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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345630/identification-and-comparative-analysis-of-the-epidermal-differentiation-complex-in-snakes
#1
Karin Brigit Holthaus, Veronika Mlitz, Bettina Strasser, Erwin Tschachler, Lorenzo Alibardi, Leopold Eckhart
The epidermis of snakes efficiently protects against dehydration and mechanical stress. However, only few proteins of the epidermal barrier to the environment have so far been identified in snakes. Here, we determined the organization of the Epidermal Differentiation Complex (EDC), a cluster of genes encoding protein constituents of cornified epidermal structures, in snakes and compared it to the EDCs of other squamates and non-squamate reptiles. The EDC of snakes displays shared synteny with that of the green anole lizard, including the presence of a cluster of corneous beta-protein (CBP)/beta-keratin genes...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343564/embryos-of-non-native-anoles-are-robust-to-urban-thermal-environments
#2
Sarin Tiatragul, Audeline Kurniawan, Jason J Kolbe, Daniel A Warner
The transformation of natural habitats into urban landscapes dramatically alters thermal environments, which in turn, can impact local biota. Ectothermic organisms that are oviparous are particularly sensitive to these altered environments because their embryos cannot behaviorally thermoregulate and the surrounding environment determines the temperature experienced during development. We studied the effects of urban and forested thermal environments on embryo development and hatchling phenotypes in two non-native lizards (Anolis sagrei and A...
April 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334227/a-phylogenetic-biogeographic-and-taxonomic-study-of-all-extant-species-of-anolis-squamata-iguanidae
#3
Steven Poe, Adrián Nieto-Montes de Oca, Omar Torres-Carvajal, Kevin de Queiroz, Julián A Velasco, Brad Truett, Levi N Gray, Mason J Ryan, Gunther Köhler, Fernando Ayala-Varela, Ian Latella
Anolis lizards (anoles) are textbook study organisms in evolution and ecology. Although several topics in evolutionary biology have been elucidated by the study of anoles, progress in some areas has been hampered by limited phylogenetic information on this group. Here we present a phylogenetic analysis of all 379 extant species of Anolis, with new phylogenetic data for 139 species including new DNA data for 101 species. We use the resulting estimates as a basis for defining anole clade names under the principles of phylogenetic nomenclature and to examine the biogeographic history of anoles...
February 27, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315859/heteromorphism-of-homomorphic-sex-chromosomes-in-two-anole-species-squamata-dactyloidae-revealed-by-synaptonemal-complex-analysis
#4
Artem P Lisachov, Vladimir A Trifonov, Massimo Giovannotti, Malcolm A Ferguson-Smith, Pavel M Borodin
Iguanians (Pleurodonta) are one of the reptile lineages that, like birds and mammals, have sex chromosomes of ancient origin. In most iguanians these are microchromosomes, making a distinction between the X and Y as well as between homeologous sex chromosomes in other species difficult. Meiotic chromosome analysis may be used to elucidate their differentiation, because meiotic prophase chromosomes are longer and less condensed than metaphase chromosomes, and the homologues are paired with each other, revealing minor heteromorphisms...
March 18, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300027/cystic-calculus-in-a-laboratory-housed-green-anole-anolis-carolinensis
#5
Leslie L Birke Ann M Cespedes Emma R Schachner And Simon P Lailvaux
An adult, male, wild-caught, laboratory-housed green anole (Anolis carolinensis) on a locomotor performance study was presented for anorexia. The anole exhibited a 26% weight loss and a thin body condition but was otherwise alert and active. Despitesupportive care, the anole's clinical condition deteriorated, necessitating euthanasia. Postmortem examination revealed a 4.5 mm × 2.5-mm cystic calculus, which consisted entirely of sodium urate. Here we describe the clinical findings and locomotor consequences of this disease in a green anole...
March 15, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221827/hormonally-mediated-increases-in-sex-biased-gene-expression-accompany-the-breakdown-of-between-sex-genetic-correlations-in-a-sexually-dimorphic-lizard
#6
Robert M Cox, Christian L Cox, Joel W McGlothlin, Daren C Card, Audra L Andrew, Todd A Castoe
The evolution of sexual dimorphism is predicted to occur through reductions in between-sex genetic correlations (rmf) for shared traits, but the physiological and genetic mechanisms that facilitate these reductions remain largely speculative. Here, we use a paternal half-sibling breeding design in captive brown anole lizards (Anolis sagrei) to show that the development of sexual size dimorphism is mirrored by the ontogenetic breakdown of rmf for body size and growth rate. Using transcriptome data from the liver (which integrates growth and metabolism), we show that sex-biased gene expression also increases dramatically between ontogenetic stages bracketing this breakdown of rmf...
