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P R Pearson, D A Warner
Seasonal shifts in environmental conditions provide predictable cues to which organisms can respond in adaptive ways. For example, seasonal changes in temperature can induce phenotypes at different times of the year that have season-specific fitness benefits. Here, we tested the hypothesis that embryo responses to seasonal changes in thermal environments are adaptively matched to the timing of reproduction (environmental-matching hypothesis). We collected eggs of the brown anole lizard ( Anolis sagrei ) from early and late seasons, and exposed them to early and late thermal regimes that mimic nest temperatures...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Ambika Kamath, Jonathan B Losos
How individuals move through their environment dictates which other individuals they encounter, determining their social and reproductive interactions and the extent to which they experience sexual selection. Specifically, females rarely have the option of mating with all males in a population-they can only choose among the males they encounter. Further, quantifying phenotypic differences between the males that females encounter and those that sire females' offspring lends insight into how social and reproductive interactions shape male phenotypes...
February 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Beth A Reinke, Yasmeen Erritouni, Ryan Calsbeek
The maternal allocation of carotenoids to eggs has been widely documented and manipulated. However, it is often assumed that the sole adaptive value of this allocation is to increase offspring fitness. Because carotenoids can be pro-oxidants or antioxidants depending on their concentrations and their chemical environment (i.e. presence of other antioxidants), dams may need to dispose of excess carotenoids upon depletion of other antioxidants to prevent oxidative damage. Additionally, the amount of carotenoids deposited in eggs may be dependent on male traits such as quality and coloration...
February 2, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Marc Tollis, Elizabeth D Hutchins, Jessica Stapley, Shawn M Rupp, Walter L Eckalbar, Inbar Maayan, Eris Lasku, Carlos R Infante, Stuart R Dennis, Joel A Robertson, Catherine M May, Michael R Crusoe, Eldredge Bermingham, Dale F DeNardo, S Tonia Hsieh, Rob J Kulathinal, W Owen McMillan, Douglas B Menke, Stephen C Pratt, J Alan Rawls, Oris Sanjur, Jeanne Wilson-Rawls, Melissa A Wilson Sayres, Rebecca E Fisher, Kenro Kusumi
Squamates include all lizards and snakes, and display some of the most diverse and extreme morphological adaptations among vertebrates. However, compared to birds and mammals, relatively few resources exist for comparative genomic analyses of squamates, hampering efforts to understand the molecular bases of phenotypic diversification in such a speciose clade. In particular, the ∼ 400 species of anole lizard represent an extensive squamate radiation. Here, we sequence and assemble the draft genomes of three anole species - Anolis frenatus, A...
January 19, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Catherine Tylan, Tracy Langkilde
The phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin test is commonly used by ecologists to assess cell-mediated immune function of wild animals. It can be performed quickly and easily in the field, involving injection of PHA and measurement of the resultant swelling. There are multiple formulations of PHA used in ecological studies, with potentially differing outcomes that could produce inconsistent results. We tested two common types of PHA in the green anole (Anolis carolinensis) to identify local and systemic immune responses underlying the resultant swelling at 6, 18, 24, and 48 hr post injection...
June 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Austin C Hulbert, Timothy S Mitchell, Joshua M Hall, Cassia M Guiffre, Danielle C Douglas, Daniel A Warner
Many studies of phenotypic plasticity alter environmental conditions during embryonic development, yet only measure phenotypes at the neonatal stage (after embryonic development). However, measuring aspects of embryo physiology enhances our understanding of how environmental factors immediately affect embryos, which aids our understanding of developmental plasticity. While current research on reptile developmental plasticity has demonstrated that fluctuating incubation temperatures affect development differently than constant temperatures, most research on embryo physiology is still performed with constant temperature experiments...
