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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747196/-if-donors-woke-up-tomorrow-and-said-we-can-t-fund-you-what-would-we-do-a-health-system-dynamics-analysis-of-implementation-of-pmtct-option-b-in-uganda
#1
Tanya Doherty, Donnela Besada, Ameena Goga, Emmanuelle Daviaud, Sarah Rohde, Nika Raphaely
BACKGROUND: In October 2012 Uganda extended its prevention of mother to child HIV transmission (PMTCT) policy to Option B+, providing lifelong antiretroviral treatment for HIV positive pregnant and breastfeeding women. The rapid changes and adoptions of new PMTCT policies have not been accompanied by health systems research to explore health system preparedness to implement such programmes. The implementation of Option B+ provides many lessons which can inform the shift to 'Universal Test and Treat', a policy which many sub-Saharan African countries are preparing to adopt, despite fragile health systems...
July 26, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746574/institutional-violence-and-quality-of-service-in-obstetrics-are-associated-with-postpartum-depression
#2
Karina Junqueira de Souza, Daphne Rattner, Muriel Bauermann Gubert
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between institutional violence in obstetrics and postpartum depression (PP depression) and the potential effect of race, age, and educational level in this outcome. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study about the health care conditions for the maternal and child population of the Federal District, Brazil, carried out in 2011. The study has used a probabilistic sample of 432 women, whose children were aged up to three months, stratified by clusters...
July 20, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743251/acceptability-of-lifelong-treatment-among-hiv-positive-pregnant-and-breastfeeding-women-option-b-in-selected-health-facilities-in-zimbabwe-a-qualitative-study
#3
Addmore Chadambuka, Leila Katirayi, Auxilia Muchedzi, Esther Tumbare, Reuben Musarandega, Agnes I Mahomva, Godfrey Woelk
BACKGROUND: Zimbabwe's Ministry of Health and Child Care (MOHCC) adopted 2013 World Health Organization (WHO) prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) guidelines recommending initiation of HIV-positive pregnant and breastfeeding women (PPBW) on lifelong antiretroviral treatment (ART) irrespective of clinical stage (Option B+). Option B+ was officially launched in Zimbabwe in November 2013; however the acceptability of life-long ART and its potential uptake among women was not known...
July 25, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736417/choosing-flourishing-toward-a-more-binocular-way-of-thinking-about-disability
#4
Erik Parens
There is a long-standing debate between people who can seem to be arguing "for" and "against" disability. Those arguing for have often been disability scholars and those arguing against have often been utilitarian philosophers. At least since the mid-2000s, some on both sides have sought to move beyond that debate, but that has proved difficult. Here I seek two small steps forward. One step is critical, and is aimed at we who line up "for" disability. Specifically, I suggest that the phrase "choosing disability" is misleading in at least two ways...
2017: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735447/cost-benefit-analysis-of-two-child-abuse-and-neglect-primary-prevention-programs-for-us-states
#5
Cora Peterson, Curtis Florence, Robert Thomas, Joanne Klevens
We assessed the US state-level budget and societal impact of implementing two child abuse and neglect (CAN) primary prevention programs. CAN cost estimates and data from two prevention programs (Child-Parent Centers and Nurse-Family Partnership) were combined with current population, cost, and CAN incidence data by US state. A cost-benefit mathematical model for each program by US state compared program costs with the future monetary value of benefits from reduced CAN. The models used a lifetime time horizon from government payer and societal perspectives...
July 22, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727947/definitions-and-clinical-guidance-on-the-enteral-dependence-component-of-the-avoidant-restrictive-food-intake-disorder-diagnostic-criteria-in-children
#6
Terence Michael Dovey, Markus Wilken, Clarissa Isabel Martin, Caroline Meyer
The aim of the current article is to offer definitive guidance on weaning children who are reliant on nasogastric/gastrostomy feeding tubes. To date, no internationally recognized definitions or principles for interventions exist, and clinics have been reliant on creating their own unique intervention criteria. To achieve the aim, 2 goals are set out within the current article. The first goal was to definitively define the process of tube weaning. To achieve this, both tube dependency and oral eating also required definitions...
