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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545250/endophytic-bacteria-isolated-from-panax-ginseng-improves-ginsenoside-accumulation-in-adventitious-ginseng-root-culture
#1
Xiaolin Song, Hao Wu, Zhenhao Yin, Meilan Lian, Chengri Yin
Ginsenoside is the most important secondary metabolite of ginseng. Natural sources of wild ginseng have been overexploited. Although root culture could reduce the length of the growth cycle of ginseng, the number of ginsenosides is fewer and their contents are lower in adventitious roots of ginseng than that in ginseng cultivated in the field. In this study, we investigated the effects of endophytic bacterial elicitors on biomass and ginsenoside production in adventitious roots cultures of Panax ginseng. Endophyte LB 5-3 as an elicitor could increase biomass and ginsenoside accumulation in ginseng adventitious root culture...
May 23, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544385/korean-red-ginseng-extract-enhances-the-anticancer-effects-of-sorafenib-through-abrogation-of-creb-and-c-jun-activation-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#2
Chulwon Kim, Jong Hyun Lee, Seung Ho Baek, Jeong-Hyeon Ko, Dongwoo Nam, Kwang Seok Ahn
Although application of sorafenib in the treatment of human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains one of the best examples of successful targeted therapy, majority of RCC patients suffer from its side effects as well as develop resistance to this targeted therapy. Thus, there is a need to promote novel alternative therapies for the treatment of RCC. In this study, we investigated whether Korean red ginseng extract (KRGE) could inhibit the proliferation and induce chemosensitization in human renal cancer cells...
May 22, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538661/mass-spectrometry-based-profiling-and-imaging-of-various-ginsenosides-from-panax-ginseng-roots-at-different-ages
#3
Jae Won Lee, Seung-Heon Ji, Young-Seob Lee, Doo Jin Choi, Bo-Ram Choi, Geum-Soog Kim, Nam-In Baek, Dae Young Lee
(1) Background: Panax ginseng root is one of the most important herbal products, and the profiling of ginsenosides is critical for the quality control of ginseng roots at different ages in the herbal markets. Furthermore, interest in assessing the contents as well as the localization of biological compounds has been growing. The objective of this study is to carry out the mass spectrometry (MS)-based profiling and imaging of ginsenosides to assess ginseng roots at different ages; (2) Methods: Optimal ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight/MS (UPLC-QTOF/MS) was used to profile various ginsenosides from P...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536312/effects-of-ginsenoside-rg1-loaded-alginate-chitosan-microspheres-on-human-bone-marrow-stromal-cells
#4
Yu-Hai Guo, Shuai Zhao, Yan-Xin Du, Qing-Jia Xing, Bo-Lai Chen, Chu-Qin Yu
The ginsenoside Rg1 is the most abundant compound of ginseng. Recent studies showed that Rg1 had neuroprotective effect on neuronal cells. This study was to prepare Rg1-loaded alginate-chitosan microspheres and research the effects of the microspheres on human bone marrow stromal cell (hBMSC). The alginate-chitosan microspheres were prepared by mechanical emulsification technique in combination with ion (Ca(2+)) and chitosan solidification. Subsequently, the microspheres were employed to load ginseng extracts Rg1...
May 23, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534845/enhanced-production-of-gypenoside-lxxv-using-a-novel-ginsenoside-transforming-%C3%AE-glucosidase-from-ginseng-cultivating-soil-bacteria-and-its-anti-cancer-property
#5
Chang-Hao Cui, Da Jung Kim, Suk-Chae Jung, Sun-Chang Kim, Wan-Taek Im
Minor ginsenosides, such as compound K, Rg₃(S), which can be produced by deglycosylation of ginsenosides Rb₁, showed strong anti-cancer effects. However, the anticancer effects of gypenoside LXXV, which is one of the deglycosylated shapes of ginsenoside Rb₁, is still unknown due to the rarity of its content in plants. Here, we cloned and characterized a novel ginsenoside-transforming β-glucosidase (BglG167b) derived from Microbacterium sp. Gsoil 167 which can efficiently hydrolyze gypenoside XVII into gypenoside LXXV, and applied it to the production of gypenoside LXXV at the gram-scale with high specificity...
