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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651947/transplantation-of-bdnf-gene-recombinant-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-adhesive-peptide-modified-hydrogel-scaffold-for-spinal-cord-repair
#1
Li-Ming Li, Ling-Ling Huang, Xin-Chi Jiang, Jia-Chen Chen, Hong-Wei OuYang, Jian-Qing Gao
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for nerve tissue engineering. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) secreted by MSCs can function to increase neural differentiation and relieve inflammation response. Gene transfection technology is an efficient strategy to increase the secretion levels of cytokines and enhance cellular functions. However, transfection and in vivo gene expression of environmentally sensitive stem cells have been one of the most challenging subjects due to the requirement in both safety and transfection efficiency...
April 13, 2018: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651746/human-neural-stem-progenitor-cells-derived-from-epileptic-human-brain-in-a-self-assembling-peptide-nanoscaffold-improve-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#2
Ali Jahanbazi Jahan-Abad, Sajad Sahab Negah, Hassan Hosseini Ravandi, Sedigheh Ghasemi, Maryam Borhani-Haghighi, Walter Stummer, Ali Gorji, Maryam Khaleghi Ghadiri
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a disruption in the brain functions following a head trauma. Cell therapy may provide a promising treatment for TBI. Among different cell types, human neural stem cells cultured in self-assembling peptide scaffolds have been suggested as a potential novel method for cell replacement treatment after TBI. In the present study, we accessed the effects of human neural stem/progenitor cells (hNS/PCs) derived from epileptic human brain and human adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (hADSCs) seeded in PuraMatrix hydrogel (PM) on brain function after TBI in an animal model of brain injury...
April 12, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649513/neurofeedback-control-of-the-human-gabaergic-system-using-non-invasive-brain-stimulation
#3
Satoko Koganemaru, Yusuke Mikami, Hitoshi Maezawa, Satoshi Ikeda, Katsunori Ikoma, Tatsuya Mima
Neurofeedback has been a powerful method for self-regulating brain activities to elicit potential ability of human mind. GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a tool that can evaluate the GABAergic system within the primary motor cortex (M1) using paired-pulse stimuli, short intracortical inhibition (SICI). Herein we investigated whether neurofeedback learning using SICI enabled us to control the GABAergic system within the M1 area...
April 9, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649413/neural-stem-cells-derived-directly-from-adipose-tissue
#4
Eric David Petersen, Jessica R Zenchak, Olivia V Lossia, Ute Hochgeschwender
Neural stem cells are characterized as self-renewing cell populations with the ability to differentiate into the multiple tissue types of the central nervous system. These cells can differentiate into mature neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. This category of stem cells has been shown to be a promisingly effective treatment for neurodegenerative diseases and neuronal injury. Most treatment studies with neural stem cells in animal models use embryonic brain derived neural stem cells. This approach presents both ethical and feasibility issues for translation to human patients...
March 16, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628911/estimation-of-muscle-force-based-on-neural-drive-in-a-hemispheric-stroke-survivor
#5
Chenyun Dai, Yang Zheng, Xiaogang Hu
Robotic assistant-based therapy holds great promise to improve the functional recovery of stroke survivors. Numerous neural-machine interface techniques have been used to decode the intended movement to control robotic systems for rehabilitation therapies. In this case report, we tested the feasibility of estimating finger extensor muscle forces of a stroke survivor, based on the decoded descending neural drive through population motoneuron discharge timings. Motoneuron discharge events were obtained by decomposing high-density surface electromyogram (sEMG) signals of the finger extensor muscle...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628445/the-telomerase-inhibitor-azt-enhances-differentiation-and-prevents-overgrowth-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neural-progenitors
#6
Yao Hu, Kai-Heng Fang, Lu-Ping Shen, Shi-Ying Cao, Fang Yuan, Yuwen Su, Min Xu, Yaoyu Chen, Yan Liu
Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-based cell-replacement therapy has emerged as a promising approach for addressing numerous neurological diseases. However, hPSC transplantation has the potential to cause human cell overgrowth and cancer, which represents a major obstacle to implementing hPSC-based therapies. Inhibition of the overgrowth of transplanted cells could help reduce the risk for hPSC transplantation-induced tumorigenesis. In this study, we report that the telomerase inhibitor azidothymidine (3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine, AZT) enhances the differentiation of cortical neurons and significantly suppresses the proliferation of hPSC-derived cortical progenitors...
