuan rou (Chinese herb), astaxanthin, goji (Chinese fruit), selenium, saw palmetto, grape seed extract, citrus bioflavanoid, lutein (zeaxantin), resvexatrol, sun chlorella, spirulina powder, phytoceramides, phytoestrogen, glucosatrin, bromelain plus, and American bee pollen...
August 2016: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629160/structural-characterization-of-a-rhamnogalacturonan-i-domain-from-ginseng-and-its-inhibitory-effect-on-galectin-3
#4
Huimin Shi, Li Yu, Yun Shi, Jiaojiao Lu, He Teng, Yifa Zhou, Lin Sun
A rhamnogalacturonan I domain, named RG-I-3A, was prepared from ginseng pectin by pectinase digestion and chromatography separation. Monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that it was mainly composed of galacturonic acid, rhamnose, galactose, and arabinose in a molar ratio of 32.5:11.2:31.9:16.5, with a molecular weight of 50 kDa. Partial acid hydrolysis, monoclonal antibody detection, and NMR spectra analysis suggested RG-I-3A was composed of →4)-α-GalpA-(1→2)-α-Rhap-(1→disaccharide repeating units as backbone, with β-1,4-galactan, α-1,5-arabinan, AG-I, and AG-II side chains substituted via the O-4 of Rhap...
June 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620420/pharmacokinetic-comparison-of-20-r-and-20-s-ginsenoside-rh1-and-20-r-and-20-s-ginsenoside-rg3-in-rat-plasma-following-oral-administration-of-radix-ginseng-rubra-and-sheng-mai-san-extracts
#5
Xiaomei Fan, Yan Xu, Danni Zhu, Yibing Ji
Ginsenosides Rh1 and Rg3, as the main bioactive components from Ginseng, are effective for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Sheng-Mai-San (SMS), a classical complex prescription of traditional Chinese medicines, is composed of Radix Ginseng Rubra, Fructus Schisandrae, and Radix Ophiopogonis. In this research, a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric method was developed and validated for stereoselective determination and pharmacokinetic studies of 20(R)- and 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh1 and 20(R)- and 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 epimers in rat plasma after oral administration of Radix Ginseng Rubra or SMS extracts...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618657/antidepressive-effects-of-ginsenoside-rg1-via-regulation-of-hpa-and-hpg-axis
#6
Zheng Mou, Qian Huang, Shi-Feng Chu, Mei-Jin Zhang, Jin-Feng Hu, Nai-Hong Chen, Jun-Tian Zhang
BACKGROUND: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity is a well-established pathological feature of major depression, accompanied by the persistent increase of glucocorticoid level and the dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) is one of the most active ingredients of Panax ginseng, which has various biological activity. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the antidepressive effects of Rg1 and elucidate its impact on neuroendocrine system...
June 10, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605877/ginsenoside-rb2-inhibits-osteoclast-differentiation-through-nuclear-factor-kappab-and-signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-protein-3-signaling-pathway
#7
Fei Cong, Jian Liu, Chunmei Wang, Zhi Yuan, Long Bi, Jidong Liang, Ke Su, Yucheng Qiu, Tao Song, Jinzhu Fan, Gao Chao
Ginsenoside-Rb2 (Rb2) is a 20(S)-protopanaxadiol glycoside extracted from ginseng possessing various bioactivities which has drawn considerable interest regarding the area of bone metabolism. However, the effect of Rb2 on osteoclast differentiation remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential role of Rb2 in regulating osteoclast differentiation and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Osteoclast differentiation was induced by receptor activator nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) in mouse RAW 264...
June 8, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605639/ginsenoside-rg1-attenuates-the-inflammatory-response-in-dss-induced-mice-colitis
#8
Guo Zhu, Huanan Wang, Tiancheng Wang, Fushan Shi
Ginsenoside Rg1 is a major active constituent of Panax ginseng and possesses anti-inflammatory effects. It has been reported to have therapeutic effects on various diseases. In the present study, we investigated the role of ginsenoside Rg1 in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced mouse colitis. Our results showed that ginsenoside Rg1 markedly reduces proinflammatory cytokines release upon DSS stimulation of mouse dendritic cells, that ginsenoside Rg1 suppresses IL-1β (Interleukin 1 beta) and TNF-α (Tumor necrosis factor alpha) release via up-regulation of NLRP12 (NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 12) expression, and that ginsenoside Rg1 significantly decreases the inflammatory response to DSS-induced mouse colitis, as evidenced by increased body weight, reduced colonic damage scores and disease activity index (DAI), and lowered proinflammatory cytokines levels...