August 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
John David Curlis, Ryan William Davis, Emily Zetkulic, Christian L Cox
In many species, sexually selected combat and display traits can confer dramatic fitness benefits to males by aiding in mate acquisition, so individuals maximally invest energy into their growth and maintenance. Such traits are deemed condition-dependent, as the energy that is available for investment depends on the health and condition of the individual. Condition dependence is present in a wide range of traits across many taxa, but the extent to which condition dependence varies among shared traits in closely related species is poorly understood...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Michele A Johnson, Bonnie K Kircher, Diego J Castro
The motor systems that produce behavioral movements are among the primary targets for the action of steroid hormones, including androgens. Androgens such as testosterone bind to androgen receptors (AR) to induce physiological changes in the size, strength, and energetic capacity of skeletal muscles, which can directly influence the performance of behaviors in which those muscles are used. Because tissues differentially express AR, resulting in tissue-specific sensitivity to androgens, AR expression may be a major target of selection for the evolution of behavior...
January 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
Blake V Dickson, Emma Sherratt, Jonathan B Losos, Stephanie E Pierce
Anolis lizards are a model system for the study of adaptive radiation and convergent evolution. Greater Antillean anoles have repeatedly evolved six similar forms or ecomorphs: crown-giant, grass-bush, twig, trunk, trunk-crown and trunk-ground. Members of each ecomorph category possess a specific set of morphological, ecological and behavioural characteristics which have been acquired convergently. Here we test whether the semicircular canal system-the organ of balance during movement-is also convergent among ecomorphs, reflecting the shared sensory requirements of their ecological niches...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Ray Marin, Diego Cortez, Francesco Lamanna, Madapura M Pradeepa, Evgeny Leushkin, Philippe Julien, Angélica Liechti, Jean Halbert, Thoomke Brüning, Katharina Mössinger, Timo Trefzer, Christian Conrad, Halie N Kerver, Juli Wade, Patrick Tschopp, Henrik Kaessmann
Sex chromosomes differentiated from different ancestral autosomes in various vertebrate lineages. Here, we trace the functional evolution of the XY Chromosomes of the green anole lizard ( Anolis carolinensis ), on the basis of extensive high-throughput genome, transcriptome and histone modification sequencing data and revisit dosage compensation evolution in representative mammals and birds with substantial new expression data. Our analyses show that Anolis sex chromosomes represent an ancient XY system that originated at least ≈160 million years ago in the ancestor of Iguania lizards, shortly after the separation from the snake lineage...
December 2017: Genome Research
Tom Hellebuyck, Karl Questel, Frank Pasmans, Leen Van Brantegem, Pascal Philip, An Martel
Infectious diseases affecting wildlife are drivers of global biodiversity loss. Here we report a bacterial threat to endangered wild reptiles. Since April 2011, a severe skin disease has affected free-ranging, endangered Lesser Antillean iguanas (Iguana delicatissima) on the French Caribbean island of Saint Barthélemy and we identified Devriesea agamarum as the causative agent. The presence of this bacterium was also demonstrated in healthy lizards (anoles) co-inhabiting the island. All isolates from the iguanas corresponded to a single AFLP genotype that until now has exclusively been associated with infections in lizard species in captivity...
October 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
Travis J Hagey, Scott Harte, Mathew Vickers, Luke J Harmon, Lin Schwarzkopf
Ecomorphology links microhabitat and morphology. By comparing ecomorphological associations across clades, we can investigate the extent to which evolution can produce similar solutions in response to similar challenges. While Anolis lizards represent a well-studied example of repeated convergent evolution, very few studies have investigated the ecomorphology of geckos. Similar to anoles, gekkonid lizards have independently evolved adhesive toe pads and many species are scansorial. We quantified gecko and anole limb length and microhabitat use, finding that geckos tend to have shorter limbs than anoles...
