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Solomon Umukoro, Hassanat Adeola Kalejaye, Benneth Ben-Azu, Abayomi M Ajayi
The effects of naringenin; a dietary flavonoid, with potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities on social defeat stress (SDS)-induced neurobehavioral and biochemical changes were evaluated in mice using resident-intruder paradigm. The intruder male mice were distributed into 6 groups (n = 6). Mice in group 1 (control) received vehicle (3% DMSO, i.p), group 2 (SDS-control) were also given vehicle, groups 3-5 received naringenin (10, 25 and 50 mg/kg, i.p.) while group 6 had ginseng (50 mg/kg, i...
June 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Ji Won Kim, Jeong-Mi Kim, Seok-Ki Kim, Young-Mo Kim, Jeong-Seok Choi
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is a putative damage mechanism leading to salivary gland (SG) dysfunction following radioiodine (RI) therapy. Ginseng is an antioxidative herb. We examined the SG radioprotective effects of Korea red ginseng (KRG) administration prior to RI in a mouse model. METHODS: We divided four-week old mice (n = 60) into four groups; (1) normal control, (2) RI only treated (0.01 mCi/g, p.o), (3) KRG administered (0.2 mg/g, i.p) 0.5 and 6 hours before RI, and (4) amifostine treated (0...
June 15, 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Chenqing Ning, Xiaoguang Gao, Changyuan Wang, Xiaokui Huo, Zhihao Liu, Huijun Sun, Xiaobo Yang, Pengyuan Sun, Xiaodong Ma, Qiang Meng, Kexin Liu
Acute liver injury (ALI) is a dramatic liver disease characterized by large areas of inflammation in the liver. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), a biologically active component in Panax ginseng, on lipopolysaccharide/d-galactosamine (LPS/D-GalN)-induced ALI in mice, and meanwhile explore the molecular mechanism in vivo and in vitro. Mice were pretreated with Rg1 for three days prior to LPS (40 μg/kg)/D-GalN (700 mg/kg) administration. The results showed that Rg1 improved the survival rate and reduced the liver to body weight ratios in mice...
June 11, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Lefeng Zhao, Yue Ma, Changbao Chen, Shuying Liu, Wei Wu
Ginsenoside Rb3 is one of major ginsenosides in Panax ginseng with effect on cardio-vascular and central nervous system. The aim of this study is to develop a rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q-TOF-MS) method for pharmacokinetic study of ginsenoside Rb3 and simultaneous determination of metabolites in rats. The results showed that the concentration-time profile of ginsenoside Rb3 conformed to a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model after intravenous administration at the dosage of 2...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Chromatographic Science
Yifan Sun, Shaoqiu Chen, Runmin Wei, Xie Xie, Chongchong Wang, Shihao Fan, Xia Zhang, Juan Su, Jiajian Liu, Wei Jia, Xiaoyan Wang
Ginseng, a widely used functional food and food additive, has been proven to have promotion effects of health on the body. However, whether the long-term intake of Ginseng is beneficial or has side effects on an organism is still unclear. In this study, untargeted GC-TOFMS metabolomic analysis of serum, cecum and ileum intestinal contents was conducted to understand the effect of the long-term intake of Ginseng extracts. 16S rRNA microbial sequencing technology was applied to investigate the effect of Ginseng extracts on the structure of gut microbiota...
June 13, 2018: Food & Function
Yau Sang Chan, Tzi Bun Ng
The genus Panax consists of a group of prized medicinal herbs. Major members of the Panax genus include P. ginseng, P. notoginseng, P. quinquefolius, and P. vietnamensis. They possess various bioactive constituents such as ginsenosides, saponins, polysaccharides and proteins. Many of them were reported to show beneficial effects on human health. Ginsenosides and saponins of ginsengs caught the sight of most researchers. Precise investigations revealed their roles on improvement of the functioning of the nervous system, cardiovascular system, and other functions...
