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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346926/microbiota-and-obesity
#1
Erika Isolauri
Obesity is globally the most prevalent nutritional disorder. Multifaceted therapeutic approaches are called for to halt the cascade from neonatal adiposity/high birth weight to childhood excessive weight gain/adult obesity with comorbidities. Recent experimental and clinical data provide one new target for interventions aiming to close this vicious circle: the microbiota. An aberrant gut microbiota, dysbiosis, induces immune and metabolic disturbances both locally and, consequent upon impaired gut barrier function, also systemic low-grade inflammation, which is causally linked to insulin resistance...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344517/economic-evaluation-of-participatory-learning-and-action-with-women-s-groups-facilitated-by-accredited-social-health-activists-to-improve-birth-outcomes-in-rural-eastern-india
#2
Rajesh Kumar Sinha, Hassan Haghparast-Bidgoli, Prasanta Kishore Tripathy, Nirmala Nair, Rajkumar Gope, Shibanand Rath, Audrey Prost
BACKGROUND: Neonatal mortality remains unacceptably high in many low and middle-income countries, including India. A community mobilisation intervention using participatory learning and action with women's groups facilitated by Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) was conducted to improve maternal and newborn health. The intervention was evaluated through a cluster-randomised controlled trial conducted in Jharkhand and Odisha, eastern India. This aims to assess the cost-effectiveness this intervention...
2017: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342580/evidence-based-management-of-chylothorax-in-infants
#3
Joseph T Church, Alexis G Antunez, Ashley Dean, Niki Matusko, Kristopher B Deatrick, Mohammad A Attar, Samir K Gadepalli
PURPOSE: Management guidelines for infants with chylothorax lack substantial evidence. We sought to identify variables that impact outcomes in these patients in order to develop an evidence-based management algorithm. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all infants diagnosed with chylothorax from June 2005 to December 2014 at our institution. Data collected included demographics, chest tube output (CTO), medical and dietary interventions, surgical procedures, and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC)...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341341/the-high-prevalence-of-vitamin-d-insufficiency-in-cord-blood-in-calgary-alberta-apron-d-study
#4
Fariba Aghajafari, Catherine J Field, Bonnie J Kaplan, Jack A Maggiore, Maeve O'Beirne, David A Hanley, Misha Eliasziw, Deborah Dewey, Sue Ross, Doreen Rabi
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D is important in promoting healthy pregnancy and fetal development. We undertook this study to measure 25-hydroxyvitamin D in maternal and cord blood and to identify maternal factors related to vitamin D status in Calgary. METHODS: Blood samples collected at the time of delivery from the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition study cohort (ApronStudy.ca) participants were processed for plasma and assayed using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry methodology for 25(OH)D3...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338487/the-evolution-of-disease-chronic-lung-disease-of-infancy-and-pulmonary-hypertension
#5
Michael C Tracy, David N Cornfield
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or chronic lung disease of infancy BPD was originally described 50 years ago, in 1967 by Northway et al. This article possesses two fundamental objectives to provide: a brief historical perspective on BPD; and an update relative to current notions of epidemiology, pathophysiology, evaluation, and clinical management of BPD complicated by vascular disease. The review highlights areas of consensus and ongoing uncertainty. RECENT FINDINGS: The clinical cause and presentation of infants with BPD has evolved over the past several decades...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337935/a-novel-approach-in-the-treatment-of-neonatal-gastroschisis-a-review-of-the-literature-and-a-single-center-experience
#6
Vito Briganti, Daniela Luvero, Caterina Gulia, Roberto Piergentili, Simona Zaami, Elsa Laura Buffone, Cristina Vallone, Roberto Angioli, Claudio Giorlandino, Fabrizio Signore
Gastroschisis is a congenital abdominal wall defect and its management remains an issue. We performed a review of the literature to summarize its evaluation, management and outcome and we describe a new type of surgical reduction performed in our center without anesthesia (GA), immediately after birth, in the delivery room. Between January 2002 and March 2013, we enrolled all live born infants with gastroschisis referred to the third level Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology "San Camillo" of Rome.Two groups of infants were identified: group 1 in which gastroschis reduction was performed by the traditional technique and group 2 in which reduction was immediately performed after birth in the delivery room without GA...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324898/breathing-and-swallowing-the-next-frontier
#7
Roxann Diez Gross, Marybeth Trapani-Hanasewych
The anatomical overlap of the pathways for air passage and nutrition necessitate precise coordination between the two vital functions. Neuroanatomic structures in the brainstem for sucking, breathing, and swallowing are also in close proximity and must swiftly coordinate the processes. In a healthy neonate, the oropharyngeal experience and stimulation of early feeding enables respiratory control during suckling to develop. Despite wide variability among the methods used to investigate breathing and swallowing coordination in infancy, a consistent finding of postswallow exhalation has been reported...
