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Nutrition neonates

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443921/calcium-chloride-and-calcium-gluconate-in-neonatal-parenteral-nutrition-solutions-without-cysteine-compatibility-studies-using-laser-light-obscuration-methodology
#1
Robert K Huston, J Mark Christensen, Sultan M Alsharhani, Sumeia M Mohamed, Carl F Heisel
There are no compatibility studies for neonatal parenteral nutrition solutions without cysteine containing calcium chloride or calcium gluconate using light obscuration as recommended by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). The purpose of this study was to do compatibility testing for solutions containing calcium chloride and calcium gluconate without cysteine. Solutions of TrophAmine and Premasol (2.5% amino acids), containing calcium chloride or calcium gluconate were compounded without cysteine. Solutions were analyzed for particle counts using light obscuration...
February 14, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442498/proteostasis-and-the-regulation-of-intra-and-extracellular-protein-aggregation-by-atp-independent-molecular-chaperones-lens-%C3%AE-crystallins-and-milk-caseins
#2
John A Carver, Heath Ecroyd, Roger J W Truscott, David C Thorn, Carl Holt
Molecular chaperone proteins perform a diversity of roles inside and outside the cell. One of the most important is the stabilization of misfolding proteins to prevent their aggregation, a process that is potentially detrimental to cell viability. Diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and cataract are characterized by the accumulation of protein aggregates. In vivo, many proteins are metastable and therefore under mild destabilizing conditions have an inherent tendency to misfold, aggregate, and hence lose functionality...
February 14, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440285/nutrient-intake-in-the-first-two-weeks-of-life-and-brain-growth-in-preterm-neonates
#3
Juliane Schneider, Céline J Fischer Fumeaux, Emma G Duerden, Ting Guo, Justin Foong, Myriam Bickle Graz, Patric Hagmann, M Mallar Chakravarty, Petra S Hüppi, Lydie Beauport, Anita C Truttmann, Steven P Miller
BACKGROUND: Optimizing early nutritional intake in preterm neonates may promote brain health and neurodevelopment through enhanced brain maturation. Our objectives were (1) to determine the association of energy and macronutrient intake in the first 2 weeks of life with regional and total brain growth and white matter (WM) maturation, assessed by 3 serial MRI scans in preterm neonates; (2) to examine how critical illness modifies this association; and (3) to investigate the relationship with neurodevelopmental outcomes...
February 13, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439479/zinc-and-skin-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Youichi Ogawa, Manao Kinoshita, Shinji Shimada, Tatsuyoshi Kawamura
The skin is the third most zinc (Zn)-abundant tissue in the body. The skin consists of the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue, and each fraction is composed of various types of cells. Firstly, we review the physiological functions of Zn and Zn transporters in these cells. Several human disorders accompanied with skin manifestations are caused by mutations or dysregulation in Zn transporters; acrodermatitis enteropathica (Zrt-, Irt-like protein (ZIP)4 in the intestinal epithelium and possibly epidermal basal keratinocytes), the spondylocheiro dysplastic form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (ZIP13 in the dermal fibroblasts), transient neonatal Zn deficiency (Zn transporter (ZnT)2 in the secretory vesicles of mammary glands), and epidermodysplasia verruciformis (ZnT1 in the epidermal keratinocytes)...
February 11, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438632/neonatal-nutritional-programming-impairs-adiponectin-effects-on-energy-homeostasis-in-adult-life-of-male-rats
#5
Mariana Peduti Halah, Paula Beatriz Marangon, Jose Antunes-Rodrigues, Lucila L K Elias
Neonatal nutritional changes induce long-lasting effects on energy homeostasis. Adiponectin influences food intake and body weight. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of neonatal nutritional programming on the central stimulation of adiponectin. Male Wistar rats were divided on postnatal (PN) day 3, in litters of 3 (small litter, SL), 10 (normal litter, NL), or 16 pups per dam (large litter, LL). We assessed body weight gain for 60 days, adiponectin concentration and white adipose tissue weight...
February 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438518/obesity-and-high-fat-diet-induce-distinct-changes-in-placental-gene-expression-and-pregnancy-outcome
#6
Erica B Mahany, Xingfa Han, Beatriz C Borges, Sanseray da Silveira Cruz-Machado, Susan J Allen, David Garcia-Galiano, Mark J Hoenerhoff, Nicole H Bellefontaine, Carol F Elias
Obese women are at high risk of pregnancy complications, including preeclampsia, miscarriage, preterm birth, stillbirth and neonatal death. In the present study, we aimed to determine the effects of obesity on pregnancy outcome and placental gene expression in preclinical mouse models of genetic and nutritional obesity. The leptin receptor null reactivatable (LepRloxTB), the LepR deficient (Leprdb/+) and high fat diet (HFD) fed mice were assessed for fertility, pregnancy outcome, placental morphology and placental transcriptome using standard qPCR and qPCR arrays...
