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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915032/reelin-expression-is-up-regulated-in-mice-colon-in-response-to-acute-colitis-and-provides-resistance-against-colitis
#1
Ana E Carvajal, María D Vázquez-Carretero, Pablo García-Miranda, María J Peral, María L Calonge, Anunciación A Ilundain
Reelin is an extracellular matrix protein first known for its key role in neuronal migration. Studies in rodent small intestine suggested that reelin protects the organism from intestinal pathology. Here we determined in mice colon, by real time-PCR and immunological assays, the expression of the reelin signalling system; its response to dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) and the response of wild-type and reeler mice to DSS. DNA methylation was determined by bisulfite modification and sequencing of genomic DNA. In the colon mucosa reelin expression is restricted to the myofibroblasts, whereas both epithelial cells and myofibroblasts express reelin receptors (ApoER2 and VLDLR) and its effector protein Dab1...
November 30, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864911/spatio-temporal-variation-in-parasite-communities-maintains-diversity-at-the-major-histocompatibility-complex-class-ii%C3%AE-in-the-endangered-rio-grande-silvery-minnow
#2
Megan J Osborne, Tyler J Pilger, Joel D Lusk, Thomas F Turner
Climate change will strongly impact aquatic ecosystems particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. Fish-parasite interactions will also be affected by predicted altered flow and temperature regimes, and other environmental stressors. Hence, identifying environmental and genetic factors associated with maintaining diversity at immune genes is critical for understanding species' adaptive capacity. Here we combine genetic (MHC Class IIβ and microsatellites), parasitological and ecological data to explore the relationship between these factors in the remnant wild Rio Grande silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus) population, an endangered species found in the southwestern United States...
November 19, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739126/non-neuronal-roles-for-the-reelin-signaling-pathway
#3
Elvira Khialeeva, Ellen M Carpenter
The reelin signaling pathway has been established as an important regulator of cell migration during development of the central nervous system, and disruptions in reelin signaling alter the positioning of many types of neurons in the developing central nervous system. Reelin is a large extracellular matrix glycoprotein and governs cell migration through activation of multiple intracellular signaling events via the receptors ApoE receptor 2 (ApoER2) and Very Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor (VLDLR), and the intracellular adaptor protein Disabled-1 (Dab1)...
October 14, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726110/reelin-expression-in-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-and-experimental-models-of-transmissible-spongiform-encephalopathies
#4
Agata Mata, Laura Urrea, Silvia Vilches, Franc Llorens, Katrin Thüne, Juan-Carlos Espinosa, Olivier Andréoletti, Alejandro M Sevillano, Juan María Torres, Jesús Rodríguez Requena, Inga Zerr, Isidro Ferrer, Rosalina Gavín, José Antonio Del Río
Reelin is an extracellular glycoprotein involved in key cellular processes in developing and adult nervous system, including regulation of neuronal migration, synapse formation, and plasticity. Most of these roles are mediated by the intracellular phosphorylation of disabled-1 (Dab1), an intracellular adaptor molecule, in turn mediated by binding Reelin to its receptors. Altered expression and glycosylation patterns of Reelin in cerebrospinal and cortical extracts have been reported in Alzheimer's disease...
October 10, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694961/mutations-in-the-hect-domain-of-nedd4l-lead-to-akt-mtor-pathway-deregulation-and-cause-periventricular-nodular-heterotopia
#5
Loïc Broix, Hélène Jagline, Ekaterina L Ivanova, Stéphane Schmucker, Nathalie Drouot, Jill Clayton-Smith, Alistair T Pagnamenta, Kay A Metcalfe, Bertrand Isidor, Ulrike Walther Louvier, Annapurna Poduri, Jenny C Taylor, Peggy Tilly, Karine Poirier, Yoann Saillour, Nicolas Lebrun, Tristan Stemmelen, Gabrielle Rudolf, Giuseppe Muraca, Benjamin Saintpierre, Adrienne Elmorjani, Martin Moïse, Nathalie Bednarek Weirauch, Renzo Guerrini, Anne Boland, Robert Olaso, Cecile Masson, Ratna Tripathy, David Keays, Cherif Beldjord, Laurent Nguyen, Juliette Godin, Usha Kini, Patrick Nischké, Jean-François Deleuze, Nadia Bahi-Buisson, Izabela Sumara, Maria-Victoria Hinckelmann, Jamel Chelly
Neurodevelopmental disorders with periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) are etiologically heterogeneous, and their genetic causes remain in many cases unknown. Here we show that missense mutations in NEDD4L mapping to the HECT domain of the encoded E3 ubiquitin ligase lead to PNH associated with toe syndactyly, cleft palate and neurodevelopmental delay. Cellular and expression data showed sensitivity of PNH-associated mutants to proteasome degradation. Moreover, an in utero electroporation approach showed that PNH-related mutants and excess wild-type NEDD4L affect neurogenesis, neuronal positioning and terminal translocation...