April 2017: Seminars in Speech and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323667/central-venous-access-in-children-indications-devices-and-risks
#8
Guillermo Ares, Catherine J Hunter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Central venous catheters (CVCs) have a prominent role in the diagnostic and therapy of neonates and children. Herein, we describe the multiple indications for CVC use and the different devices available for central venous access. Given the prevalent use of CVCs, healthcare systems are focused on reducing complications from their use, particularly central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). The most up-to-date information available sheds light on best practices and future areas of investigation...
March 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304321/calcium-chloride-in-neonatal-parenteral-nutrition-a-15-year-experience
#9
R K Huston, J W Kaempf, M Wang, L Wang, Gary L Grunkemeier, Howard S Cohen
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine if outcomes at our neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) since we began using calcium chloride (CaCl2) as our preferred calcium additive in order to reduce aluminum (Al) exposure are within expected outcome ranges for NICUs in the U.S. where calcium gluconate in glass vials (CaGlu-Gl) has been the preferred additive. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study of very low birth weight infants born between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2014...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297186/the-new-obstetrical-dilemma-stunting-obesity-and-the-risk-of-obstructed-labour
#10
Jonathan C K Wells
The "obstetrical dilemma" refers to the tight fit between maternal pelvic dimensions and neonatal size at delivery. Most interest traditionally focused on its generic significance for humans, for example our neonatal altriciality and our complex and lengthy birth process. Across contemporary populations, however, the obstetrical dilemma manifests substantial variability, illustrated by differences in the incidence of cephalo-pelvic disproportion, obstructed labour and cesarean section. Beyond accounting for 12% of maternal mortality worldwide, obstructed labour also imposes a huge burden of maternal morbidity, in particular through debilitating birth injuries...
April 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295577/higher-growth-fat-and-fat-free-masses-correlate-with-larger-cerebellar-volumes-in-preterm-infants-at-term
#11
Giulia Paviotti, Angela De Cunto, Floriana Zennaro, Giulia Boz, Laura Travan, Gabriele Cont, Jenny Bua, Sergio Demarini
AIM: Smaller cerebellar volumes in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants at term have been related to adverse cognitive outcomes and this study evaluated whether these volumes were associated with a growth in body composition during hospital stays. METHODS: We prospectively recruited 42 VLBW infants from an Italian neonatal unit between January 2013 and August 2015. Cerebellar volumes and body composition were measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and air-displacement plethysmography, respectively, at 40 weeks of gestational age and anthropometric and nutritional data were collected...
March 12, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293959/incidence-and-risk-factors-of-postnatal-growth-restriction-in-preterm-infants
#12
Sumru Kavurt, Kıymet Celik
AIM: Preterm infants are often significantly underweight at the time of hospital discharge. Growth impairment during early infancy can have permanent detrimental effects. We aimed to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of postnatal growth restriction (PNGR) in preterm infants. METHODS: This prospective study included 124 preterm infants in neonatal intensive care unit between January 2015 and June 2016. RESULTS: Of 140 preterm infants screened, postnatal growth retardation was detected in 46 babies (36...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289851/withdrawal-of-artificial-nutrition-and-hydration-in-neonatal-intensive-care-parents-and-healthcare-practitioners-views
#13
Véronique Fournier, Elisabeth Belghiti, Laurence Brunet, Marta Spranzi
Withdrawing Artificial Nutrition and Hydration (WANH) in the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) has long been controversial. In France, the practice has become a legal option since 2005. But even though, the question remains as to what the stakeholders' experience is, and whether they consider it ethically appropriate. In order to contribute to the debate, we initiated a study in 2009 to evaluate parental and health care professionals (HCP) perspectives, after they experienced WAHN for a newborn. The study included 25 cases from 5 different clinical neonatology departments...
March 13, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276868/population-based-birth-weight-reference-percentiles-for-chinese-twins
#14
Li Dai, Changfei Deng, Yanhua Li, Ling Yi, Xiaohong Li, Yi Mu, Qi Li, Qiang Yao, Yanping Wang
BACKGROUND: Birth weight percentiles by gestational age are important for assessing prenatal growth and predicting postnatal outcomes of newborns. Several countries have developed nation-specific birth weight references for twins, but China still lacks such references. METHODS AND RESULTS: Birth weight data for twins born between October 2006 and September 2015 were abstracted from the China National Population-based Birth Defects Surveillance System. A total of 54,786 live twin births aged ≥28 weeks of gestation without birth defects were included in the analysis...
