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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918242/cross-interaction-between-ilyonectria-mors-panacis-isolates-infecting-korean-ginseng-and-ginseng-saponins-in-correlation-with-their-pathogenicity
#1
Mohamed El-Agamy Farh, Yeon-Ju Kim, Priyanka Singh, Deok Chun Yang
Ilyonectria mors-panacis belongs to I. radicicola-species complex and causes root rot and replant failure of ginseng in Asia and North America. The aims of this work were to identify I. mors-panacis that infect Korean ginseng using molecular approaches and to investigate whether their aggressiveness depends on their ability to metabolize ginseng saponins (ginsenosides) by their β-glucosidases, in comparison with other identified Ilyonectria species. Fourteen isolates were collected from culture collections or directly isolated from infected roots and mainly identified based on histone H3 (HIS H3) sequence...
December 5, 2016: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914541/two-new-fatty-acids-esters-were-detected-in-ginseng-stems-by-the-application-of-azoxystrobin-and-the-increasing-of-antioxidant-enzyme-activity-and-ginsenosides-content
#2
Shuang Liang, Xuan-Wei Xu, Xiao-Feng Zhao, Zhi-Guang Hou, Xin-Hong Wang, Zhong-Bin Lu
Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is a valuable herb in China that has also gained popularity in the West because of its pharmacological properties. The constituents isolated and characterized in ginseng stems include ginsenosides, fatty acids, amino acids, volatile oils, and polysaccharides. In this study, the effects of fungicide azoxystrobin applied on antioxidant enzyme activity and ginsenosides content in ginseng stems was studied by using Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. cv. (the cultivar of Ermaya) under natural environmental conditions...
November 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914321/functional-regulation-of-ginsenoside-biosynthesis-by-rna-interferences-of-a-udp-glycosyltransferase-gene-in-panax-ginseng-and-panax-quinquefolius
#3
Chao Lu, Shoujing Zhao, Guanning Wei, Huijuan Zhao, Qingling Qu
Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng) and Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng) have been used as medicinal and functional herbal remedies worldwide. Different properties of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius were confirmed not only in clinical findings, but also at cellular and molecular levels. The major pharmacological ingredients of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius are the triterpene saponins known as ginsenosides. The P. ginseng roots contain a higher ratio of ginsenoside Rg1:Rb1 than that in P. quinquefolius...
November 25, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912940/panax-ginseng-and-salvia-miltiorrhiza-supplementation-during-eccentric-resistance-training-in-middle-aged-and-older-adults-a-double-blind-randomized-control-trial
#4
Hsin-Fu Lin, Chun-Chung Chou, Hsiao-Han Chao, Hirofumi Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Muscle damage induced by an acute bout of eccentric exercise results in transient arterial stiffening. In this study, we sought to determine the effects of progressive eccentric resistance exercise training on vascular functions, and whether herb supplementation would enhance training adaptation by ameliorating the arterial stiffening effects. METHODS: By using a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled design, older adults were randomly assigned to either the Panax ginseng and Salvia miltiorrhiza supplementation group (N=12) or the placebo group (N=11)...
December 2016: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911875/autophagy-flux-induced-by-ginsenoside-rg3-attenuates-human-prion-protein-mediated-neurotoxicity-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#5
Ji-Hong Moon, Ju-Hee Lee, You-Jin Lee, Sang-Youel Park
Mitochondrial quality control is a process by which mitochondria undergo successive rounds of fusion and fission with dynamic exchange of components to segregate functional and damaged elements. Removal of mitochondrion that contains damaged components is accomplished via autophagy. In this study, we investigated whether ginsenoside Rg3, an active ingredient of the herbal medicine ginseng that is used as a tonic and restorative agent, could attenuate prion peptide, PrP (106-126)-induced neurotoxicity and mitochondrial damage...