April 8, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628063/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-is-associated-with-enhanced-cognitive-control-network-activity-in-major-depression-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#7
Zhen Yang, Desmond J Oathes, Kristin A Linn, Steven E Bruce, Theodore D Satterthwaite, Philip A Cook, Emma K Satchell, Haochang Shou, Yvette I Sheline
BACKGROUND: Both major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are characterized by depressive symptoms, abnormalities in brain regions important for cognitive control, and response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). However, whether a common neural mechanism underlies CBT response across diagnoses is unknown. METHODS: Brain activity during a cognitive control task was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 104 participants: 28 patients with MDD, 53 patients with PTSD, and 23 healthy control subjects; depression and anxiety symptoms were determined on the same day...
April 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627508/the-cerebellum-in-fear-and-anxiety-related-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Josep Moreno-Rius
Fear and anxiety-related disorders are highly prevalent psychiatric conditions characterized by avoidant and fearful reactions towards specific stimuli or situations, which are disproportionate given the real threat such stimuli entail. These conditions comprise the most common mental disorder group. There are a high proportion of patients who fail to achieve remission and the presence of high relapse rates indicate the therapeutic options available are far from being fully efficient. Despite an increased understanding the neural circuits underlying fear and anxiety-related behaviors in the last decades, a factor that could be partially contributing to the lack of adequate therapies may be an insufficient understanding of the core features of the disorders and their associated neurobiology...
April 5, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627387/predictors-of-nodal-metastases-for-clinical-t2n0-esophageal-adenocarcinoma
#9
Arianna Barbetta, Francisco Schlottmann, Tamar Nobel, David B Sewell, Meier Hsu, Kay See Tan, Hans Gerdes, Pari Shah, Manjit S Bains, Matthew Bott, James M Isbell, David R Jones, Daniela Molena
BACKGROUND: Induction therapy has not been proven to be beneficial for patients with clinical T2N0 esophageal adenocarcinoma. Surgery alone is associated with disappointing survival for patients found to have nodal disease on final pathologic examination. The aim of this study was to identify factors that predict pathologic nodal involvement in patients with endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-proven T2N0 esophageal adenocarcinoma. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients with EUS-staged T2N0 (uT2N0) esophageal adenocarcinoma treated with surgery alone...
April 5, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625618/exposure-to-radial-extracorporeal-shock-waves-modulates-viability-and-gene-expression-of-human-skeletal-muscle-cells-a-controlled-in-vitro-study
#10
Stefan G Mattyasovszky, Eva K Langendorf, Ulrike Ritz, Christoph Schmitz, Irene Schmidtmann, Tobias E Nowak, Daniel Wagner, Alexander Hofmann, Pol M Rommens, Philipp Drees
BACKGROUND: Recent clinical and animal studies have shown that extracorporeal shock wave therapy has a promoting influence on the healing process of musculoskeletal disorders. However, the underlying biological effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy on human skeletal muscle cells have not yet been investigated. METHODS: In this study, we investigated human skeletal muscle cells after exposure to radial extracorporeal shock waves in a standardized in vitro setup...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625530/epicardial-adipose-tissue-and-atrial-fibrillation-pathophysiological-mechanisms-clinical-implications-and-potential-therapies
#11
Christos A Goudis, Ioannis E Vasileiadis, Tong Liu
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in clinical practice and is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) serves as a biologically active organ with important endocrine and inflammatory function. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that EAT is associated with the initiation, perpetuation and recurrence of AF, but the precise role of EAT in AF pathogenesis is not completely elucidated. Pathophysiological mechanisms involve adipocyte infiltration, profibrotic and pro-inflammatory paracrine effects, oxidative stress, neural mechanisms and genetic factors...