July 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725950/genome-editing-and-assisted-reproduction-curing-embryos-society-or-prospective-parents
#7
Giulia Cavaliere
This paper explores the ethics of introducing genome-editing technologies as a new reproductive option. In particular, it focuses on whether genome editing can be considered a morally valuable alternative to preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Two arguments against the use of genome editing in reproduction are analysed, namely safety concerns and germline modification. These arguments are then contrasted with arguments in favour of genome editing, in particular with the argument of the child's welfare and the argument of parental reproductive autonomy...
July 19, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725208/aldo-van-eyck-s-playgrounds-aesthetics-affordances-and-creativity
#8
Rob Withagen, Simone R Caljouw
After World War II, the Dutch architect Aldo van Eyck developed hundreds of playgrounds in the city of Amsterdam. These public playgrounds were located in parks, squares, and derelict sites, and consisted of minimalistic aesthetic play equipment that was supposed to stimulate the creativity of children. Over the last decades, these playgrounds have been studied by sociologists, theorists of art and architecture, and psychologists. Adopting an ecological approach to the human environment, it is argued that the abstract forms of van Eyck's play sculptures indeed stimulate the creativity of the child...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721963/pediatric-hiv-in-india-current-scenario-and-the-way-forward
#9
REVIEW
Anita Nath
In India, the prevention of parent-to-child transmission and antiretroviral therapy services for HIV-infected mothers and children have been rapidly scaled up over the recent years. Despite these advances, a large number of HIV-infected children are born in every year. A thorough literature review has been done by retrieving related studies (published from the year 2000 onward); using a Medline search and by extracting recent findings from the official websites of the National AIDS Control Organization, UNAIDS, UNICEF, and World Health Organization...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721958/cost-analysis-of-a-simulation-based-training-for-health-workforce-in-india
#10
Gursimer Jeet, Shankar Prinja, Arun Kumar Aggarwal
BACKGROUND: Training of health-care workforce including doctors, staff nurses, and Auxiliary Nurse Midwives using simulation techniques for skill enhancement have been used in a variety of clinical settings to improve the quality of training. India adopted the skills laboratories model for capacity building of health workers in maternal and child health in Bihar state. OBJECTIVE: Current economic evaluation was performed with the objective of assessing the financial and economic cost of implementing skills laboratories...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720140/a-mixed-methods-protocol-for-developing-and-testing-implementation-strategies-for-evidence-based-obesity-prevention-in-childcare-a-cluster-randomized-hybrid-type-iii-trial
#11
Taren Swindle, Susan L Johnson, Leanne Whiteside-Mansell, Geoffrey M Curran
BACKGROUND: Despite the potential to reach at-risk children in childcare, there is a significant gap between current practices and evidence-based obesity prevention in this setting. There are few investigations of the impact of implementation strategies on the uptake of evidence-based practices (EBPs) for obesity prevention and nutrition promotion. This study protocol describes a three-phase approach to developing and testing implementation strategies to support uptake of EBPs for obesity prevention practices in childcare (i...
July 18, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720089/analysis-of-the-association-between-millennium-development-goals-4-5-and-the-physician-workforce-across-international-economic-strata
#12
Christopher P Morley, Dongliang Wang, Emily M Mader, Kyle P Plante, Lindsey N Kingston, Azadeh Rabiei
BACKGROUND: The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are 8 international development goals voluntarily adopted by 189 nations. The goals included health related aims to reduce the under-five child mortality rate by two-thirds (MDG4), and to reduce the maternal mortality ratio by three-quarters (MDG5). To assess the relationship between the healthcare workforce and MDGs 4-5, we examined the physician workforces of countries around the globe, in terms of the Physician Density Level (PDL, or number of physicians per 1000 population), and compared this rate across a number of years to several indicator variables specified as markers of progress towards MDG4 and MDG5...
July 18, 2017: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718969/child-and-family-related-predictors-of-psychological-outcomes-in-children-adopted-from-abroad-what-is-the-role-of-caregiver-time
#13
Niina Rita, Marko Elovainio, Hanna Raaska, Pekka Lahti-Nuuttila, Jaakko Matomäki, Jari Sinkkonen, Helena Lapinleimu
International adoptees need to cope with stressful transitions and to develop secure attachment with their caregivers at the same time. Although most children adopted from abroad adjust fine, they are at increased risk of psychological problems. We investigated whether both child and family-related factors are associated with later psychological problems and whether the length of time spent at home after adoption before daycare moderates these associations among internationally adopted children in Finland (FinAdo, Finnish Adoption Study)...