November 30, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910952/protective-effects-of-ginsenoside-rg1-on-intestinal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-induced-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-via-activation-of-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#6
Guo Zu, Jing Guo, Ningwei Che, Tingting Zhou, Xiangwen Zhang
Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) is one of the major bioactive ingredients in Panax ginseng, and it attenuates inflammation and apoptosis. The aims of our study were to explore the potential of Rg1 for the treatment of intestinal I/R injury and to determine whether the protective effects of Rg1 were exerted through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. In this study, Rg1 treatment ameliorated inflammatory factors, ROS and apoptosis that were induced by intestinal I/R injury. Cell viability was increased and cell apoptosis was decreased with Rg1 pretreatment following hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) in the in vitro study...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902263/terrimonas-rhizosphaerae-sp-nov-isolated-from-ginseng-rhizosphere-soil
#7
Song-Ih Han, Ye-Rim Lee, Ju-Ok Kim, Kyung-Sook Whang
The novel isolate belonging to the genus Terrimonas, designated CR94T, was isolated from rhizosphere soil of ginseng field in Geumsan in Korea. Cells of Strain CR94T were strictly aerobic, Gram staining negative, non-motile, non-filamentous single rods. Growth was observed at 10-37℃ (optimum 28℃) and at pH4.0-10.0 (optimum pH6.0). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain CR94T belonged to the genus Terrimonas, showing the highest sequence similarity to Terrimonas lutea DYT (97...
November 2, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899249/ginsenoside-20-s-rg3-induced-autophagy-to-inhibit-migration-and-invasion-of-ovarian-cancer
#8
Xia Zheng, Wei Chen, Huilian Hou, Jie Li, Huijin Li, Xiaomin Sun, Le Zhao, Xu Li
BACKGROUND: Autophagy maintains cellular homeostasis through engulfing cytoplasmic proteins and organelles, and plays an important role in cancer initiation and progression. Ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3, an active ingredient of Panax ginseng, exerts anti-cancer functions in various cancers. However, its molecular mechanisms, including its effect on autophagy, are not fully elucidated in tumor models. METHODS: Ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 was treated by various concentrations of 20(S)-Rg3...
November 26, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893436/carbon-nanotubes-as-carriers-of-panax-ginseng-metabolites-and-enhancers-of-ginsenosides-rb1-and-rg1-anti-cancer-activity
#9
Mohamed H Lahiani, Souzan Eassa, Charlette Parnell, Zeid Nima, Anindya Ghosh, Alexandru S Biris, Mariya V Khodakovskaya
A major benefit to nanomaterial based-medicine is the ability to provide nanosized vehicles for sporadic metabolites. Here, we describe how the conjugation of valuable ginseng secondary metabolites (ginsenoside Rb1 or Rg1) with carbon nanotubes (CNT) can enhance their anti-proliferative and anti-cancer effects. Ginsenoside-CNT conjugate (Rb-CNT or Rg-CNT) permitted the ginsenosides to be used at a low dose, yet achieve a higher incidence of cancer killing. We were able to demonstrate that the ginsenoside-CNT conjugate can decrease cell viability up to 62% in breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and enhance antiproliferation of drug-resistant pancreatic cancer cells (PANC-1) by 61%...
January 6, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885803/rapid-and-sensitive-determination-of-phytosterols-in-functional-foods-and-medicinal-herbs-by-using-uhplc-ms-ms-with-microwave-assisted-derivatization-combined-with-dual-ultrasound-assisted-dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction
#10
Jing Sun, Xian-En Zhao, Jun Dang, Xiaoyan Sun, Longfang Zheng, Jinmao You, Xiao Wang
In this work, a hyphenated technique of dual ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with microwave-assisted derivatization followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of phytosterols in functional foods and medicinal herbs. Multiple reaction monitoring mode was used for the tandem mass spectrometry detection. A mass-spectrometry-sensitive reagent, 4'-carboxy-substituted rosamine, has been used as the derivatization reagent for five phytosterols, and internal standard diosgenin was used for the first time...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881059/natural-products-with-antiplatelet-action
#11
Gabriela Elisa Hirsch, Paulo Ricardo Nazário Viecili, Amanda Spring de Almeida, Sabrina Nascimento, Fernando Garcez Porto, Juliana Otero, Aline Schmidt, Brenda da Silva, Mariana Migliorini Parisi, Jonatas Zeni Klafke
BACKGROUND: Complex hemostatic mechanisms are involved in the pathophysiology of various diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. Among them, dysregulation of platelet activity is linked to the progression of atherosclerosis and mainly involves platelet aggregation and a decrease in blood flow in the vascular endothelium. The major platelet activation pathways mediated by agonists involve the arachidonic acid pathway, adenosine diphosphate pathway, serotonin pathway, nitric oxide pathway, and action of free radicals on molecules involved in platelet aggregation...
