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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727829/functional-differentiation-and-spatial-temporal-co-expression-networks-of-the-nbs-encoding-gene-family-in-jilin-ginseng-panax-ginseng-c-a-meyer
#1
Rui Yin, Mingzhu Zhao, Kangyu Wang, Yanping Lin, Yanfang Wang, Chunyu Sun, Yi Wang, Meiping Zhang
Ginseng, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, is one of the most important medicinal plants for human health and medicine. It has been documented that over 80% of genes conferring resistance to bacteria, viruses, fungi and nematodes are contributed by the nucleotide binding site (NBS)-encoding gene family. Therefore, identification and characterization of NBS genes expressed in ginseng are paramount to its genetic improvement and breeding. However, little is known about the NBS-encoding genes in ginseng. Here we report genome-wide identification and systems analysis of the NBS genes actively expressed in ginseng (PgNBS genes)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725154/new-constituents-triterpene-ester-and-sugar-derivatives-from-panax-ginseng-meyer-and-their-evaluation-of-antioxidant-activities
#2
Ill-Min Chung, Nasir Ali Siddiqui, Seung Hyun Kim, Praveen Nagella, Azmat Ali Khan, Mohd Ali, Ateeque Ahmad
Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (Araliaceae), is a well-known herb and used in the old established system of Oriental remedy, especially in Japan, China and Korea. Four new compounds characterized as (cis)- 7β,11α,19,21-tetra-O-decanoyl-18, 22β-dihydroxy-dammar-1-en-3-one (1), 3β,4α,12β-trihydroxystigmast-5-en-21-yl octadecan-9',12'-dienoate (2), dammar-12, 24-dien-3α, 6β, 15α-triol-3α-D-arabinopyranosyl-6β-L-arabinopyranoside (3) and dammar-24-en-3α, 6β, 16α, 20β-tetraol-3α-D-arabinopyranosyl-6β-D-arabinopyranoside (4) were isolated and established from the ethyl acetate and butanol extracts of the roots of P...
July 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725042/global-deregulation-of-ginseng-products-may-be-a-safety-hazard-to-warfarin-takers-solid-evidence-of-ginseng-warfarin-interaction
#3
Haiyan Dong, Ji Ma, Tao Li, Yingying Xiao, Ning Zheng, Jian Liu, Yu Gao, Jingwei Shao, Lee Jia
Recent global deregulation of ginseng as the table food raises our concern about the possible ginseng-warfarin interaction that could be life-threatening to patients who take warfarin for preventing fatal strokes and thromboembolism while using ginseng products for bioenergy recovery. Here we show that quality-control ginsenosides, extracted from ginseng and containing its major active ingredients, produce dose- and time-dependent antagonism in rats against warfarin's anti-coagulation assessed by INR and rat thrombosis model...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715887/pectin-lyase-modified-red-ginseng-extract-exhibits-potent-anti-glycation-effects-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#4
Chan-Sik Kim, Kyuhyung Jo, Mi-Kyung Pyo, Jin Sook Kim, Junghyun Kim
PURPOSE: GS-E3D is a newly developed pectin lyase-modified red ginseng extract. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of GS-E3D against advanced glycation end products. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of GS-E3D on the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their cross-linking with collagen in vitro and in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. RESULTS: An in vitro assay for the glycation of bovine serum albumin by methylglyoxal showed that GS-E3D inhibited AGE formation at an IC50 value of 19...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714761/gamma-irradiation-of-medicinally-important-plants-and-the-enhancement-of-secondary-metabolite-production
#5
P Vivek Vardhan, Lata I Shukla
PURPOSE: The profitable production of some important plant-based secondary metabolites (ginsenosides, saponins, camptothecin, shikonins etc.) in vitro by gamma irradiation is a current area of interest. We reviewed different types of secondary metabolites, their mode of synthesis and effect of γ-radiation on their yield for different plants, organs and in vitro cultures (callus, suspension, hairy root). Special effort has been made to review the biochemical mechanisms underlying the increase in secondary metabolites...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714027/enhanced-anticancer-effects-of-a-mixture-of-low-dose-mushrooms-and-panax-ginseng-root-extracts-in-human-colorectal-cancer-cells
#6
Mi So Lee, Mi-Sook Kim, Jae Kuk Yoo, Ji Young Lee, Jae Eun Ju, Youn Kyoung Jeong
Worldwide, colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in men and the second most common in women. As conventional colorectal cancer therapies result in various side effects, there is a need for adjuvant therapy that can enhance the conventional therapies without complications. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of combined mixture of the several medicinal mushrooms and Panax ginseng root extracts (also called Amex7) as an adjuvant compound in the treatment of human colorectal cancer...