May 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534819/ginsenoside-rb2-alleviates-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-by-restoring-autophagy-via-induction-of-sirt1-and-activation-of-ampk
#6
Qi Huang, Ting Wang, Liu Yang, He-Yao Wang
Although Panax ginseng is a famous traditional Chinese medicine and has been widely used to treat a variety of metabolic diseases including hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hepatosteatosis, the effective mediators and molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study we found that ginsenoside Rb2, one of the major ginsenosides in Panax ginseng, was able to prevent hepatic lipid accumulation through autophagy induction both in vivo and in vitro. Treatment of male db/db mice with Rb2 significantly improved glucose tolerance, decreased hepatic lipid accumulation, and restored hepatic autophagy...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534811/hormetic-property-of-ginseng-steroids-on-anti-oxidant-status-against-exercise-challenge-in-rat-skeletal-muscle
#7
Ming-Fen Hsu, Szu-Hsien Yu, Mallikarjuna Korivi, Wei-Horng Jean, Shin-Da Lee, Chih-Yang Huang, Yi-Hung Liao, Jessica Lu, Chia-Hua Kuo
BACKGROUND: Existing literature on anti-oxidant capacity of ginseng has been inconsistent due to variance in the profile of ginseng steroids (Ginsenosides) that is because of differences in seasons and species. METHODS: We used various doses of ginseng steroids to determine its effect on oxidative stress and anti-oxidant capacity of rat skeletal muscle against exercise. RESULTS: Under non-exercise conditions, we found increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels and decreased reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) in rat skeletal muscle as dose increases (p < 0...
May 19, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530408/authentication-markers-for-five-major-panax-species-developed-via-comparative-analysis-of-complete-chloroplast-genome-sequences
#8
Van Binh Nguyen, Hyun-Seung Park, Sang-Choon Lee, Junki Lee, Jee Young Park, Tae-Jin Yang
Ginseng represents a set of high-value medicinal plants of different species: Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng), P. quinquefolius (American ginseng), P. notoginseng (Chinese ginseng), P. japonicus (Bamboo ginseng), and P. vietnamensis (Vietnamese ginseng). Each species is pharmacologically and economically important, with differences in efficacy and price. Accordingly, an authentication system is needed to combat economically motivated adulteration of Panax products. We conducted comparative analysis of the chloroplast genome sequences of these five species, identifying 34-124 indels and 141-560 SNPs...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527763/aluminium-resistant-plant-growth-promoting-bacteria-induce-overexpression-of-aluminium-stress-related-genes-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-and-increase-the-ginseng-tolerance-against-aluminium-stress
#9
Mohamed El-Agamy Farh, Yeon-Ju Kim, Johan Sukweenadhi, Priyanka Singh, Deok-Chun Yang
Panax ginseng is an important cash crop in the Asian countries due to its pharmaceutical effects, however the plant is exposed to various abiotic stresses, lead to reduction of its quality. One of them is the Aluminum (Al) accumulation. Plant growth promoting bacteria which able to tolerate heavy metals has been considered as a new trend for supporting the growth of many crops in heavy metal occupied areas. In this study, twelve bacteria strains were isolated from rhizosphere of diseased Korean ginseng roots located in Gochang province, Republic of Korea and tested for their ability to grow in Al-embedded broth media...