November 23, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877086/ginsenoside-rg1-protects-against-oxidative-stress-induced-neuronal-apoptosis-through-myosin-iia-actin-related-cytoskeletal-reorganization
#12
Yan Wang, Qian Liu, Yingqiong Xu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Yanni Lv, Yisha Tan, Nan Jiang, Guosheng Cao, Xiaonan Ma, Jingrong Wang, Zhengyu Cao, Boyang Yu, Junping Kou
Oxidative stress-induced cytoskeletal dysfunction of neurons has been implicated as a crucial cause of cell apoptosis or death in the central nervous system (CNS) diseases, such as neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. The application of neuroprotectants rescuing the neurons from cytoskeletal damage and apoptosis can be a potential treatment for these CNS diseases. Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), one of the major active components of ginseng, has been reported possessing notable neuroprotective activities. However, there is rare report about its effect on cytoskeleton and its undergoing mechanism...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869749/ultrasound-assisted-extraction-may-not-be-a-better-alternative-approach-than-conventional-boiling-for-extracting-polysaccharides-from-herbal-medicines
#13
Ka-Man Yip, Jun Xu, Wing-Sum Tong, Shan-Shan Zhou, Tao Yi, Zhong-Zhen Zhao, Hu-Biao Chen
In clinical practice polysaccharides from herbal medicines are conventionally prepared by boiling water extraction (BWE), while ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) has often been used instead employed in laboratory research due to its strong extraction ability and efficiency. However, if and how the polysaccharides obtained by UAE and BWE are comparable, and hence whether the UAE-based research is instructive for the actual usage of herbal polysaccharides still requires further evaluation. To address this issue, here we chemically analyzed and compared the UAE- and BWE-obtained polysaccharides from three herbal medicines, i...
November 18, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868379/qualitative-and-quantitative-analysis-of-multiple-components-for-quality-control-of-deng-zhan-sheng-mai-capsules-by-uhplc-ms-ms-coupled-with-chemometrics
#14
Pin Jiang, Yan Lu, Daofeng Chen
Deng-Zhan-Sheng-Mai capsules are a well-known traditional Chinese patent medicine that was developed in China for the treatment of ischemic stroke. Its quality control focuses on Erigerontis Herba but ignores the contributions of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus, and Ophiopogonis Radix. To improve the quality standards for this medicine, this work reports the application of a systematic ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method coupled with chemometrics...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867186/shenmai-injection-enhances-the-cytotoxicity-of-chemotherapeutic-drugs-against-colorectal-cancers-via-improving-their-subcellular-distribution
#15
Wen-Yue Liu, Jing-Wei Zhang, Xue-Quan Yao, Chao Jiang, Ji-Chao He, Pin Ni, Jia-Li Liu, Qian-Ying Chen, Qing-Ran Li, Xiao-Jie Zang, Lan Yao, Ya-Zhong Liu, Mu-Lan Wang, Pei-Qiang Shen, Guang-Ji Wang, Fang Zhou
Shenmai injection (SMI) is a Chinese patent-protected injection, which was mainly made of Red Ginseng and Radix Ophiopogonis and widely used for treating coronary heart disease and tumors by boosting Qi and nourishing Yin. In this study we examined whether SMI could produce direct synergetic effects on the cytoxicity of adriamycin (ADR) and paclitaxel (PTX) in colorectal cancers in vivo and in vitro, and explored the underlying pharmacokinetic mechanisms. BALB/c nude mice with LoVo colon cancer xenografts were intraperitoneally injected with ADR (2 mg·kg(-1)·3d(-1)) or PTX (7...