March 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194754/requirement-of-extracellular-ca-2-binding-to-specific-amino-acids-for-heat-evoked-activation-of-trpa1
#7
Erkin Kurganov, Shigeru Saito, Claire T Saito, Makoto Tominaga
Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is a homotetrameric nonselective cation-permeable channel that has six transmembrane domains and cytoplasmic N- and C-termini. The N-terminus is characterized by an unusually large number of ankyrin repeats. Although the 3-dimensional structure of human TRPA1 has been determined, and TRPA1 channels from insects to birds are known to be activated by heat stimulus, the mechanism for temperature-dependent TRPA1 activation is unclear. We previously reported that extracellular Ca(2+) , but not intracellular Ca(2+) , plays an important role in heat-evoked TRPA1 activation in green anole lizards (gaTRPA1)...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187160/the-effects-of-dopamine-receptor-1-and-2-agonists-and-antagonists-on-sexual-and-aggressive-behaviors-in-male-green-anoles
#8
Alexandra N Smith, David Kabelik
The propensity to exhibit social behaviors during interactions with same-sex and opposite-sex conspecifics is modulated by various neurotransmitters, including dopamine. Dopamine is a conserved neurotransmitter among vertebrates and dopaminergic receptors are also highly conserved among taxa. Activation of D1 and D2 dopamine receptor subtypes has been shown to modulate social behaviors, especially in mammalian and avian studies. However, the specific behavioral functions of these receptors vary across taxa...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167809/exercise-training-reveals-trade-offs-among-endurance-performance-and-immune-function-but-not-growth-in-juvenile-lizards
#9
Jerry F Husak, Jordan C Roy, Matthew B Lovern
Acquired energetic resources allocated to a particular trait cannot then be re-allocated to a different trait. This often results in a trade-off between survival and reproduction for the adults of many species, but such a trade-off may be manifested differently in juveniles not yet capable of reproduction. Whereas adults may allocate resources to current and/or future reproduction, juveniles can only allocate to future reproduction. Thus, juveniles should allocate resources toward traits that increase survival and their chances of future reproductive success...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064439/eugenol-specialty-chemical-production-in-transgenic-poplar-populus-tremula-%C3%A3-p-alba-field-trials
#10
Da Lu, Xianghe Yuan, Sung-Jin Kim, Joaquim V Marques, P Pawan Chakravarthy, Syed G A Moinuddin, Randi Luchterhand, Barri Herman, Laurence B Davin, Norman G Lewis
A foundational study assessed effects of biochemical pathway introduction into poplar to produce eugenol, chavicol, p-anol, isoeugenol, and their sequestered storage products, from potentially available substrates, coniferyl and p-coumaryl alcohols. At the onset, it was unknown whether significant carbon flux to monolignols vs other phenylpropanoid (acetate) pathway metabolites would be kinetically favored. Various transgenic poplar lines generated eugenol and chavicol glucosides in ca. 0.45% (~0.35 and ~0...
January 8, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003450/comparative-tests-of-the-role-of-dewlap-size-in-anolis-lizard-speciation
#11
Travis Ingram, Alexis Harrison, D Luke Mahler, María Del Rosario Castañeda, Richard E Glor, Anthony Herrel, Yoel E Stuart, Jonathan B Losos
Phenotypic traits may be linked to speciation in two distinct ways: character values may influence the rate of speciation or diversification in the trait may be associated with speciation events. Traits involved in signal transmission, such as the dewlap of Anolis lizards, are often involved in the speciation process. The dewlap is an important visual signal with roles in species recognition and sexual selection, and dewlaps vary among species in relative size as well as colour and pattern. We compile a dataset of relative dewlap size digitized from photographs of 184 anole species from across the genus' geographical range...
December 28, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980123/integrating-gastrocnemius-force-length-properties-in-vivo-activation-and-operating-lengths-reveals-how-anolis-deal-with-ecological-challenges
#12
Kathleen L Foster, Timothy E Higham
A central question in biology is how animals successfully behave under complex natural conditions. Although changes in locomotor behaviour, motor control, and force production in relation to incline are commonly examined, a wide range of other factors, including a range of perch diameters, pervades arboreal habitats. Moving on different substrate diameters requires considerable alteration of body and limb posture, likely causing significant shifts in the lengths of the muscle-tendon units powering locomotion...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891220/diversification-in-wild-populations-of-the-model-organism-anolis-carolinensis-a-genome-wide-phylogeographic-investigation
#13
Joseph D Manthey, Marc Tollis, Alan R Lemmon, Emily Moriarty Lemmon, Stéphane Boissinot
The green anole (Anolis carolinensis) is a lizard widespread throughout the southeastern United States and is a model organism for the study of reproductive behavior, physiology, neural biology, and genomics. Previous phylogeographic studies of A. carolinensis using mitochondrial DNA and small numbers of nuclear loci identified conflicting and poorly supported relationships among geographically structured clades; these inconsistencies preclude confident use of A. carolinensis evolutionary history in association with morphological, physiological, or reproductive biology studies among sampling localities and necessitate increased effort to resolve evolutionary relationships among natural populations...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779443/prevalence-of-klebsiella-oxytoca-in-anolis-carolensis-of-louisiana
#14
KathyJo Ann Jackson
Klebsiella oxytoca is a gram-negative bacterium that can be found throughout the environment as well as on mucosal membranes of mammals including humans. This bacterium is responsible for a variety of infections in humans including nosocomial infections resulting in hospital outbreaks. Reptiles including snakes, tuataras, and turtles have been shown to harbor this bacterium, and previous studies have shown that pet reptiles are a potential source for dissemination of pathogenic bacteria. Green anoles (Anolis carolensis) are a common lizard found in the southeastern part of the United States...