July 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522391/polysaccharides-from-ginseng-leaves-inhibit-tumor-metastasis-via-macrophage-and-nk-cell-activation
#10
Myoung-Sook Shin, Su-Hyun Hwang, Taek-Joon Yoon, Kwang-Soon Shin
In this study, we purified the polysaccharide fraction (GS-P) from the leaves of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer and analyzed its monosaccharide composition and antitumor and antimetastatic activity in vitro and in vivo. GS-P is a 10.2kDa pectic polysaccharide consisting of 15 different monosaccharides. GS-P treatment significantly inhibited metastasis in mice, in a dose-dependent manner. GS-P was not cytotoxic to colon 26-M3.1 cells and increased mouse splenocyte proliferation. Secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-12 was enhanced in the peritoneal exudate macrophages (PEMs) of GS-P-treated mice...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507011/influence-of-diet-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
M José Bagur, M Antonia Murcia, Antonia M Jiménez-Monreal, Josep A Tur, M Mar Bibiloni, Gonzalo L Alonso, Magdalena Martínez-Tomé
Nutrition is considered to be a possible factor in the pathogenesis of the neurological disease multiple sclerosis (MS). Nutrition intervention studies suggest that diet may be considered as a complementary treatment to control the progression of the disease; a systematic review of the literature on the influence of diet on MS was therefore conducted. The literature search was conducted by using Medlars Online International Literature (MEDLINE) via PubMed and Scopus. Forty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria...
May 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505549/intramammary-inoculation-of-panax-ginseng-plays-an-immunoprotective-role-in-staphylococcus-aureus-infection-in-a-murine-model
#12
P Silvestrini, C Beccaria, E A L Pereyra, M S Renna, H H Ortega, L F Calvinho, B E Dallard, C Baravalle
The immunoprotective effect of Panax ginseng (Pg) extract was investigated in a mouse mastitis model. Lactating female mice were intramammarily inoculated with Pg or placebo, and then were challenged with S. aureus, while other group was inoculated with S. aureus alone. The number of bacteria recovered from mammary glands was significantly lower in Pg-treated S. aureus-infected mice (group I) compared with placebo-treated S. aureus-infected mice (group II) and S. aureus-infected mice (group III). The mRNA expression of TLR2, TLR4, IL-1α and TNF-α was influenced by treatment; being the transcript levels for all genes higher in group I compared with group II and III...
May 6, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505464/treatment-of-the-cardiac-hypertrophic-response-and-heart-failure-with-ginseng-ginsenosides-and-ginseng-related-products
#13
Morris Karmazyn, Tracey Gan
Heart failure is a major medical as well as economic burden throughout the world. Although various treatment options are available to treat heart failure, death rates in both men and women remain high. Potential adjunctive therapies may lie with use of herbal medications many of which possess potent pharmacological properties. Among the most widely studied is ginseng, a member of the genus Panax which is grown in many parts of the world and which has been used as a medical treatment for a variety of conditions for thousands of years, particularly in Asian societies...
May 15, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479739/preparation-of-ginseng-extract-with-enhanced-levels-of-ginsenosides-rg1-and-rb1-using-high-hydrostatic-pressure-and-polysaccharide-hydrolases
#14
Sasikumar Arunachalam Palaniyandi, Joo-Won Suh, Seung Hwan Yang
BACKGROUND: Ginsenosides are the principal components responsible for the pharmacological activities of ginseng. Ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1 are the major compounds recognized as marker substances for quality control of ginseng-based products. These major compounds can be transformed to several pharmacologically active minor ginsenosides by chemical, microbial, and enzymatic means. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, a combination of polysaccharide hydrolases and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) were used to extract ginseng saponins enriched with ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479731/simultaneous-determination-of-multiple-ginsenosides-in-panax-ginseng-herbal-medicines-with-one-single-reference-standard
#15
Chunwei Wu, Qingxiao Guan, Shumei Wang, Yueying Rong
BACKGROUND: Root of Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (Renseng in Chinese) is a famous Traditional Chinese Medicine. Ginsenosides are the major bioactive components. However, the shortage and high cost of some ginsenoside reference standards make it is difficult for quality control of P. ginseng. OBJECTIVE: A method, single standard for determination of multicomponents (SSDMC), was developed for the simultaneous determination of nine ginsenosides in P. ginseng (ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rf, Rg2, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rb3, Rd)...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479190/biosynthesis-of-plant-derived-ginsenoside-rh2-in-yeast-via-repurposing-a-key-promiscuous-microbial-enzyme
#16
Yu Zhuang, Guangyu Yang, Xiaohui Chen, Qian Liu, Xueli Zhang, Zixin Deng, Yan Feng
Ginsenoside Rh2 is a potential anticancer drug isolated from medicinal plant ginseng. Fermentative production of ginsenoside Rh2 in yeast has recently been investigated as an alternative strategy compared to extraction from plants. However, the titer was quite low due to low catalytic capability of the key ginseng glycosyltransferase in microorganisms. Herein, we have demonstrated high-level production of ginsenoside Rh2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae via repurposing an inherently promiscuous glycosyltransferase, UGT51...
