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Sarah O S Osman, Prakash Jeevanandam, Nithya Kanakavelu, Denise M Irvine, Ciara A Lyons, Suneil Jain, Alan R Hounsell, Conor K McGarry
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to find the optimal planning settings for prostate SABR-VMAT for high-risk prostate cancer patients irradiated to prostate only (PO) or prostate and pelvic lymph nodes (PPLN). METHODS: For 10 patients, plans using 6MV flattened, flattening-filter-free (FFF) 6MV (6 F) and FFF 10MV (10 F) photon beams with full and partial arc arrangements were generated and compared. The prescribed dose was 40Gy to the prostate with 25Gy to the PLN in 5 fractions...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Oncology
Silvia Strolin, Silvia Minosse, Marco D'Andrea, Francesco Fracchiolla, Vicente Bruzzaniti, Stefano Luppino, Marcello Benassi, Lidia Strigari
PURPOSE: To investigate the applicability of the formalism described in BJR supplement n.25 for Flattening Filter Free (FFF) beams in determining the zero-field tissue maximum ratio (TMR) for an independent calculation method of Percentage Depth Doses (PDDs) and relative dose factors (RDFs) at different experimental setups. METHODS: Experimental PDDs for field size from 40×40cm(2) to 2×2cm(2) with Source Surface Distance (SSD) 100cm were acquired. The normalized peak scatter factor for each square field was obtained by fitting experimental RDFs in water and collimator factors (CFs) in air...
November 18, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
Jannika E Boström, Nicola K Haller, Marina Dimitrova, Anders Ödeen, Almut Kelber
While color vision and spatial resolution have been studied in many bird species, less is known about the temporal aspects of bird vision. High temporal resolution has been described in three species of passerines but it is unknown whether this is specific to passerines, to small actively flying birds, to insectivores or to birds living in bright habitats. Temporal resolution of vision is commonly tested by determining the flicker fusion frequency (FFF), at which the eye can no longer distinguish a flickering light from a constant light of equal intensity at different luminances...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
Youqun Lai, Shanyu Chen, Changdong Xu, Liwan Shi, Lirong Fu, Huiming Ha, Qin Lin, Zhen Zhang
For single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) using linac in brain metastases, more accurate treatment delivery with higher tumor absorbed doses and lower absorbed doses to normal tissues remains an enormous challenge. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dosimetric superiority in flattening filter free beams (FFF) for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in single brain metastasis. 68 patients with single brain metastasis were included in this study. Every patient was subjected to VMAT treatment plans using 6 MV standard flattened (FF) beams (VMAT_FF) and 6 MV FFF beams (VMAT_FFF) with single fraction doses of 20 Gy...
November 3, 2016: Oncotarget
Geoff Budgell, Kirstie Brown, Jason Cashmore, Simon Duane, John Frame, Mark Hardy, David Paynter, Russell Thomas
Flattening filter free (FFF) beams are now commonly available with new standard linear accelerators. These beams have recognised clinical advantages in certain circumstances, most notably the reduced beam-on times for high dose per fraction stereotactic treatments. Therefore FFF techniques are quickly being introduced into clinical use. The purpose of this report is to provide practical implementation advice and references for centres implementing FFF beams clinically. In particular UK-specific guidance is given for reference dosimetry and radiation protection...
December 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Shems Al-Hayder, Jens Jørgen Elberg, Birgitte Charabi
CONCLUSION: Radial forearm free flap (RFFF) and fibula free flap (FFF) provide high safety and reliability with low incidence of free flap failure and an acceptable level of complications and health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL). OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical outcomes and long-term HRQoL in patients with oral or oropharyngeal cancer following free flap reconstruction. METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records and self-administered HRQoL questionnaires, EORTC QLQ-C30, and -H&N35...
November 4, 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
Lalit Kumar, Girigesh Yadav, Kothanda Raman Samuvel, Manindra Bhushan, Pawan Kumar, Mahammood Suhail, Manoj Pal
AIM: To investigate the dosimetric influence of filtered and flattening filter free (FFF) photon beam of 6 and 10 MV energies on cervix RA radiotherapy planning and to find possibilities to develop the clinically acceptable RA plans with FFFB photon beam and explore their potential benefits to cervix cancer patients. BACKGROUND: FFF photon beams enhances the treatment delivery by increased dose rate which results in shorter treatment time, this shorter treatment time reduces intrafraction motion and enhance comfort to the patients...
January 2017: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Elisabetta Cagni, Serenella Russo, Giacomo Reggiori, Sara Bresciani, David Fedele, Mauro Iori, Carmelo Marino, Barbara Nardiello, Ruggero Ruggieri, Lidia Strigari, Pietro Mancosu
PURPOSE: Small radiation fields (<30 mm) are typically involved in stereotactic body radiation therapy procedures. Output factor measurements are subjected to large uncertainties. The signal ratio (SR) readings, defined as the ratio of central axis reading, respectively, in the actual field size and in the reference field size, were evaluated in several centers and a common mathematical description of the SR curve was investigated. METHODS: A couple of new unshielded stereotactic diodes (Razor, IBA) was tested under eight different TrueBeams using 10 MV flattering filter free beams with high dose rate (2400 MU/min)...
October 2016: Medical Physics
Laure Vieillevigne, Sandra Bessieres, Monia Ouali, Christel Lanaspeze
PURPOSE: Flattening filter free (FFF) beams are frequently used for stereotactic body radiation therapy with various treatment modalities: conventional static fields, dynamic conformal arc (DCA) or Rapid Arc (RA). The goal of this study was to obtain some criteria to enable a conscious choice of the employment of FFF beams and of the DCA or RA technique, depending on the PTV size. METHODS AND MATERIALS: 24 PTVs from 1.52cm(3) to 445.24cm(3) were studied in various sites: virtual phantom, lung and liver...