2017: PloS One
Artem P Lisachov, Vladimir A Trifonov, Massimo Giovannotti, Malcolm A Ferguson-Smith, Pavel M Borodin
Although the evolutionary importance of meiotic recombination is not disputed, the significance of interspecies differences in the recombination rates and recombination landscapes remains under-appreciated. Recombination rates and distribution of chiasmata have been examined cytologically in many mammalian species, whereas data on other vertebrates are scarce. Immunolocalization of the protein of the synaptonemal complex (SYCP3), centromere proteins and the mismatch-repair protein MLH1 was used, which is associated with the most common type of recombination nodules, to analyze the pattern of meiotic recombination in the male of two species of iguanian lizards, Anolis carolinensis Voigt, 1832 and Deiroptyx coelestinus (Cope, 1862)...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Lin Jiang, Yue Liu, Xin Liu, Jinlei Tian, Shiping Yan
Three series of Ni(II)-Ln(III) complexes were synthesized with the general formulae [(μ3-CO3)2{Ni(HL)(CH3-CH2OH)Ln(CH3COO)}2]·2CH3CH2OH (1-6) (Ln = Tb (1), Dy (2), Ho (3), Er (4), Tm (5), Yb (6); H3L = N,N'-bis(3-methoxysalicylidene)-1,3-diamino-2-prop-anol), [Ni(HL)Ln(dbm)3]·CH3OH2·2CH2Cl2 (7-10) (Ln = Tb (7), Eu (8), Gd (9), Ho (10); Hdbm = 1,3-diphenyl-1,3-propanedione) and [Ni(HL)(H2O)(tfa)Ln(hfac)2] (11-15) (Ln = Tb (11), Dy (12), Eu (13), Gd (14), Ho (15); Hhfac = 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoropentane-2,4-dione, tfa(-) = trifluoroacetate) using compartmental Schiff base ligands in conjunction with auxiliary ligands...
September 26, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Erik M Blosser, Cynthia C Lord, Tanise Stenn, Carolina Acevedo, Hassan K Hassan, Lawrence E Reeves, Thomas R Unnasch, Nathan D Burkett-Cadena
Field studies were carried out in four Florida counties to investigate winter and spring ecology of host use by Culiseta melanura (Coquillet), the primary vector of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) in North America. Bloodmeal analysis by PCR was used to identify 233 host bloodmeals, which mainly originated from birds (78.5%) and reptiles (17.2%), primarily Anolis spp. lizards. Across counties, the percentage of bloodmeals from reptiles (7-37% depending upon county) increased with increasing day length and temperature in the spring...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
Camille Bonneaud, Irem Sepil, Lena Wilfert, Ryan Calsbeek
Parasites can represent formidable selection pressures for hosts, but the cost of infection is sometimes difficult to demonstrate in natural populations. While parasite exploitation strategies may, in some instances, actually inflict low costs on their hosts, the response of hosts to infection is also likely to determine whether or not these costs can be detected. Indeed, costs of infection may be obscured if infected individuals in the wild are those that are the most tolerant, rather than the most susceptible, to infection...
August 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Sarin Tiatragul, Gopal Murali, James T Stroud
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Ake Liu, Funan He, Xun Gu
The tyrosine kinases (TKs) play principal roles in regulation of multicellular aspects of the organism and are implicated in many cancer types and congenital disorders. The anole lizard has recently been introduced as a model organism for laboratory-based studies of organismal function and field studies of ecology and evolution. However, the TK family of anole lizard has not been systematically identified and characterized yet. In this study, we identified 82 TK-encoding genes in the anole lizard genome and classified them into 28 subfamilies through phylogenetic analysis, with no member from ROS and STYK1 subfamilies identified...
December 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Thomas J Sanger, Bonnie K Kircher
Anolis lizards , known for their replicated patterns of morphological diversification, are widely studied in the fields of evolution and ecology. As a textbook example of adaptive radiation, this genus has supported decades of intense study in natural history, behavior, morphological evolution, and systematics. Following the publication of the A. carolinensis genome, research on Anolis lizards has expanded into new areas, toward obtaining an understanding the developmental and genetic bases of anole diversity...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Shane C Campbell-Staton, Zachary A Cheviron, Nicholas Rochette, Julian Catchen, Jonathan B Losos, Scott V Edwards
Extreme environmental perturbations offer opportunities to observe the effects of natural selection in wild populations. During the winter of 2013-2014, the southeastern United States endured an extreme cold event. We used thermal performance, transcriptomics, and genome scans to measure responses of lizard populations to storm-induced selection. We found significant increases in cold tolerance at the species' southern limit. Gene expression in southern survivors shifted toward patterns characteristic of northern populations...
August 4, 2017: Science
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