June 9, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599882/saponins-from-stems-and-leaves-of-panax-ginseng-prevent-obesity-via-regulating-thermogenesis-lipogenesis-and-lipolysis-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-c57bl-6-mice
#9
Guilin Chen, Haijun Li, Yan Zhao, Hongyan Zhu, Enbo Cai, Yugang Gao, Shuangli Liu, He Yang, Lianxue Zhang
In this study, high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mouse model was used to evaluate the dietary effect of saponins from stems and leaves of Panax ginseng (SLG), and to explore its mechanism of action in producing anti-obesity effects. The results indicate that SLG showed significant anti-obesity effects in diet-induced obese mice, represented by decreased serum levels of free fatty acids (FFA), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, glucose, leptin and insulin, as well as a reduction in overall body and liver weight, epididymal adipose tissue weight, and food efficiency, and inhibition of abnormal increases in acyl carnitine levels normally caused by an HFD...
June 7, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592952/development-of-a-biofungicide-using-a-mycoparasitic-fungus-simplicillium-lamellicola-bcp-and-its-control-efficacy-against-gray-mold-diseases-of-tomato-and-ginseng
#10
Teak Soo Shin, Nan Hee Yu, Jaeho Lee, Gyung Ja Choi, Jin-Cheol Kim, Chul Soo Shin
To develop a commercial product using the mycoparasitic fungus Simplicillium lamellicola BCP, the scaleup of conidia production from a 5-l jar to a 5,000-l pilot bioreactor, optimization of the freeze-drying of the fermentation broth, and preparation of a wettable powder-type formulation were performed. Then, its disease control efficacy was evaluated against gray mold diseases of tomato and ginseng plants in field conditions. The final conidial yields of S. lamellicola BCP were 3.3 × 10(9) conidia/ml for a 5-l jar, 3...
June 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588237/tcm-mesh-the-database-and-analytical-system-for-network-pharmacology-analysis-for-tcm-preparations
#11
Run-Zhi Zhang, Shao-Jun Yu, Hong Bai, Kang Ning
With the advancement of systems biology research, we have already seen great progress in pharmacology studies, especially in network pharmacology. Network pharmacology has been proven to be effective for establishing the "compounds-proteins/genes-diseases" network, and revealing the regulation principles of small molecules in a high-throughput manner, thus would be very effective for the analysis of drug combinations, especially for TCM preparations. In this work, we have proposed the TCM-Mesh system, which records TCM-related information collected from various resources and could serve for network pharmacology analysis for TCM preparations in a high-throughput manner (http://mesh...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587128/yeast-extract-stimulates-ginsenoside-production-in-hairy-root-cultures-of-american-ginseng-cultivated-in-shake-flasks-and-nutrient-sprinkle-bioreactors
#12
Ewa Kochan, Piotr Szymczyk, Łukasz Kuźma, Anna Lipert, Grażyna Szymańska
One of the most effective strategies to enhance metabolite biosynthesis and accumulation in biotechnological systems is the use of elicitation processes. This study assesses the influence of different concentrations of yeast extract (YE) on ginsenoside biosynthesis in Panax quinquefolium (American ginseng) hairy roots cultivated in shake flasks and in a nutrient sprinkle bioreactor after 3 and 7 days of elicitation. The saponin content was determined using HPLC. The maximum yield (20 mg g(-1) d.w.) of the sum of six examined ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re and Rg1) in hairy roots cultivated in shake flasks was achieved after application of YE at 50 mg L(-1) concentration and 3 day exposure time...
May 26, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586505/cellular-stress-response-mechanisms-as-therapeutic-targets-of-ginsenosides
#13
REVIEW
Hong-Yi Qi, Li Li, Hui Ma
Ginseng, one of the most widely used traditional herbal medicines and dietary supplements, has historically been recognized as a tonic herb and adaptogen that can enhance the body's tolerance to various adversities. Ginsenosides are a diverse group of steroidal saponins that comprise the major secondary metabolites of ginseng and are responsible for its multiple pharmacological effects. Emerging evidence suggests that hormetic phytochemicals produced by environmentally stressed plants can activate the moderate cellular stress response mechanisms at a subtoxic level in humans, which may enhance tolerance against severe dysfunction or disease...
June 6, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584797/panax-ginseng-induces-toxic-hepatitis-and-acute-kidney-injury
#14
Jeong Ho Lee, Jung Hwan Yoon, Sung Sun Kim, Seong Kwon Ma, Soo Wan Kim, Eun Hui Bae
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Chonnam Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579889/phenylethanoid-glycosides-of-cistanche-on-menopausal-syndrome-model-in-mice
#15
Shuo Tian, Mingsan Miao, Ming Bai, Zhenzhen Wei
Cistanche is the traditional and precious Chinese herbal, with two thousand years of use history in China. It has the effect on tonifying kidney, strong supplement to the liver and kidney, and replenishing essence and blood, known as the "desert ginseng". Here, we explored the mechanism of Phenylethanoid Glycosides of Cistanche (PGC) to the model mice of menopausal syndrome, as well as the therapeutic effect and characteristics of PGC to the menopausal syndrome. In this study, KM mice were reproduced by the complete resection of the ovaries on both sides of the back to establish the model mice of menopausal syndrome (MPS), and received distilled water or drugs, respectively...