November 2016: Physica Medica: PM
Catia Contado, Roberto Argazzi, Vincenzo Amendola
Many advanced industrial and biomedical applications that use silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), require that particles are not only nano-sized, but also well dispersed, not aggregated and not agglomerated. This study presents two methods able to give rapidly sizes of monodispersed AgNPs suspensions in the dimensional range of 20-100nm. The first method, based on the application of Mie's theory, determines the particle sizes from the values of the surface plasmon resonance wavelength (SPRMAX), read from the optical absorption spectra, recorded between 190nm and 800nm...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Alyssa R Golas, Jamie P Levine, Justin Ream, Eduardo D Rodriguez
An accurate and comprehensive understanding of lower extremity arterial anatomy is essential for the successful harvest and transfer of a free fibula osteoseptocutaneous flap (FFF). Minimum preoperative evaluation includes detailed history and physical including lower extremity pulse examination. Controversy exists regarding whether preoperative angiographic imaging should be performed for all patients. Elevation of an FFF necessitates division of the peroneal artery in the proximal lower leg and eradicates its downstream flow...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Soung Min Kim, Emmanuel K Amponsah, Hui Young Kim, Ik Jae Kwon, Hoon Myoung, Jong Ho Lee
: Ameloblastoma is the most common benign odontogenic tumor of the jaw, and expansional growth of a huge untreated ameloblastoma can result in disturbances in facial aesthetics and function, such as difficulty with mouth opening, swallowing, chewing, breathing, neurologic deficits, and pathologic fractures. Radical wide resection with safety margins and subsequent reconstruction is generally recommended. A fibular free flap (FFF) is commonly used to reconstruct the mandible in order to adequately restore both aesthetic appearance and function...
September 2016: Ghana Medical Journal
Sara Barbiero, Alexandra Rink, Fabrizio Matteucci, David Fedele, Fabiola Paiar, Francesco Pasqualetti, Michele Avanzo
PURPOSE: To report on single-fraction stereotactic body radiotherapy (RT) (SBRT) with flattening filter (FF)-free (FFF) volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for lung cancer and to compare dosimetric results with VMAT with FF. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Overall, 25 patients were treated with 6-MV FFF VMAT (Varian TrueBeam STx LINAC) to a prescribed dose of 24Gy in a single fraction. Treatment plans were recreated using FF VMAT. Dose-volume indices, monitor units (MU), and treatment times were compared between FFF and FF VMAT techniques...
October 14, 2016: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
Katharina Bell, Jochen Fleckenstein, Frank Nuesken, Norbert Licht, Christian Rübe, Yvonne Dzierma
BACKGROUND: The recently implemented mARC-rotation-technique is capable to deliver high dose rate bursts. For the case of hypopharynx cancer plans we evaluate whether the mARC can achieve an advantage in treatment time in comparison to IMRT. These plans consider two arcs with flat and flattening filter free (FFF) beam energies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For 8 hypopharynx-cancer patients step-and-shoot-IMRT and mARC plans were created retrospectively using flat and FFF beam energy...
2016: PloS One
Po Ki Yuen
A reconfigurable "stick-n-play" modular microfluidic system that can be assembled, disassembled, reconfigured and assembled again for building different integrated microfluidic systems is presented. Magnetic interconnects, comprising ring magnets and sealing gaskets, are integrated into each microfluidic module's inlet(s) and outlet(s) for both module-to-module and world-to-chip fluidic interconnects. The magnetic interconnects reversibly "stick" each individual microfluidic module together and provide leak-free fluidic communication between connected microfluidic modules in order to form a larger integrated microfluidic system...
September 21, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Jason Cashmore
As the use of linear accelerators operating in flattening filter-free (FFF) modes becomes more widespread, it is important to have an understanding of the surface doses delivered to patients with these beams. Flattening filter removal alters the beam quality and relative contributions of low-energy X-rays and contamination electrons in the beam. Having dosimetric data to describe the surface dose and buildup regions under a range of conditions for FFF beams is important if clinical decisions are to be made...
2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
L Sang Kyu, J H Kim, M J Kim, J Y Woo, J G Baek, S Y Kim, J H Cho, J S Chang, W S Koom
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
C Franzese, L Cozzi, E Clerici, G R D'Agostino, P Navarria, T Comito, F De Rose, A M Ascolese, D Franceschini, P Mancosu, S Tomatis, M Scorsetti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Jan Krupčík, Roman Gorovenko, Ivan Špánik, Pat Sandra, Matthew Giardina
The performances of forward flow fill and flush (FFF) and of reverse flow fill and flush (RFF) in flow modulated comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) using the same volume of the sampling channel have been studied and compared. Sample models include a reference mixture of hydrocarbons at low concentration, a petroleum reformate product and the essential oil of Rosa damascena Miller. The latter samples contain solutes in different concentrations but some up to 30% allowing to study overloading phenomena in detail...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Johannes Maier, Bernadette Knott, Manuel Maerz, Rainer Loeschel, Oliver Koelbl, Barbara Dobler
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to compare the two irradiation modes with (FF) and without flattening filter (FFF) for three different treatment techniques for simultaneous integrated boost radiation therapy of patients with right sided breast cancer. METHODS: An Elekta Synergy linac with Agility collimating device is used to simulate the treatment of 10 patients. Six plans were generated in Monaco 5.0 for each patient treating the whole breast and a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) volume: intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and a tangential arc VMAT (tVMAT), each with and without flattening filter...
August 31, 2016: Radiation Oncology
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