February 9, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435722/l-arginine-regulates-protein-turnover-in-porcine-mammary-epithelial-cells-to-enhance-milk-protein-synthesis
#7
Qingquan Ma, Shengdi Hu, Makoto Bannai, Guoyao Wu
Milk is an important food for mammalian neonates, but its insufficient production is a nutritional problem for humans and other animals. Recent studies indicate that dietary supplementation with L-arginine (Arg) increases milk production in mammals, including sows, rabbits, and cows. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. The present study was conducted with porcine mammary epithelial cells (PMECs) to test the hypothesis that Arg enhances milk protein synthesis via activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) cell signaling...
February 12, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429468/-research-advances-in-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-neonates
#8
Xin Gan, Juan Li
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a catastrophic disease caused by a variety of factors in neonates, especially preterm infants. Severe NEC has a high fatality rate, and most survivors may face short- and long-term adverse prognosis. Risk factors for NEC include preterm birth, non-breastfeeding, microbial abnormalities in the digestive tract, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. High-resolution abdominal ultrasound helps with the early diagnosis of NEC. The preventive measures for NEC include protecting the intestinal mucosa through nutritional intervention, interfering with intestinal injury signals, changing intestinal microflora, and performing early minimal enteral nutrition...
February 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426398/corrigendum-to-total-parenteral-nutrition-for-the-very-low-birth-weight-infant-semin-fetal-neonatal-med-2017-22-1-2-7
#9
Pinkal Patel, Jatinder Bhatia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425475/anthropometry-and-body-composition-of-preterm-neonates-in-the-light-of-metabolic-programming
#10
Elisavet Parlapani, Charalampos Agakidis, Thomais Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi
The improved survival of preterm infants has led to increased interest regarding their health as adults. In the context of metabolic programming, the connection between perinatal and early postnatal nutrition and growth with health in later life has brought to the fore the role of catch-up growth during the first months of preterm infants' lives and its association with body fat and obesity in childhood or puberty. A state-of-the art review was conducted in order to assess the way catch-up is evaluated, in terms of timing and rate...
February 9, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419329/understanding-gastroschisis-and-its-clinical-management-where-are-we
#11
Candace Haddock, Erik D Skarsgard
Gastroschisis is the commonest developmental defect of the anterior abdominal wall in both developed and developing countries. The past 30 years have seen transformational improvements in outcome due to advances in neonatal intensive care and enhanced integration between the disciplines of maternal fetal medicine, neonatology and pediatric surgery. A review of gastroschisis, which emphasizes its epidemiology, multidisciplinary care strategies and contemporary outcomes is timely. Areas covered: This review discusses the current state of knowledge related to prevalence and causation, and postulated embryopathologic mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroschisis...
February 8, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417204/the-influence-of-gestational-age-mode-of-delivery-and-abdominal-wall-closure-method-on-the-surgical-outcome-of-neonates-with-uncomplicated-gastroschisis
#12
Maria V Fraga, Pablo Laje, William H Peranteau, Holly L Hedrick, Nahla Khalek, Juliana S Gebb, Julie S Moldenhauer, Mark P Johnson, Alan W Flake, N Scott Adzick
AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate if gestational age (GA), mode of delivery and abdominal wall closure method influence outcomes in uncomplicated gastroschisis (GTC). METHODS: Retrospective review of NICU admissions for gastroschisis, August 2008-July 2016. Primary outcomes were: time to start enteral feeds (on-EF), time to discontinue parenteral nutrition (off-PN), and length of stay (LOS). MAIN RESULTS: A total of 200 patients with GTC were admitted to our NICU...
February 7, 2018: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415837/parenteral-nutrition-associated-cholestasis-and-triglyceridemia-in-surgical-term-and-near-term-neonates-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial-of-two-mixed-intravenous-lipid-emulsions
#13
Luís Pereira-da-Silva, Sara Nóbrega, Maria Luísa Rosa, Marta Alves, Ana Pita, Daniel Virella, Ana Luísa Papoila, Micaela Serelha, Gonçalo Cordeiro-Ferreira, Berthold Koletzko
BACKGROUND: Cholestasis is a common complication in infants receiving prolonged parenteral nutrition (PN). We studied the effects of two intravenous lipid emulsions composed with either 30% soybean oil, 30% medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), 25% olive oil, and 15% fish oil (SMOF) or with 50% MCT and 50% soybean oil n-6 (MCT/SOY) on the incidence of cholestasis in surgical term and near-term neonates. METHODS: A single-center, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial compared the incidence of cholestasis using either SMOF or MCT/SOY in neonates born at gestational age ≥34 weeks undergoing major surgery...