May 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568743/interventions-for-treatment-and-or-prevention-of-alcohol-hangover-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Ranil Jayawardena, Thulasika Thejani, Priyanga Ranasinghe, Dinithi Fernando, Joris C Verster
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate new research conducted over the past few years (2009-2016) assessing the effectiveness of potentially curative and/or preventive methods of alcohol hangover. METHODS: Data were retrieved by a 4-stage systematic search process. A search of the online Pubmed and Scopus databases were performed, using a combination of keywords: "Alcohol," "Ethanol," and "C2 H5 OH," in combination with the terms "Hangover," "Treatment," and "Prevention." The search comprised studies listed between January 1, 2009 and June 30, 2016...
May 31, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561788/comprehensive-characterization-for-ginsenosides-biosynthesis-in-ginseng-root-by-integration-analysis-of-chemical-and-transcriptome
#17
Jing-Jing Zhang, He Su, Lei Zhang, Bao-Sheng Liao, Shui-Ming Xiao, Lin-Lin Dong, Zhi-Gang Hu, Ping Wang, Xi-Wen Li, Zhi-Hai Huang, Zhi-Ming Gao, Lian-Juan Zhang, Liang Shen, Rui-Yang Cheng, Jiang Xu, Shi-Lin Chen
Herbgenomics provides a global platform to explore the genetics and biology of herbs on the genome level. Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is an important medicinal plant with numerous pharmaceutical effects. Previous reports mainly discussed the transcriptome of ginseng at the organ level. However, based on mass spectrometry imaging analyses, the ginsenosides varied among different tissues. In this work, ginseng root was separated into three tissues-periderm, cortex and stele-each for five duplicates. The chemical analysis and transcriptome analysis were conducted simultaneously...
May 31, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561205/treatment-with-mountain-cultivated-ginseng-alleviates-trimethyltin-induced-cognitive-impairments-in-mice-via-il-6-dependent-jak2-stat3-erk-signaling
#18
Thu-Hien Thi Tu, Naveen Sharma, Eun-Joo Shin, Hai-Quyen Tran, Yu Jeung Lee, Seung-Yeol Nah, Hoang-Yen Phi Tran, Ji Hoon Jeong, Jung Hwan Jeong, Sung Kwon Ko, Jae Kyung Byun, Hyoung-Chun Kim
Panax ginseng is the most widely used herbal medicine for improving cognitive functions. The pharmacological activity and underlying mechanisms of mountain-cultivated ginseng, however, have yet to be clearly elucidated, in particular, against trimethyltin-induced cognitive dysfunction. We previously reported that interleukin-6 plays a protective role against trimethyltin-induced cognitive dysfunction. Because of this, we have implemented a study system that uses interleukin-6 null (-/-) and wild-type mice. Interestingly, mountain-cultivated ginseng significantly upregulated interleukin-6 expression...
May 30, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558522/saponin-extracts-induced-apoptosis-of-endometrial-cells-from-women-with-endometriosis-through-modulation-of-mir-21-5p
#19
Ji Hyun Park, Seung Kyun Lee, Min Kyoung Kim, Jae Hoon Lee, Bo Hyun Yun, Joo Hyun Park, Seok Kyo Seo, SiHyun Cho, Young Sik Choi
Among the several components in Korean red ginseng, the saponin components are known to have various pharmacologic activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate therapeutic effects of saponin extracts from Korean red ginseng on endometriosis and to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) associated with saponin treatment. This is an in vitro study which used human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) obtained from patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery for endometriosis and other benign conditions. Human endometrial stromal cells were treated with saponin extracts, and microarray profiling was performed...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553348/neuroprotective-mechanism-of-kai-xin-san-upregulation-of-hippocampal-insulin-degrading-enzyme-protein-expression-and-acceleration-of-amyloid-beta-degradation
#20
Na Wang, Yong-Ming Jia, Bo Zhang, Di Xue, Maharjan Reeju, Yan Li, Shu-Ming Huang, Xue-Wei Liu
Kai Xin San is a Chinese herbal formula composed of Radix Ginseng, Poria, Radix Polygalae and Acorus Tatarinowii Rhizome. It has been used in China for many years for treating amnesia. Kai Xin San ameliorates amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced cognitive dysfunction and is neuroprotective in vivo, but its precise mechanism remains unclear. Expression of insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), which degrades Aβ, is strongly correlated with cognitive function. Here, we injected rats with exogenous Aβ42 (200 μM, 5 μL) into the hippocampus and subsequently administered Kai Xin San (0...
April 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
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