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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345906/malonylginsenosides-with-potential-antidiabetic-activities-from-the-flower-buds-of-panax-ginseng
#1
Shi Qiu, Wen-Zhi Yang, Chang-Liang Yao, Xiao-Jian Shi, Jing-Ya Li, Yang Lou, Ya-Nan Duan, Wan-Ying Wu, De-An Guo
LC-MS-guided phytochemical isolation of malonylginsenosides, featuring neutral elimination of CO2 and C3H2O3 by the negative mode collision-induced dissociation, from the flower buds of Panax ginseng led to the isolation of 19 malonyl-substituted triterpenoid saponins. They include 15 new malonylginsenosides, malonylfloralginsenosides-Re1-Re3 (1-3), -Rb1 and -Rb2 (4, 5), -Rd1-Rd6 (6-11), and -Rc1-Rc4 (12-15), and the known m-Rb1, m-Rc, m-Rb2, and m-Rd (16-19). Compound 11 represents the first dimalonyl saponin isolated from the Panax genus, while 2-4, 9, and 10 are five ginsenosides with single malonylation at the C-20 sugar chain...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337143/anti-adipogenic-effects-and-mechanisms-of-ginsenoside-rg3-in-pre-adipocytes-and-obese-mice
#2
Longyun Zhang, Lijuan Zhang, Xiaoyong Wang, Hongwei Si
Red or black ginseng has been reported more powerful than white/fresh ginseng in dealing with various diseases/conditions including obesity. The major reason is that heating/steaming, the process of making red or black ginseng, produces large amount of bioactive compounds including ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3), which are trace in fresh or white ginseng. In the present study, Rg3 was applied both in pre-adipocytes and obese mice to investigate the anti-adipogenic effects and relevant mechanisms. Our results show that Rg3 dose-dependently inhibited cell differentiation both in 3T3-L1 cells (30, 50, and 100 μM) and human primary pre-adipocytes (10, 20, and 30 μM)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335577/gc-ms-metabolomic-analysis-to-reveal-the-metabolites-and-biological-pathways-involved-in-the-developmental-stages-and-tissue-response-of-panax-ginseng
#3
Jia Liu, Yang Liu, Yu Wang, Ann Abozeid, Yuan-Gang Zu, Xiao-Ning Zhang, Zhong-Hua Tang
Ginsenosides, the major compounds present in ginseng, are known to have numerous physiological and pharmacological effects. The physiological processes, enzymes and genes involved in ginsenoside synthesis in P. ginseng have been well characterized. However, relatively little information is known about the dynamic metabolic changes that occur during ginsenoside accumulation in ginseng. To explore this topic, we isolated metabolites from different tissues at different growth stages, and identified and characterized them by using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
March 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335497/ginsenoside-ppd-s-antitumor-effect-via-down-regulation-of-mtor-revealed-by-super-resolution-imaging
#4
Bo Teng, Junguang Jiang, Lijing Zhao, Jing Gao, Junyu Chen, Zhe Liu, Hongda Wang, Binfeng Lu
Derived from Panax ginseng, the natural product 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol (PPD) has been reported for its cytotoxicity against several cancer cell lines. The molecular mechanism is, however, not well understood. Here we show that PPD significantly inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis and causes G2/M cell cycle arrest in human laryngeal carcinoma cells (Hep-2 cells). PPD also decreases the levels of proteins related to cell proliferation. Moreover, PPD-induced apoptosis is characterized by a dose-dependent down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of Bax, and is accompanied by the activation of Caspase-3 as well...
March 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335336/oral-toxicity-and-intestinal-transport-mechanism-of-colloidal-gold-nanoparticle-treated-red-ginseng
#5
Song-Hwa Bae, Jin Yu, Mi-Ran Go, Hyun-Jin Kim, Yun-Gu Hwang, Soo-Jin Choi
(1) Background: Application of nanotechnology or nanomaterials in agricultural food crops has attracted increasing attention with regard to improving crop production, quality, and nutrient utilization. Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) have been reported to enhance seed yield, germination rate, and anti-oxidant potential in food crops, raising concerns about their toxicity potential. In this study, we evaluated the oral toxicity of red ginseng exposed to colloidal Au-NPs during cultivation (G-red ginseng) in rats and their intestinal transport mechanism...