August 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715934/-first-1000-days-health-interventions-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-alignment-of-south-african-policies-with-high-quality-evidence
#14
René English, Nazia Peer, Simone Honikman, Aviva Tugendhaft, Karen J Hofman
BACKGROUND: In South Africa (SA), despite adoption of international strategies and approaches, maternal, neonatal and child (MNC) morbidity and mortality rates have not sufficiently declined. OBJECTIVES: To conduct an umbrella review (UR) that identifies interventions in low- and middle-income countries, with a high-quality evidence base, that improve MNC morbidity and mortality outcomes within the first 1000 days of life; and to assess the incorporation of the evidence into local strategies, guidelines and documents...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715919/lived-experiences-of-jordanian-mothers-caring-for-a-child-with-disability
#15
Mohammad S Nazzal, Omar M Al-Rawajfah
PURPOSE: Caring for a child with a disability in the family is associated with a major increase in care-giving demands and burden. This qualitative study explores the perspectives, challenges and adaptations of Jordanian mothers living with a child with disability. METHODS: Phenomenological qualitative tradition was utilized. Seven Jordanian mothers of children with disability were purposefully selected as having rich experiences for caring for a child with a disability...
July 18, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715272/face-to-face-versus-online-behavioral-parent-training-for-young-children-at-risk-for-adhd-treatment-engagement-and-outcomes
#16
George J DuPaul, Lee Kern, Georgia Belk, Beth Custer, Molly Daffner, Andrea Hatfield, Daniel Peek
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with significant challenges in child functioning. Although behavioral parent training (BPT) can reduce ADHD symptoms, factors associated with traditional face-to-face (F2F) delivery results in only about half of families receiving BPT. The purpose of this pilot randomized controlled trial was to examine parent engagement and program acceptability of F2F and online BPT, as well as the efficacy of both formats relative to a waitlist control (WLC) group...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707426/influence-of-neighbourhood-safety-on-childhood-obesity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-longitudinal-studies
#17
REVIEW
R An, Y Yang, A Hoschke, H Xue, Y Wang
Unsafe residential neighbourhoods are thought to be a risk factor for childhood obesity by discouraging physical activity while encouraging sedentary behaviours, but findings from cross-sectional studies are susceptible to selection bias (e.g. children who are obese disproportionately reside in unsafe neighbourhoods). A literature search was conducted in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar for articles published until January 2017 that used baseline neighbourhood safety levels to predict future weight-related behaviours and body-weight status among children aged 17 years and younger...
July 14, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700612/assessing-development-assistance-for-child-survival-between-2000-and-2014-a-multi-sectoral-perspective
#18
Chunling Lu, Annie Chu, Zhihui Li, Jian Shen, Subu Subramanian, Kenneth Hill
BACKGROUND: The majority of Countdown countries did not reach the fourth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 4) on reducing child mortality, despite the fact that donor funding to the health sector has drastically increased. When tracking aid invested in child survival, previous studies have exclusively focused on aid targeting reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH). We take a multi-sectoral approach and extend the estimation to the four sectors that determine child survival: health (RMNCH and non-RMNCH), education, water and sanitation, and food and humanitarian assistance (Food/HA)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700367/open-adoption-placement-by-birth-mothers-in-their-twenties
#19
Lynn B Clutter
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to summarize birth mothers' descriptions of unplanned pregnancy experienced in their twenties and how open adoption influenced their lives. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Naturalistic inquiry was used with purposive sampling from one agency and telephone interviews of women who experienced unplanned pregnancy in their twenties and relinquishment through open adoption. Recorded, transcribed, and deidentified interviews were analyzed for qualitative themes...
July 11, 2017: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697643/parental-perceptions-about-informed-consent-assent-in-pediatric-research-in-jordan
#20
Omar F Khabour, Mahmoud A Alomari, Nihaya A Al-Sheyab
The informed consent/assent process during enrollment in pediatric research is integral to protecting children from possible harm. Here we explored parents' perceptions about the informed consent/assent process in Jordan. Therefore, focus group interviews were conducted that focused on the importance of consent/assent, the quality of the information provided during consent process, and the parents' perceptions toward written/verbal informed consent. Content thematic analysis approach was adopted in the transcription and translation processes of the interviews...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: JERHRE
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