June 11, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Cheng Cao, Junyuan Xiao, Mengqiu Liu, Zishuo Ge, Renjie Huang, Mingzhu Qi, Hongliang Zhu, Jin-Ao Duan, Yue Zhu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Kai-Xin-San (KXS), an ancient formula composed of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma and Poria, was frequently applied for Alzheimer's disease and major depression disorders for thousands of years. However, its active components and molecular mechanism have not clearly been investigated. AIM OF THE STUDY: We aimed to reveal the active components of KXS on regulating neurotrophic factor NGF and BDNF expressions and its mechanisms on mouse astrocyte primary cultures...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Muhammad Irfan, Da Hye Jeong, Hyuk-Woo Kwon, Jung-Hae Shin, Sang-Joon Park, Dongmi Kwak, Tae-Hwan Kim, Dong-Ha Lee, Hwa-Jin Park, Man Hee Rhee
BACKGROUND & PURPOSE: Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mayer) contains saponin fractions called ginsenosides, which are thought to be the main components responsible for its various pharmacological activities. Ginsenosides have cardioprotective and antiplatelet effects. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of ginsenoside Rp3 (G-Rp3) on platelet function. METHODS: The in vitro effects of G-Rp3 were evaluated on agonist-induced human and rat platelet aggregation, while [Ca2+ ]i mobilization, granule secretion, integrin αIIb β3 activation, and clot retraction were assessed in rat platelets...
June 8, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Yeryeon Jung, Keunyoung Kim, Yiying Bian, Thien Ngo, Ok-Nam Bae, Kyung-Min Lim, Jin-Ho Chung
Ginseng and its major active ingredients, ginsenosides are widely consumed for various health benefits including the prevention or treatment of cancer without any special precaution. Previously, we demonstrated that Rg3, one of ginsenosides with a potent anti-cancer activity, may cause contractile dysfunction, and structural damage against normal vascular smooth muscle through apoptotic cell death. However, mechanism underlying the vascular toxicity of Rg3 was not fully elucidated. Here we demonstrated that the vascular toxicity of Rg3 occurs through actin disruption and Bmf-initiated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, the mechanism which may be shared with its anti-cancer effects...
June 8, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Yi-Yu Peng, Hui-Tao Jing, Lan Luan, Ying-Ying Tu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical efficacy of joint application of electroacupuncture (EA), acupointinjection and fire-needle in the treatment of menopausal syndrome (MS) women. METHODS: One hundred MS patients were randomized into control group and combined treatment group ( n =50 patients in each). The combined treatment group was treated by joint application of EA, acupoint-injection and fire-needle stimulation, and the control group treated by EA stimulation alone...
April 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Rubina F Rizvi, Terrence J Adam, Elizabeth A Lindemann, Jake Vasilakes, Serguei Vs Pakhomov, Jeffrey R Bishop, Genevieve B Melton, Rui Zhang
Dietary supplements, often considered as food, are widely consumed despite of limited knowledge around their safety/efficacy and any well-established regulatory policies, unlike their drug counterparts. Informatics methods may be useful in filling this knowledge gap, however, the lack of standardized representation of DS hinders this progress. In this pilot study, five electronic DS resources, i.e., NM, DSID & NHPID (ingredient level) and DSLD & LNHPD (product level), were evaluated and compared both quantitatively and qualitatively employing four phases...
2018: AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings
Gnanendra Shanmugam, Akanksha Dubey, Lakshmi Narayanan Ponpandian, Soon Ok Rim, Sang-Tae Seo, Hanhong Bae, Junhyun Jeon
Pine wilt disease, caused by the nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus , is one of the most devastating conifer diseases decimating several species of pine trees on a global scale. Here, we report the draft genome of Raoultella ornithinolytica MG, which is isolated from mountain-cultivated ginseng plant as an bacterial endophyte and shows nematicidal activity against B. xylophilus . Our analysis of R. ornithinolytica MG genome showed that it possesses many genes encoding potential nematicidal factors in addition to some secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters that may contribute to the observed nematicidal activity of the strain...
June 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
Zhiyan Tian, Ning Ren, Jinghua Wang, Danhong Zhang, Yuying Zhou
BACKGROUND Ginsenoside is the major bioactive component of ginseng, which has been proven to be a neuroprotective drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of ginsenoside in a diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat model. MATERIAL AND METHODS Twenty GK rats were randomly divided into a diabetic model (DM) group (n=10) and a ginsenoside + DM group (n=10); Wistar rats with the same age and body weight were used as the control (CON) group (n=10). Food and water intake, body weight, and blood fasting plasma glucose were measured...
June 10, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Po-Lin Liao, Ching-Hao Li, Ling-Shan Tse, Jaw-Jou Kang, Yu-Wen Cheng
The pharmacological effects of Cistanches Herba, known as "Ginseng of the desert", have been extensively studied. In this study, we aimed to assess the genotoxic and oral toxic effects of the Cistanche tubulosa health food product Memoregain® using in vitro and in vivo tests. Ames tests using five strains of Salmonella typhimurium showed no signs of increased reverse mutation upon exposure to Memoregain® up to a concentration of 5 mg/plate. Exposure of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells to Memoregain® did not increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in vitro...