November 11, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314177/gintonin-attenuates-depressive-like-behaviors-associated-with-alcohol-withdrawal-in-mice
#6
Hyeon-Joong Kim, Sang-Deuk Park, Ra Mi Lee, Byung-Hwan Lee, Sun-Hye Choi, Sung-Hee Hwang, Hyewhon Rhim, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Seung-Yeol Nah
BACKGROUND: Panax ginseng Meyer extracts have been used to improve mood and alleviate symptoms of depression. However, little is known about the extracts' active ingredients and the molecular mechanisms underlying their reported anti-depressive effects. METHODS: Gintonin is an exogenous lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand isolated from P. ginseng. BON cells, an enterochromaffin cell line, and C57BL/6 mice were used to investigate whether gintonin stimulates serotonin release...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301605/ocf-can-repress-tumor-metastasis-by-inhibiting-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-involved-in-pten-pi3k-akt-pathway-in-lung-cancer-cells
#7
Ye Yang, Shuang Qiu, Lei Qian, Yuan Tian, Yingna Chen, Lei Bi, Weiping Chen
A component formula with definite compositions provides a new approach to treat various diseases. Salvia miltiorrhiza and Panax ginseng are widely used in China because of their antitumor properties. In the previous study, the optimizing component formula (OCF), prepared with salvianolic acids, ginsenosides, and ginseng polysaccharides (5, 10, and 5 mg·L-1, respectively) extracted from S. miltiorrhiza and P. ginseng on the basis of IC50 in lung cancer A549 cells and damage minimization on human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299946/single-institute-experience-with-methylphenidate-and-american-ginseng-in-cancer-related-fatigue
#8
Young D Chang, Joshua Smith, Diane Portman, Richard Kim, Ritika Oberoi-Jassal, Sahana Rajasekhara, Mellar Davis
BACKGROUND: Single therapy with methylphenidate or American ginseng contributes to the reduction in cancer-related fatigue (CRF) with different pharmacologic mechanisms and is relatively safe. However, the safety and efficacy of treating CRF with methylphenidate and AG combination therapy is unknown. AIM: The primary objective was to assess the clinical safety and the change in fatigue with numerical rating scale (NRS) on the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) after intervention with methylphenidate and AG combination therapy...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294969/a-metabolomic-approach-for-the-discrimination-of-red-ginseng-root-parts-and-targeted-validation
#9
Gyo In, Hyun Kyu Seo, Hee-Won Park, Kyoung Hwa Jang
Ginsenosides are used as existing markers of red ginseng (RG) quality, and ginsenoside ratios are also indicative of the different components of red ginseng. For the analysis and classification of ginsenoside content, red ginseng was separated into three parts, namely, main roots, lateral roots, and fine roots, and each extract was subjected to ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QToF-MS) with multivariate statistical analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed a clear discrimination between the extracts of main roots and fine roots and suggested discrimination markers (four for the main roots and five for the fine roots)...
March 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290319/consumer-perception-of-balsamic-vinegar-a-cross-cultural-study-between-korea-and-italy
#10
Luisa Torri, Seon-Young Jeon, Maria Piochi, Gabriella Morini, Kwang-Ok Kim
Understanding cross-cultural differences in food perception is a key issue of food research in order to understand consumer behaviour in different countries. The objective of this study was to explore potential cultural differences of balsamic vinegar perception between Korean and Italian consumers using the sorted napping method. Nine balsamic vinegars different in terms of ingredients, aging time, and origin were evaluated by Korean (n=50) and Italian (n=49) consumers using sorted napping. Familiarity and food matching were also examined...