February 28, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276106/provocative-ideas-on-human-placental-biology-a-prerequisite-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-neonatal-health-challenges
#15
REVIEW
Shilpi Sehgal, Shinjini Bhatnagar, S K Pallavi
A 2-day invite-only meeting on generating "Provocative Ideas on human placental research" was organized on 1-2 December 2015 at the Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, Faridabad. This meeting was sponsored by Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology, Govt. of India. The objectives of this meeting were the critical evaluation of placental physiology and its development. Special emphasis was placed on understanding the consequences and implications of placental development in sustenance of pregnancy and in pregnancy-associated complications such as preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, and preterm birth...
March 9, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267681/pressure-ulcer-risk-and-prevention-practices-in-pediatric-patients-a-secondary-analysis-of-data-from-the-national-database-of-nursing-quality-indicators%C3%A2
#16
Ivy Razmus, Sandra Bergquist-Beringer
Little is known about pressure ulcer prevention practice among pediatric patients. To describe the frequency of pressure ulcer risk assessment in pediatric patients and pressure ulcer prevention intervention use overall and by hospital unit type, a descriptive secondary analysis was performed of data submitted to the National Database for Nursing Quality Indicators® (NDNQI®) for at least 3 of the 4 quarters in 2012. Relevant data on pressure ulcer risk from 271 hospitals across the United States extracted from the NDNQI database included patient skin and pressure ulcer risk assessment on admission, time since the last pressure ulcer risk assessment, method used to assess pressure ulcer risk, and risk status...
January 2017: Ostomy/wound Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266126/the-outcomes-of-31-cases-of-trisomy-13-diagnosed-in-utero-with-various-management-options
#17
Ken Takahashi, Aiko Sasaki, Seiji Wada, Yuka Wada, Keiko Tsukamoto, Rika Kosaki, Yushi Ito, Haruhiko Sago
There are few reports on the prognosis of prenatally diagnosed trisomy 13 in relation to postnatal management. The aim of this study was to report on the prenatal and postnatal outcomes and postnatal management of trisomy 13 fetuses that were prenatally diagnosed at our center between 2003 and 2015. The data were retrospectively reviewed from medical records. Of the 31 cases of trisomy 13, 12 patients were diagnosed before 22 weeks of gestation, and 19 were diagnosed at or after 22 weeks of gestation. Nine families opted for termination of the pregnancy, 14 fetuses died, and 8 were born alive...
March 7, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266082/dietary-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-supplement-improves-maternal-and-neonatal-treatment-outcome-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-a-double-blind-randomised-controlled-trial
#18
H Zhang, S Su, X Yu, Y Li
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an increasing prevalent health risk in pregnant women. Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG) is known to benefit the insulin secretory machinery. We aimed to investigate the effect of daily dietary EGCG supplementation on both the maternal and neonatal treatment outcomes in GDM-affected pregnancies. METHODS: In total, 472 pregnant women during their third trimester of pregnancy were diagnosed with GDM and subsequently enrolled into this trial...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261667/protein-malnutrition-modifies-innate-immunity-and-gene-expression-by-intestinal-epithelial-cells-and-human-rotavirus-infection-in-neonatal-gnotobiotic-pigs
#19
Anastasia N Vlasova, Francine C Paim, Sukumar Kandasamy, Moyasar A Alhamo, David D Fischer, Stephanie N Langel, Loic Deblais, Anand Kumar, Juliet Chepngeno, Lulu Shao, Huang-Chi Huang, Rosario A Candelero-Rueda, Gireesh Rajashekara, Linda J Saif
Malnutrition affects millions of children in developing countries, compromising immunity and contributing to increased rates of death from infectious diseases. Rotavirus is a major etiological agent of childhood diarrhea in developing countries, where malnutrition is prevalent. However, the interactions between the two and their combined effects on immune and intestinal functions are poorly understood. In this study, we used neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs transplanted with the fecal microbiota of a healthy 2-month-old infant (HIFM) and fed protein-deficient or -sufficient bovine milk diets...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261573/understanding-the-full-spectrum-of-organ-injury-following-intrapartum-asphyxia
#20
REVIEW
Domenic A LaRosa, Stacey J Ellery, David W Walker, Hayley Dickinson
Birth asphyxia is a significant global health problem, responsible for ~1.2 million neonatal deaths each year worldwide. Those who survive often suffer from a range of health issues including brain damage-manifesting as cerebral palsy (CP)-respiratory insufficiency, cardiovascular collapse, and renal dysfunction, to name a few. Although the majority of research is directed toward reducing the brain injury that results from intrapartum birth asphyxia, the multi-organ injury observed in surviving neonates is of equal importance...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
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