November 2016: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624722/reelin-regulates-the-maturation-of-dendritic-spines-synaptogenesis-and-glial-ensheathment-of-newborn-granule-cells
#6
Carles Bosch, Nuria Masachs, David Exposito-Alonso, Albert Martínez, Cátia M Teixeira, Isabel Fernaud, Lluís Pujadas, Fausto Ulloa, Joan X Comella, Javier DeFelipe, Angel Merchán-Pérez, Eduardo Soriano
: The Reelin pathway is essential for both neural migration and for the development and maturation of synaptic connections. However, its role in adult synaptic formation and remodeling is still being investigated. Here, we investigated the impact of the Reelin/Dab1 pathway on the synaptogenesis of newborn granule cells (GCs) in the young-adult mouse hippocampus. We show that neither Reelin overexpression nor the inactivation of its intracellular adapter, Dab1, substantially alters dendritic spine numbers in these neurons...
September 13, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602387/schizophrenia-patient-derived-olfactory-neurosphere-derived-cells-do-not-respond-to-extracellular-reelin
#7
Jing Yang Tee, Ratneswary Sutharsan, Yongjun Fan, Alan Mackay-Sim
Reelin expression is reduced in various regions in the post-mortem brain of schizophrenia patients but the exact role of reelin function in the neurobiology of schizophrenia remains elusive. Absence of reelin in knockout mouse causes inverted lamination of the neocortex due to aberrant neuronal migration. The aim of this study was to utilize patient-derived olfactory neurosphere-derived (ONS) cells to investigate whether extracellular reelin alters cell motility in schizophrenia patient-derived cells. ONS cells from nine patients were compared with cells from nine matched healthy controls...
2016: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586054/the-c-terminal-region-of-reelin-is-necessary-for-proper-positioning-of-a-subset-of-purkinje-cells-in-the-postnatal-cerebellum
#8
Kota Nakamura, Mako Beppu, Kaori Sakai, Hayata Yagyu, Saori Matsumaru, Takao Kohno, Mitsuharu Hattori
In the normal cerebellum, Purkinje cells (PCs) are generated in a zone along the ventricular surface, migrate radially, and align to form a single-cell layer. However, in mice lacking the secreted protein Reelin or its downstream adaptor protein Dab1, the majority of PCs are located ectopically in the deep cerebellar mass. Nonetheless, how Reelin regulates migration and alignment of PCs remains incompletely understood. Reelin has a highly-conserved C-terminal region (CTR), which is required for its full activity...