June 7, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Camila Beccaria, Paula Silvestrini, María S Renna, Hugo H Ortega, Luis F Calvinho, Bibiana E Dallard, Celina Baravalle
Panax ginseng extract (PGe) has been shown to possess immunomodulatory effects in healthy dairy cows at drying off and to trigger an adequate immune response to protect from an experimental intramammary infection (IMI) with Staphylococcus aureus in a murine model. S. aureus is one of the major pathogens isolated from bovine IMI; being capable to invade and survive within mammary epithelial cells. However, the precise mechanism by which PGe interacts with bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T) and bovine macrophages in the course of a S...
June 6, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Young-Jin Kim, Ji Young Lee, Hyun-Ju Kim, Do-Hoon Kim, Tae Hee Lee, Mi Suk Kang, Wansu Park
The dry root of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, also known as “female ginseng”, is a popular herbal drug amongst women, used to treat a variety of health issues and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the detailed molecular mechanism for anti-inflammatory effects of Angelica sinensis root water extract (ASW). The anti-inflammatory effect of ASW on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages was evaluated by the tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (MTT), Griess reagent assay, multiplex cytokine assay, real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and Fluo-4 calcium assay...
May 21, 2018: Nutrients
Jong Hee Choi, Minhee Jang, Seikwan Oh, Seung-Yeol Nah, Ik-Hyun Cho
Gintonin is a ginseng-derived lysophosphatidic acid receptor (LPAR) ligand. Although previous in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated the therapeutic role of gintonin against Alzheimer's disease, the neuroprotective effects of gintonin in Parkinson's disease (PD) are still unknown. We investigated whether gintonin (50 and 100 mg/kg/day, p.o., daily for 12 days) had neuroprotective activities against neurotoxicity in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mouse model of PD. Pre-administration of 100 mg/kg gintonin displayed significantly ameliorating effects in neurological disorders (motor and welfare) as measuring using pole, rotarod, and nest building tests, and in the survival rate...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Muhammad Irfan, Dahye Jeong, Evelyn Saba, Hyuk-Woo Kwon, Jung-Hae Shin, Bo-Ra Jeon, Suk Kim, Sung-Dae Kim, Dong-Ha Lee, Seung-Yeol Nah, Man Hee Rhee
Panax ginseng (P. ginseng), one of the most valuable medicinal plants, is known for its healing and immunobooster properties and has been widely used in folk medicine against cardiovascular diseases, including stroke and heart attack. In this study, we explored the anti-platelet activity of gintonin (a recently discovered non-saponin fraction of ginseng) against agonist-induced platelet activation. In vitro effects of gintonin on agonist-induced human and rat platelet aggregation, granule secretion, integrin αIIb β3 activation, and intracellular calcium ion ([Ca2+ ]i ) mobilization were examined...
June 5, 2018: Platelets
Yue Huo, Jong-Pyo Kang, Yeon-Ju Kim, Deok-Chun Yang
The novel species DCY115T was isolated from ginseng-cultivated soil in Gochang province, Republic of Korea. The isolated strain was assigned to the genus Paraburkholderia due to its 16S rRNA gene sequence proximity to Paraburkholderia xenovorans LB400T (98.8%), Paraburkholderia terricola LMG 20594T (98.4%), Paraburkholderia graminis C4D1MT (98.2%), Paraburkholderia rhynchosiae WSM3937T (98.1%), and Paraburkholderia phytofirmans PsJNT (98.1%). Strain DCY115T is gram-negative, facultative aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile, non-flagellated, and oxidase and catalase positive...
June 5, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
Mengqi Guo, Jie Xiao, Xi Sheng, Xinyu Zhang, Yuanyuan Tie, Lei Wang, Lang Zhao, Xiaoping Ji
Atherosclerosis (AS) in diabetic patients is often associated with low stability, which might be largely attributed to unfavorable macrophage polarization and increased inflammatory response induced by hyperglycaemia. Ginsenoside Rg3 is one of the main active principles of Panax Ginseng, which has been reported to be a natural ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ), a key nuclear transcriptional factor involved in inflammation and macrophage differentiation. However, it remains unclear if Rg3 could exert protective effects on plaque stability in diabetes...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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