January 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288606/monitoring-heavy-metals-residual-agricultural-chemicals-and-sulfites-in-traditional-herbal-decoctions
#11
In-Sil Yu, Jeong-Sook Lee, Sung-Dan Kim, Yun-Hee Kim, Hae-Won Park, Hoe-Jin Ryu, Jib-Ho Lee, Jeong-Mi Lee, Kweon Jung, Cheol Na, Jin-Yong Joung, Chang-Gue Son
BACKGROUND: Asian traditional herbal preparations are frequently considered for the contamination with undeclared toxic or hazardous substances. The aim of this study was to determine the toxic heavy metals, pesticides and sulfur dioxide in decoctions that is a common form of final utilization in Korea. METHODS: A total of 155 decoctions composed of multi-ingredient traditional herbs were randomly sampled from Seoul in Korea between 2013 and 2014. For each decoction, the concentrations of four heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury), 33 pesticides and sulfur dioxide were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), mercury analyzer, gas chromatography/nitrogen phosphorous detector (GC/NPD), gas chromatography/micro electron capture detector (GC/μECD), and Monier-Williams method respectively...
March 14, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287442/a-strategy-for-simultaneous-isolation-of-less-polar-ginsenosides-including-a-pair-of-new-20-methoxyl-isomers-from-flower-buds-of-panax-ginseng
#12
Sha-Sha Li, Ke-Ke Li, Fei Xu, Li Tao, Li Yang, Shu-Xiao Chen, Xiao-Jie Gong
The present study was designed to simultaneously isolate the less polar ginsenosides from the flower buds of Panax ginseng (FBPG). Five ginsenosides, including a pair of new 20-methoxyl isomers, were extracted from FBPG and purified through a five-step integrated strategy, by combining ultrasonic extraction, Diaion Hp-20 macroporous resin column enrichment, solid phase extraction (SPE), reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analysis and preparation, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis...
March 10, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285072/purity-assessment-of-ginsenoside-rg1-using-quantitative-1-h-nuclear-magnetic-resonance
#13
Bao-Ming Huang, Sheng-Yuan Xiao, Ting-Bo Chen, Ying Xie, Pei Luo, Liang Liu, Hua Zhou
Ginseng herbs comprise a group of the most popular herbs, including Panax ginseng, P. notoginseng and P. quinquefolius (Family Araliaceae), which are used as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and are some of the best-selling natural products in the world. The accurate quantification of ginsenoside Rg1 is one of the major aspects of its quality control. However, the purity of the commercial Rg1 chemical reference substance (CRS) is often measured with high-performance chromatography coupled with an ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV), which is a selective detector with unequal responses to different compounds; thus, this detector introduces probable error to purity assessments...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282601/isolation-and-characterization-of-bioactive-polyacetylenes-panax-ginseng-meyer-roots
#14
Chia-Rou Yeo, Jin-Jie Yong, David G Popovich
Panax ginseng has been studied for its chemo-preventive properties and pharmaceutical potential. Polyacetylenic compounds isolated from Panax ginseng root typically comprised of non-polar C17 compound have been reported to exhibit bioactive properties. The objective of this project is to extract, isolate, and characterize bioactive polyacetylenes from Panax ginseng root using various extraction and separation methods Ginseng was extracted by reflux using methanol, ethanol, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanolic ultrasonication...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273939/microbial-transformation-of-ginsenoside-rb1-re-and-rg1-and-its-contribution-to-the-improved-anti-inflammatory-activity-of-ginseng
#15
Shanshan Yu, Xiaoli Zhou, Fan Li, Chunchun Xu, Fei Zheng, Jing Li, Huanxi Zhao, Yulin Dai, Shuying Liu, Yan Feng
Microbial transformation of ginsenosides to increase its pharmaceutical effect is gaining increasing attention in recent years. In this study, Cellulosimicrobium sp. TH-20, which was isolated from soil samples on which ginseng grown, exhibited effective ginsenoside-transforming activity. After protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type ginsenoside (Rb1) and protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type ginsenosides (Re and Rg1) were fed to C. sp. TH20, a total of 12 metabolites, including 6 new intermediate metabolites, were identified. Stepwise deglycosylation and dehydrogenation on the feeding precursors have been observed...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260881/ginseng-berry-mediated-gold-and-silver-nanoparticle-synthesis-and-evaluation-of-their-in-vitro-antioxidant-antimicrobial-and-cytotoxicity-effects-on-human-dermal-fibroblast-and-murine-melanoma-skin-cell-lines