May 4, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471389/dynamic-changes-in-neutral-and-acidic-ginsenosides-with-different-cultivation-ages-and-harvest-seasons-identification-of-chemical-characteristics-for-panax-ginseng-quality-control
#17
Zhi Liu, Chong-Zhi Wang, Xing-You Zhu, Jin-Yi Wan, Jing Zhang, Wei Li, Chang-Chun Ruan, Chun-Su Yuan
In this study, dynamic changes in ginsenoside content and ratios in the Panax ginseng root were investigated with different cultivation ages and different collection months, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Our data indicate that changes in ginsenoside Ro and malonyl ginsenosides content were dependent on the ginseng cultivation age (p < 0.05); especially, the Ro content varied from 0.16 to 4.91 mg/g, with a difference about 30-fold. Further, we found that the samples of 5 and 6-year-old P...
May 4, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469194/kai-xin-san-series-formulae-alleviate-depressive-like-behaviors-on-chronic-mild-stressed-mice-via-regulating-neurotrophic-factor-system-on-hippocampus
#18
Yue Zhu, Cheng Chao, Xiuzhu Duan, Xiaoxuan Cheng, Pei Liu, Shulan Su, Jinao Duan, Tina Tingxia Dong, Karl Wah-Keung Tsim
Kai-xin-san (KXS) is a famous Chinese medicinal formula applied for treating stress-related psychiatric diseases with the symptoms such as depression, forgetfulness and dizziness. In clinic, the composition ratio of KXS is always varied and KXS series formulae are created. Here, we aim to compare the anti-depressive effect of different ratios of KXS and reveal its action mechanism on regulation of neurotrophic factor system. Firstly, daily intra-gastric administration of chemically standardized extracts of KXS series formulae for seven days significantly alleviated the depressive symptoms of chronic unpredictable mild stressed mice displayed by enhanced sucrose consumptions and decreased immobile time of forced swimming coupled with increased locomotor activities...
May 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468295/chemical-comparison-of-two-drying-methods-of-mountain-cultivated-ginseng-by-uplc-qtof-ms-ms-and-multivariate-statistical-analysis
#19
Xin-Fang Xu, Shu-Ya Xu, Ying Zhang, Hui Zhang, Meng-Nan Liu, Huan Liu, Yan Gao, Xue Xue, Hui Xiong, Rui-Chao Lin, Xiang-Ri Li
In traditional Chinese medicine practice, drying method is an essential factor to influence the components of Chinese medicinal herbs. In this study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS)-based approach was used to compare the content of chemical compounds of mountain cultivated ginseng that had been natural air dried (LX-P) and vacuum freeze-dried (LX-L). Multivariate statistical analysis such as principal component analysis (PCA) and supervised orthogonal partial least squared discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) were used to select the influential components of different samples...
April 30, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462122/rg3-enriched-korean-red-ginseng-enhances-blood-pressure-stability-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#20
Harsha Nagar, Sujeong Choi, Saet-Byel Jung, Byeong Hwa Jeon, Cuk-Seong Kim
BACKGROUND: Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng) has been shown to exert antihypertensive effects. In particular, ginsenoside Rg3 is thought to be a potent modulator of vascular function. The present study was performed to examine the antihypertensive efficacy of Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) extract and Rg3-enriched KRG (REKRG) extract. METHODS: Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs) were divided into six groups (WKY control, WKY-KRG, WKY-REKRG, SHR control, SHR-KRG, and SHR-REKRG), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured at the carotid artery, followed by injection of 3 mg/kg KRG or 3 mg/kg REKRG...
September 2016: Integr Med Res
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