July 7, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713942/ginsenoside-rc-protects-against-uvb%C3%A2-induced-photooxidative-damage-in-epidermal-keratinocytes
#7
Yuri Oh, Hye-Won Lim, Kwang Hark Park, Yu-Hua Huang, Ji-Young Yoon, Kyunghoon Kim, Chang-Jin Lim
Ginsenoside Rc (Rc) is a major ginsenoside isolated from Panax ginseng, and has exhibited pharmacological effects on skin cells. The present study aimed to investigate the putative skin‑protective properties of Rc, including its anti‑photoaging and barrier function‑protective effects, in human HaCaT keratinocytes exposed to UVB radiation. The protective properties of Rc were evaluated through the assessment of keratinocyte viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, total glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, caspase‑14, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑2 and ‑9 activity, and MMP‑2, MMP‑9 and filament aggregating protein (filaggrin) expression following UVB irradiation...
July 6, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707966/targeted-molecular-ablation-of-cancer-stem-cells-for-curing-gastrointestinal-cancers
#8
Yong Seok Kim, Ho Jae Lee, Jong-Min Park, Young-Min Han, Napapan Kangwan, Ji Young Oh, Dong Yoon Lee, Ki Baik Hahm
Abundance of the ATPase-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and deranged self-renewal pathways characterize the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in gastrointestinal cancers (GI cancers), which play crucial roles in tumorigenesis, chemotherapy resistance, tumor recurrence, and cancer metastasis. Therefore, in order to ensure high cure rates, chemoquiescence, CSCs should be ablated. Recent advances in either understanding CSCs or biomarker identification enable scientists to develop techniques for ablating CSCs and clinicians to provide cancer cure, especially in GI cancers characterized by inflammation-driven carcinogenesis...
July 14, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707603/ginseng-for-the-treatment-of-hypertension-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trials
#9
Hye Won Lee, Hyun- Ja Lim, Ji Hee Jun, Jiae Choi, Myeong Soo Lee
BACKGROUND: Evidence of ginseng for reducing blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive patients is controversial. This systematic review updated the previous reviews and evidence for it. METHODS: Ten databases were searched from their inception through October 2016, without language restriction. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were included if any types of ginseng were tested as the sole treatment or as an adjunct to other treatments for pre-hypertension or hypertension...
July 12, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706332/role-of-elsholtzia-communis-in-counteracting-stress-by-modulating-expression-of-hspa14-c-ebp-homologous-protein-nuclear-factor-erythroid-derived-2-like-2-factor-caspase-3-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-rat-hippocampus
#10
Chandana Choudhury Barua, Pompy Patowary, Arundhati Purkayastha, Prakash Haloi, Manab Jyoti Bordoloi
OBJECTIVE: Elsholtzia communis (Collett and Hemsl.) Diels has been widely distributed and is reported for many therapeutic effects. The present study aims to investigate the antistress activity of the leaf extract and its possible molecular mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hydroethanolic extract of leaves of E. communis (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered for 7 days to stress-induced male Wistar rats. The experimental animals were divided into five groups (n = 6)...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705808/molecular-basis-of-altered-herg1-channel-gating-induced-by-ginsenoside-rg3
#11
Alison Gardner, Wei Wu, Steven Thomson, Eva-Maria Zangerl-Plessl, Anna Stary-Weinzinger, Michael Sanguinetti
Outward current conducted by human ether-a-g-go-related gene type 1 (hERG1) channels is a major determinant of action potential repolarization in the human ventricle. Ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 (Rg3), an alkaloid isolated from the root of Panax ginseng slows the rate of hERG1 deactivation, induces channels to open at more negative potentials than normal and increases current magnitude. The onset of Rg3 action is extremely fast, suggesting that it binds to an extracellular accessible site on the channel to alter its gating...
July 13, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701887/quality-and-characteristics-of-fermented-ginseng-seed-oil-based-on-bacterial-strain-and-extraction-method
#12
Myung-Hee Lee, Young-Kyoung Rhee, Sang-Yoon Choi, Chang-Won Cho, Hee-Do Hong, Kyung-Tack Kim
BACKGROUND: In this study, the fermentation of ginseng seeds was hypothesized to produce useful physiologically-active substances, similar to that observed for fermented ginseng root. Ginseng seed was fermented using Bacillus, Pediococcus, and Lactobacillus strains to extract ginseng seed oil, and the extraction yield, color, and quantity of phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and phytosterol were then analyzed. METHODS: The ginseng seed was fermented inoculating 1% of each strain on sterilized ginseng seeds and incubating the seeds at 30°C for 24 h...
July 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701886/overexpression-of-ginseng-ugt72al1-causes-organ-fusion-in-the-axillary-leaf-branch-of-arabidopsis
#13
Ngoc Quy Nguyen, Ok Ran Lee
BACKGROUND: Glycosylation of natural compounds increases the diversity of secondary metabolites. Glycosylation steps are implicated not only in plant growth and development, but also in plant defense responses. Although the activities of uridine-dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs) have long been recognized, and genes encoding them in several higher plants have been identified, the specific functions of UGTs in planta remain largely unknown. METHODS: Spatial and temporal patterns of gene expression were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and GUS histochemical assay...