November 21, 2016: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865617/panaxatriol-derived-from-ginseng-augments-resistance-exercised-induced-protein-synthesis-via-mtorc1-signaling-in-rat-skeletal-muscle
#16
Yusuke Takamura, Yuhei Makanae, Satoru Ato, Naomi Yoshii, Kohei Kido, Mitsuru Nomura, Akira Uchiyama, Naruhiro Shiozawa, Satoshi Fujita
Resistance exercise activates muscle protein synthesis via the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway and subsequent muscle hypertrophy. Upstream components of the mTORC1 pathway are widely known to be involved in Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling. Previous studies have shown that ginseng stimulated Akt and ERK1/2 signaling. Therefore, we hypothesized that panaxatriol (PT) derived from ginseng triggers mTORC1 signaling and muscle protein synthesis by activating both the Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways, and that PT additively stimulates muscle protein synthesis when combined with resistance exercise...
September 13, 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864798/pharmacokinetic-drug-interactions-with-panax-ginseng
#17
REVIEW
Meenakshi R Ramanathan, Scott R Penzak
Panax ginseng is widely used as an adaptogen throughout the world. The major active constituents of P. ginseng are ginsenosides. Most naturally occurring ginsenosides are deglycosylated by colonic bacteria to intestinal metabolites. Ginsenosides along with these metabolites are widely accepted as being responsible for the pharmacologic activity and drug interaction potential of ginseng. Numerous preclinical studies have assessed the influence of various ginseng components on cytochrome P450 (CYP), glucuronidation, and drug transport activity...
November 18, 2016: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863345/suppression-of-tnf-%C3%AE-and-free-radicals-reduces-systematic-inflammatory-and-metabolic-disorders-radioprotective-effects-of-ginseng-oligopeptides-on-intestinal-barrier-function-and-antioxidant-defense
#18
Li-Xia He, Jun-Bo Wang, Bin Sun, Jian Zhao, Lin Li, Teng Xu, Hui Li, Jing-Qin Sun, Jinwei Ren, Rui Liu, Qi-He Chen, Zhao-Feng Zhang, Yong Li
Irradiation therapy is markedly associated with intestinal injure and oxidant stress. This study aimed to investigate the effects of ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.) oligopeptides (GOP) on irradiation-induced intestinal injury and antioxidant defense in mice. BALB/c mice (8 weeks old) were randomly divided into six groups: vehicle control, irradiation control (IR), IR+whey protein [0.30 g/kg body weight (BW)], IR+GOP 0.15 g/kg BW, IR+GOP 0.30 g/kg BW and IR+GOP 0.60 g/kg BW. Postirradiation 30-day survival trial, white blood cells count and bone marrow hematopoietic system damage were performed to identify the injury degree induced by irradiation...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860473/use-of-plant-extracts-as-an-efficient-alternative-therapy-of-respiratory-tract-infections
#19
Karel Šmejkal, Veronika Rjašková
Medicinal plants are advantageously used in the treatment of respiratory tract diseases. Upper respiratory tract catarrh is one of the diseases associated with seasonal weakening of immunity, and therefore, plant drugs with a non-specific immunomodulation effect are often used. Such plants include, but are not limited to, Echinacea (Echinacea purpurea) and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius). In combination with medicinal plants having antibacterial and antiseptic effects, such as thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and pelargonium (Pelargonium sidoides), they can constitute efficient help in the treatment of respiratory tract diseases, shorten the duration of the disease and reduce the need of antibiotic therapy...
2016: Ceská a Slovenská Farmacie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856301/sulfur-fumigation-reducing-systemic-exposure-of-ginsenosides-and-weakening-immunomodulatory-activity-of-ginseng
#20
Bin Ma, Winnie Lai Ting Kan, He Zhu, Song-Lin Li, Ge Lin
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ginseng (Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma) is used worldwide for its miracle tonic effects, especially for its immunomodulatory activities. Sulfur fumigation, a fast and convenient method to prevent pesticidal and bacterial contamination in the food industry, has been recently employed during post-harvest processing of ginseng. Our previous studies demonstrated that sulfur fumigation significantly altered the chemical profile of the bioactive ingredients in ginseng...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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