December 2017: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415674/observations-on-the-health-of-infants-at-a-time-of-rapid-societal-change-a-longitudinal-study-from-birth-to-fifteen-months-in-abu-dhabi
#14
Hazel Gardner, Katherine Green, Andrew S Gardner, Donna Geddes
BACKGROUND: Rapid economic and cultural transition in the United Arab Emirates has been accompanied by a rise in chronic disease. Early childhood is known to affect health outcomes in adulthood. This prospective longitudinal study examined the general health of Emirati infants born in a government maternity hospital in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi in October 2002. METHODS: One hundred twenty-five women, who had recently given birth, were interviewed as part of a larger study encompassing a wide range of cultural, social, and behavioural aspects of health...
February 7, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413493/supplementation-of-suckling-rats-with-cow-s-milk-induces-hyperphagia-and-higher-visceral-adiposity-in-females-at-adulthood-but-not-in-males
#15
Vanessa Silva Tavares Rodrigues, Egberto Gaspar Moura, Dayse Nascimento Bernardino, Janaine Cavalcanti Carvalho, Patricia Novaes Soares, Thamara Cherem Peixoto, Nayara Peixoto-Silva, Elaine Oliveira, Patricia Cristina Lisboa
In humans, complementary feeding should be started after 6 months-old; the introduction of any food or water before this time is considered early weaning, which is associated with health problems in adulthood. Cow's milk is a common food introduced to children less than 6 months that has inadequate nutritional composition mainly due to a worse casein: whey protein ratio compared to human milk. We hypothesized that suckling rats fed with cow's milk, rich in bioactive peptides, develop further metabolic dysfunctions...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413487/maternal-protein-restriction-during-lactation-induces-early-and-lasting-plasma-metabolomic-and-hepatic-lipidomic-signatures-of-the-offspring-in-a-rodent-programming-model
#16
Aurore Martin Agnoux, Angélina El Ghaziri, Thomas Moyon, Anthony Pagniez, Agnès David, Gilles Simard, Patricia Parnet, El Mostafa Qannari, Dominique Darmaun, Jean-Philippe Antignac, Marie-Cécile Alexandre-Gouabau
Perinatal undernutrition affects not only fetal and neonatal growth but also adult health outcome, as suggested by the metabolic imprinting concept. However, the exact mechanisms underlying offspring metabolic adaptations are not yet fully understood. Specifically, it remains unclear whether the gestation or the lactation is the more vulnerable period to modify offspring metabolic flexibility. We investigated in a rodent model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) induced by maternal protein restriction (R) during gestation which time window of maternal undernutrition (gestation, lactation or gestation-lactation) has more impact on the male offspring metabolomics phenotype...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412475/review-concludes-that-specific-recommendations-and-stringent-conditions-are-needed-to-harmonise-the-provision-of-fresh-mother-s-milk-to-their-preterm-infants
#17
REVIEW
J C Picaud, R Buffin, G Gremmo-Feger, J Rigo, G Putet, C Casper
AIM: There are no specific recommendations for using a mother's fresh milk for her preterm infant. We reviewed the available evidence on its collection, storage and administration. METHODS: The working group of the French Neonatal Society on fresh human milk use in preterm infants searched the MEDLINE database and Cochrane Library up to June 2017 for papers published in English or French. They specifically analysed 282 papers providing information on prospective, retrospective and clinical studies and examined guidelines from various countries...
February 7, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408912/effect-of-maternal-height-on-caesarean-section-and-neonatal-mortality-rates-in-sub-saharan-africa-an-analysis-of-34-national-datasets
#18
Esther Arendt, Neha S Singh, Oona M R Campbell
RATIONALE: The lifecycle perspective reminds us that the roots of adult ill-health may start in-utero or in early childhood. Nutritional and infectious disease insults in early life, the critical first 1000 days, are associated with stunting in childhood, and subsequent short adult stature. There is limited or no opportunity for stunted children above 2 years of age to experience catch-up growth. Some previous research has shown short maternal height to lead to adverse birth outcomes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407004/breast-milk-is-conditionally-perfect
#19
Miriam Erick
Breast milk is the universal preferred nutrition for the newborn human infant. New mother have been encouraged to exclusively breastfeed by health care professionals and consumer-advocacy forums for years, citing "breast milk is the perfect food". The benefits are numerous and include psychological, convenience, economical, ecological and nutritionally superior. Human milk is a composite of nutritional choices of the mother, commencing in the pre-conceptual era. Events influencing the eventual nutritional profile of breast milk for the neonate start with pre-conceptual dietary habits through pregnancy and finally to postpartum...
February 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406002/mineral-homeostasis-and-effects-on-bone-mineralization-in-the-preterm-neonate
#20
REVIEW
Heidi E Karpen
Most bone formation and mineralization occurs late in gestation. Accretion of adequate minerals is a key element of this process and is often interrupted through preterm birth. In utero, mineral transport is accomplished via active transport across the placenta and does not require fetal hormone input. Postnatal mineral homeostasis requires a balance of actions of parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and vitamin D on target organs. Preterm birth, asphyxia, acidosis, and prolonged parenteral nutrition increase the risk of mineral imbalance and metabolic bone disease (MBD)...
March 2018: Clinics in Perinatology
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