#16
Zuly Elizabeth Jiménez Pérez, Ramya Mathiyalagan, Josua Markus, Yeon-Ju Kim, Hyun Mi Kang, Ragavendran Abbai, Kwang Hoon Seo, Dandan Wang, Veronika Soshnikova, Deok Chun Yang
There has been a growing interest in the design of environmentally affable and biocompatible nanoparticles among scientists to find novel and safe biomaterials. Panax ginseng Meyer berries have unique phytochemical profile and exhibit beneficial pharmacological activities such as antihyperglycemic, antiobesity, antiaging, and antioxidant properties. A comprehensive study of the biologically active compounds in ginseng berry extract (GBE) and the ability of ginseng berry (GB) as novel material for the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (GBAuNPs) and silver nanoparticles (GBAgNPs) was conducted...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260016/effects-of-r-type-and-s-type-ginsenoside-rg3-on-dna-methylation-in-human-hepatocarcinoma-cells
#17
Siying Teng, Yi Wang, Pingya Li, Jinhua Liu, Anhui Wei, Haotian Wang, Xiangkun Meng, Di Pan, Xinmin Zhang
Ginsenoside Rg3, a bioactive constituent isolated from Panax ginseng, exhibits antitumorigenic, antioxidative, antiangiogenic, neuroprotective and other biological activities are associated with the regulation of multiple genes. DNA methylation patterns, particularly those in the promoter region, affect gene expression, and DNA methylation is catalyzed by DNA methylases. However, whether ginsenoside Rg3 affects DNA methylation is unknown. High performance liquid chromatography assay, MspI/HpaII polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR were performed to assess DNA methylation...
February 28, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257788/antidepressant-like-effects-of-ginsenoside-rg5-in-mice-involving-of-hippocampus-bdnf-signaling-pathway
#18
Dawei Xu, Chengniu Wang, Wei Zhao, Shengfeng Gao, Zhiming Cui
Ginsenoside Rg5 is one of the major bioactive ingredients of Panax ginseng with little toxicity and has been shown to have pharmacological effects on the central nervous system. In this study, we investigated the antidepressant effects of Rg5 in mice models of depression. The effects of Rg5 were first assessed in the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST), and then investigated in the chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) model of depression. The changes in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling pathway after CSDS and Rg5 treatment were also examined...
March 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256039/biotransformation-of-ginsenoside-rb1-to-ginsenoside-rg3-by-endophytic-bacterium-burkholderia-sp-ge-17-7-isolated-from-panax-ginseng
#19
Yu Fu, Zhenhao Yin, Chengri Yin
AIMS: To isolate a novel endophytic bacteriums from Panax ginseng that could have excellent properties on converting ginsenoside Rb1 to ginsenoside Rg3. METHODS AND RESULTS: Based on 16S rDNA gene sequence, the strain named GE 17-7 was identified as Burkholderia sp. This strain have showed the highest activity in convertion ginsenosides Rb1 into 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3. During the biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1, the final metabolite was identified by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis and the transformation pathway of ginsenoside Rb1 was also identified by Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis in this study...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244297/therapeutic-effects-of-korean-red-ginseng-extract-in-a-murine-model-of-atopic-dermatitis-anti-pruritic-and-anti-inflammatory-mechanism
#20
Hyun Joo Lee, Sang Hyun Cho
Korean red ginseng (KRG) and ginsenosides exhibit diverse biological effects, including anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic. We aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of KRG in a murine model of atopic dermatitis (AD) is mediated whether by diminishing the pruritus or by suppressing the inflammation. Thirty NC/Nga mice were randomly divided to 5 groups. AD-like skin lesions were induced by percutaneous challenge with 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chrolobenzene (TNCB) on the ears and backs of NC/Nga mice. KRG extract, evening primrose oil, cyclosporine, and phosphate-buffered saline were administered orally by a gastric tube...
April 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
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