July 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701885/panax-ginseng-total-protein-promotes-proliferation-and-secretion-of%C3%A2-collagen-in-nih-3t3-cells-by-activating-extracellular-signal-related-kinase-pathway
#14
Xuenan Chen, Manying Wang, Xiaohao Xu, Jianzeng Liu, Bing Mei, Pingping Fu, Daqing Zhao, Liwei Sun
BACKGROUND: Recently, protein from ginseng was studied and used for the treatment of several kinds of diseases. However, the effect of ginseng total protein (GTP) on proliferation and wound healing in fibroblast cells remains unclear. METHODS: In this study, cell viability was analyzed using the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. Cell cycle distribution was analyzed by flow cytometer. The levels of transforming growth factor β1, vascular endothelial growth factor, and collagens were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence staining...
July 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701884/cis-prenyltransferase-interacts-with-a-nogo-b-receptor-homolog-for-dolichol-biosynthesis-in-panax-ginseng-meyer
#15
Ngoc Quy Nguyen, Sang-Choon Lee, Tae-Jin Yang, Ok Ran Lee
BACKGROUND: Prenyltransferases catalyze the sequential addition of isopentenyl diphosphate units to allylic prenyl diphosphate acceptors and are classified as either trans-prenyltransferases (TPTs) or cis-prenyltransferases (CPTs). The functions of CPTs have been well characterized in bacteria, yeast, and mammals compared to plants. The characterization of CPTs also has been less studied than TPTs. In the present study, molecular cloning and functional characterization of a CPT from a medicinal plant, Panax ginseng Mayer were addressed...
July 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701883/20s-protopanaxadiol-an-aglycosylated-ginsenoside-metabolite-induces-hepatic-stellate-cell-apoptosis-through-liver-kinase-b1-amp-activated-protein-kinase-activation
#16
Sang Mi Park, Eun Hye Jung, Jae Kwang Kim, Kyung Hwan Jegal, Chung A Park, Il Je Cho, Sang Chan Kim
BACKGROUND: Previously, we reported that Korean Red Ginseng inhibited liver fibrosis in mice and reduced the expressions of fibrogenic genes in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). The present study was undertaken to identify the major ginsenoside responsible for reducing the numbers of HSCs and the underlying mechanism involved. METHODS: Using LX-2 cells (a human immortalized HSC line) and primary activated HSCs, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assays were conducted to examine the cytotoxic effects of ginsenosides...
July 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701882/comparison-of-anticancer-activities-of-korean-red-ginseng-derived-fractions
#17
Kwang-Soo Baek, Young-Su Yi, Young-Jin Son, Deok Jeong, Nak Yoon Sung, Adithan Aravinthan, Jong-Hoon Kim, Jae Youl Cho
BACKGROUND: Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) is an ethnopharmacological plant that is traditionally used to improve the body's immune functions and ameliorate the symptoms of various diseases. However, the antitumorigenic effects of KRG and its underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms are not fully understood in terms of its individual components. In this study, in vitro and in vivo antitumorigenic activities of KRG were explored in water extract (WE), saponin fraction (SF), and nonsaponin fraction (NSF)...
July 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701881/a-comparative-study-on-chemical-composition-of-total-saponins-extracted-from-fermented-and-white-ginseng-under-the-effect-of-macrophage-phagocytotic-function
#18
REVIEW
Dan Xiao, Yang Xiu, Hao Yue, Xiuli Sun, Huanxi Zhao, Shuying Liu
In this study, white ginseng was used as the raw material, which was fermented with Paecilomyces hepiali through solid culture medium, to produce ginsenosides with modified chemical composition. The characteristic chemical markers of the products thus produced were investigated using rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-QTOF-MS). Chemical profiling data were obtained, which were then subjected to multivariate statistical analysis for the systematic comparison of active ingredients in white ginseng and fermented ginseng to understand the beneficial properties of ginsenoside metabolites...
July 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701880/discovery-semisynthesis-biological-activities-and-metabolism-of-ocotillol-type-saponins
#19
REVIEW
Juan Liu, Yangrong Xu, Jingjing Yang, Wenzhi Wang, Jianqiang Zhang, Renmei Zhang, Qingguo Meng
Ocotillol-type saponins are one kind of tetracyclic triterpenoids, sharing a tetrahydrofuran ring. Natural ocotillol-type saponins have been discovered in Panax quinquefolius L., Panax japonicus, Hana mina, and Vietnamese ginseng. In recent years, the semisynthesis of 20(S/R)-ocotillol-type saponins has been reported. The biological activities of ocotillol-type saponins include neuroprotective effect, antimyocardial ischemia, antiinflammatory, antibacterial, and antitumor activities. Owing to their chemical structure, pharmacological actions, and the stereoselective activity on antimyocardial ischemia, ocotillol-type saponins are subjected to extensive consideration...
July 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701879/optimal-light-for-greenhouse-culture-of-american-ginseng-seedlings
#20
John T A Proctor, John W Palmer
Three greenhouse experiments with American ginseng seedlings growing under light levels from 4.8% to 68% showed a quadratic response for root dry weight, giving an optimal root dry weight of 239 mg (range 160-415 mg) at an optimal light level of 35.6% (range 30.6-43.2%).
July 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
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