November 12, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531658/the-%C3%AE-amyloid-peptide-compromises-reelin-signaling-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Inmaculada Cuchillo-Ibañez, Trinidad Mata-Balaguer, Valeria Balmaceda, Juan José Arranz, Johannes Nimpf, Javier Sáez-Valero
Reelin is a signaling protein that plays a crucial role in synaptic function, which expression is influenced by β-amyloid (Aβ). We show that Reelin and Aβ oligomers co-immunoprecipitated in human brain extracts and were present in the same size-exclusion chromatography fractions. Aβ treatment of cells led to increase expression of Reelin, but secreted Reelin results trapped together with Aβ aggregates. In frontal cortex extracts an increase in Reelin mRNA, and in soluble and insoluble (guanidine-extractable) Reelin protein, was associated with late Braak stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), while expression of its receptor, ApoER2, did not change...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445807/possible-involvement-of-standardized-bacopa-monniera-extract-cdri-08-in-epigenetic-regulation-of-reelin-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-to-enhance-memory
#10
Jayakumar Preethi, Hemant K Singh, Koilmani E Rajan
Bacopa monniera extract (CDRI-08; BME) has been known to improve learning and memory, and understanding the molecular mechanisms may help to know its specificity. We investigated whether the BME treatment alters the methylation status of reelin and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) to enhance the memory through the interaction of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) with synaptic proteins. Rat pups were subjected to novel object recognition test following daily oral administration of BME (80 mg/kg) in 0...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445693/canonical-and-non-canonical-reelin-signaling
#11
REVIEW
Hans H Bock, Petra May
Reelin is a large secreted glycoprotein that is essential for correct neuronal positioning during neurodevelopment and is important for synaptic plasticity in the mature brain. Moreover, Reelin is expressed in many extraneuronal tissues; yet the roles of peripheral Reelin are largely unknown. In the brain, many of Reelin's functions are mediated by a molecular signaling cascade that involves two lipoprotein receptors, apolipoprotein E receptor-2 (Apoer2) and very low density-lipoprotein receptor (Vldlr), the neuronal phosphoprotein Disabled-1 (Dab1), and members of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases as crucial elements...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27434856/reelin-dab1-signaling-system-in-human-colorectal-cancer
#12
José Manuel Serrano-Morales, María Dolores Vázquez-Carretero, María José Peral, Anunciacion Ana Ilundáin, Pablo García-Miranda
Reelin is an extracellular matrix protein that plays a critical role in neuronal migration. Here we show that the mucosa of human colon expresses reelin, its receptors ApoER2 and VLDLR, and its effector protein Dab1. Immunohistochemical analyses reveal that reelin expression is restricted to pericryptal myofibroblasts; Dab1 is detected at myofibroblasts, the apical domain of surface epithelial and crypt cells, and a strong linear staining is observed at the basement membrane; VLDLR and ApoER2 are in the cytoplasm of surface epithelium and myofibroblasts, and VLDLR is also detected in the cytoplasm of the crypt cells...
July 19, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27386085/major-histocompatibility-complex-class-ii-dab-alleles-associated-with-intestinal-parasite-load-in-the-vulnerable-chinese-egret-egretta-eulophotes
#13
Wei Lei, Xiaoping Zhou, Wenzhen Fang, Qingxian Lin, Xiaolin Chen
The maintenance of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) polymorphism has been hypothesized to result from many mechanisms such as rare-allele advantage, heterozygote advantage, and allele counting. In the study reported herein, 224 vulnerable Chinese egrets (Egretta eulophotes) were used to examine these hypotheses as empirical results derived from bird studies are rare. Parasite survey showed that 147 (65.63%) individuals were infected with 1-3 helminths, and 82.31% of these infected individuals carried Ascaridia sp...
July 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27303268/structural-insights-into-reelin-function-present-and-future
#14
REVIEW
Fanomezana M Ranaivoson, Sventja von Daake, Davide Comoletti
Reelin is a neuronal glycoprotein secreted by the Cajal-Retzius cells in marginal regions of the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus where it plays important roles in the control of neuronal migration and the formation of cellular layers during brain development. This 3461 residue-long protein is composed of a signal peptide, an F-spondin-like domain, eight Reelin repeats (RR1-8), and a positively charged sequence at the C-terminus. Biochemical data indicate that the central region of Reelin binds to the low-density lipoprotein receptors apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) and the very-low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR), leading to the phosphorylation of the intracellular adaptor protein Dab1...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27301998/characterisation-of-light-responses-in-the-retina-of-mice-lacking-principle-components-of-rod-cone-and-melanopsin-phototransduction-signalling-pathways