December 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698666/in-silico-analysis-of-gene-expression-network-components-underlying-pigmentation-phenotypes-in-the-python-identified-evolutionarily-conserved-clusters-of-transcription-factor-binding-sites
#15
Kristopher J L Irizarry, Randall L Bryden
Color variation provides the opportunity to investigate the genetic basis of evolution and selection. Reptiles are less studied than mammals. Comparative genomics approaches allow for knowledge gained in one species to be leveraged for use in another species. We describe a comparative vertebrate analysis of conserved regulatory modules in pythons aimed at assessing bioinformatics evidence that transcription factors important in mammalian pigmentation phenotypes may also be important in python pigmentation phenotypes...
2016: Advances in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650469/adaptive-signal-coloration-maintained-in-the-face-of-gene-flow-in-a-hispaniolan-anolis-lizard
#16
Julienne Ng, Alison G Ossip-Klein, Richard E Glor
BACKGROUND: Studies of geographic variation can provide insight into the evolutionary processes involved in the early stages of biological diversification. In particular, multiple, replicated cases of geographic trait divergence present a powerful approach to study how patterns of introgression and adaptive divergence can vary with geographic space and time. In this study, we conduct replicated, fine-scaled molecular genetic analyses of striking geographic dewlap color variation of a Hispaniolan Anolis lizard, Anolis distichus, to investigate whether adaptive trait divergence is consistently associated with speciation, whereby genetic divergence is observed with neutral markers, or whether locally adapted traits are maintained in the face of continued gene flow...
2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27564209/a-mid-pleistocene-rainforest-corridor-enabled-synchronous-invasions-of-the-atlantic-forest-by-amazonian-anole-lizards
#17
Ivan Prates, Danielle Rivera, Miguel T Rodrigues, Ana C Carnaval
Shifts in the geographic distribution of habitats over time can promote dispersal and vicariance, thereby influencing large-scale biogeographic patterns and ecological processes. An example is that of transient corridors of suitable habitat across disjunct but ecologically similar regions, which have been associated with climate change over time. Such connections likely played a role in the assembly of tropical communities, especially within the highly diverse Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests of South America...
October 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558791/visual-motion-detection-and-habitat-preference-in-anolis-lizards
#18
David S Steinberg, Manuel Leal
The perception of visual stimuli has been a major area of inquiry in sensory ecology, and much of this work has focused on coloration. However, for visually oriented organisms, the process of visual motion detection is often equally crucial to survival and reproduction. Despite the importance of motion detection to many organisms' daily activities, the degree of interspecific variation in the perception of visual motion remains largely unexplored. Furthermore, the factors driving this potential variation (e...
November 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27532629/absorption-characteristics-of-vertebrate-non-visual-opsin-opn3
#19
Tomohiro Sugihara, Takashi Nagata, Benjamin Mason, Mitsumasa Koyanagi, Akihisa Terakita
Most animals possess multiple opsins which sense light for visual and non-visual functions. Here, we show spectral characteristics of non-visual opsins, vertebrate Opn3s, which are widely distributed among vertebrates. We successfully expressed zebrafish Opn3 in mammalian cultured cells and measured its absorption spectrum spectroscopically. When incubated with 11-cis retinal, zebrafish Opn3 formed a blue-sensitive photopigment with an absorption maximum around 465 nm. The Opn3 converts to an all-trans retinal-bearing photoproduct with an absorption spectrum similar to the dark state following brief blue-light irradiation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501092/discovery-of-a-giant-chameleon-like-lizard-anolis-on-hispaniola-and-its-significance-to-understanding-replicated-adaptive-radiations
#20
D Luke Mahler, Shea M Lambert, Anthony J Geneva, Julienne Ng, S Blair Hedges, Jonathan B Losos, Richard E Glor
We report a new chameleon-like Anolis species from Hispaniola that is ecomorphologically similar to congeners found only on Cuba. Lizards from both clades possess short limbs and a short tail and utilize relatively narrow perches, leading us to recognize a novel example of ecomorphological matching among islands in the well-known Greater Antillean anole radiation. This discovery supports the hypothesis that the assembly of island faunas can be substantially deterministic and highlights the continued potential for basic discovery to reveal new insights in well-studied groups...
September 2016: American Naturalist
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