#15
Steven Hughes, Jessica Rodgers, Doron Hickey, Russell G Foster, Stuart N Peirson, Mark W Hankins
Gnat(-/-), Cnga3(-/-), Opn4(-/-) triple knockout (TKO) mice lack essential components of phototransduction signalling pathways present in rods, cones and photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs), and are therefore expected to lack all sensitivity to light. However, a number of studies have shown that light responses persist in these mice. In this study we use multielectrode array (MEA) recordings and light-induced c-fos expression to further characterise the light responses of the TKO retina. Small, but robust electroretinogram type responses are routinely detected during MEA recordings, with properties consistent with rod driven responses...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27242434/new-insights-into-reelin-mediated-signaling-pathways
#16
REVIEW
Gum Hwa Lee, Gabriella D'Arcangelo
Reelin, a multifunctional extracellular protein that is important for mammalian brain development and function, is secreted by different cell types in the prenatal or postnatal brain. The spatiotemporal regulation of Reelin expression and distribution during development relates to its multifaceted function in the brain. Prenatally Reelin controls neuronal radial migration and proper positioning in cortical layers, whereas postnatally Reelin promotes neuronal maturation, synaptic formation and plasticity. The molecular mechanisms underlying the distinct biological functions of Reelin during and after brain development involve unique and overlapping signaling pathways that are activated following Reelin binding to its cell surface receptors...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27184477/mice-with-dab1-or-vldlr-insufficiency-exhibit-abnormal-neonatal-vocalization-patterns
#17
E R Fraley, Z D Burkett, N F Day, B A Schwartz, P E Phelps, S A White
Genetic and epigenetic changes in components of the Reelin-signaling pathway (RELN, DAB1) are associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk. Social communication deficits are a key component of the ASD diagnostic criteria, but the underlying neurogenetic mechanisms remain unknown. Reln insufficient mice exhibit ASD-like behavioral phenotypes including altered neonatal vocalization patterns. Reelin affects multiple pathways including through the receptors, Very low-density lipoprotein receptor (Vldlr), Apolipoprotein receptor 2 (Apoer2), and intracellular signaling molecule Disabled-1 (Dab1)...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27031488/reelin-in-alzheimer-s-disease-increased-levels-but-impaired-signaling-when-more-is-less
#18
Inmaculada Cuchillo-Ibañez, Valeria Balmaceda, Trinidad Mata-Balaguer, Inmaculada Lopez-Font, Javier Sáez-Valero
In the continuing search for proteins that play a role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and that are related to the pathological hallmarks, those that influence cognitive function and that constitute potential therapeutic targets deserve special interest. Reelin is a signaling protein that is involved in a cascade of cytoplasmic events that control tau phosphorylation and that regulate synaptic neurotransmission, plasticity, and memory. Both Reelin expression and glycosylation are modulated by amyloid-β (Aβ), suggesting that the activity of Reelin could be affected in AD and hence, its possible influence on this pathology should be taken into consideration...
March 26, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26997977/comparative-deletion-mapping-at-1p31-3-p32-2-implies-nfia-responsible-for-intellectual-disability-coupled-with-macrocephaly-and-the-presence-of-several-other-genes-for-syndromic-intellectual-disability
#19
Jonathan D J Labonne, Yiping Shen, Il-Keun Kong, Michael P Diamond, Lawrence C Layman, Hyung-Goo Kim
BACKGROUND: While chromosome 1 is the largest chromosome in the human genome, less than two dozen cases of interstitial microdeletions in the short arm have been documented. More than half of the 1p microdeletion cases were reported in the pre-microarray era and as a result, the proximal and distal boundaries containing the exact number of genes involved in the microdeletions have not been clearly defined. RESULTS: We revisited a previous case of a 10-year old female patient with a 1p32...
2016: Molecular Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26965907/behavioral-resilience-and-sensitivity-to-locally-restricted-cortical-migration-deficits-induced-by-in-utero-knockdown-of-disabled-1-in-the-adult-rat
#20
Sandra Vomund, M Angelica de Souza Silva, Joseph P Huston, Carsten Korth
Irregular neuronal migration plays a causal role in mental illnesses such as schizophrenia and autism, but the very nature of the migration deficits necessary to evoke adult behavioral changes is unknown. Here, we used in utero electroporation (IUE) in rats to induce a locally restricted, cortical migration deficit by knockdown of disabled-1 (Dab1), an intracellular converging point of the reelin pathway. After birth, selection of successfully electroporated rats by detection of in vivo bioluminescence of a simultaneously electroporated luciferase gene correlated to and was thus predictive to the number of electroporated neurons in postmortem histochemistry at 6 months of age...
March 10, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
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