April 6, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624790/gene-therapy-for-glut1-deficient-mouse-using-an-adeno-associated-virus-vector-with-the-human-intrinsic-glut1-promoter
#12
Sachie Nakamura, Shin-Ichi Muramatsu, Naomi Takino, Mika Ito, Eriko F Jimbo, Kuniko Shimazaki, Tatsushi Onaka, Sumio Ohtsuki, Tetsuya Terasaki, Takanori Yamagata, Hitoshi Osaka
BACKGROUND: We generated an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector in which the human SLC2A1 gene, encoding glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1), was expressed under the human endogenous GLUT1 promoter (AAV-GLUT1). We examined whether AAV-GLUT1 administration could lead to functional improvement in GLUT1-deficient mice. METHODS: We extrapolated human endogenous GLUT1 promoter sequences from rat minimal Glut1 promoter sequences. We generated a tyrosine-mutant AAV9/3 vector in which human SLC2A1-myc-DDK was expressed under the human GLUT1 promoter (AAV-GLUT1)...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Gene Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621691/stem-cells-and-regenerative-medicine-for-neural-repair
#13
REVIEW
Jun Takahashi
Clinical trials of cell-based therapies that use pluripotent stem cells (PSC) have already started for several neurological diseases including spinal cord injury and age-related macular degeneration. Regarding future PSC-based clinical trials for other neurological diseases, these trials have been instrumental at recognizing first, the difference between research cell lines and clinical cell lines of a stem cell product, second, the selection of an appropriate animal model for pre-clinical study, third, criteria and the quality control of donor cells, and fourth, the mode of action of the grafts...
April 2, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620288/differentiation-of-genetically-modified-canine-bone-mesenchymal-stem-cells-labeled-with-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-into-neural%C3%A2-like-cells
#14
Xing-Long Liu, Qing-Quan Zu, Bin Wang, Shan-Shan Lu, Xiao-Quan Xu, Sheng Liu, Hai-Bin Shi
The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been reported to improve outcomes in various types of nervous system diseases, primarily based on their neural regenerative differentiation ability and paracrine effect on different neuroprotective cytokines. Genetically modified MSCs may enhance the paracrine effect and may further improve the cell‑based therapeutic outcome of nervous system diseases. Magnetic resonance imaging has been used to monitor distribution and migration of cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles...
April 5, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618966/integration-of-nanobots-into-neural-circuits-as-a-future-therapy-for-treating-neurodegenerative-disorders
#15
Arthur Saniotis, Maciej Henneberg, Abdul-Rahman Sawalma
Recent neuroscientific research demonstrates that the human brain is becoming altered by technological devices. Improvements in biotechnologies and computer based technologies are now increasing the likelihood for the development of brain augmentation devices in the next 20 years. We have developed the idea of an "Endomyccorhizae like interface" (ELI) nanocognitive device as a new kind of future neuroprosthetic which aims to facilitate neuronal network properties in individuals with neurodegenerative disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615940/impact-of-cognitive-remediation-therapy-on-neurocognitive-processing-in-anorexia-nervosa
#16
Jenni Leppanen, James Adamson, Kate Tchanturia
Background: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by severe malnutrition as well as inefficiencies in neurocognitive functioning, which are believed to contribute to the maintenance of disordered eating. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of individual cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) on neurocognition in AN. Methods: A total of 145 adult women from an eating disorders inpatient program took part in the present study. All participants were given individual CRT in addition to treatment as usual...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611142/combined-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-and-virtual-reality-based-paradigm-for-upper-limb-rehabilitation-in-individuals-with-restricted-movements-a-feasibility-study-with-a-chronic-stroke-survivor-with-severe-hemiparesis
#17
María Antonia Fuentes, Adrián Borrego, Jorge Latorre, Carolina Colomer, Mariano Alcañiz, María José Sánchez-Ledesma, Enrique Noé, Roberto Llorens
Impairments of the upper limb function are a major cause of disability and rehabilitation. Most of the available therapeutic options are based on active exercises and on motor and attentional inclusion of the affected arm in task oriented movements. However, active movements may not be possible after severe impairment of the upper limbs. Different techniques, such as mirror therapy, motor imagery, and non-invasive brain stimulation have been shown to elicit cortical activity in absence of movements, which could be used to preserve the available neural circuits and promote motor learning...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608426/identification-of-hub-genes-and-pathways-in-zika-virus-infection-using-rna-seq-data-a-network-based-computational-approach
#18
Rahul Brahma, Sanathoi Gurumayum, Leimarembi Devi Naorem, Mathavan Muthaiyan, Jeyakodi Gopal, Amouda Venkatesan
Zika virus (ZIKV), a single-strand RNA flavivirus, is transmitted primarily through Aedes aegypti. The recent outbreaks in America and unexpected association between ZIKV infection and birth defects have triggered the global attention. This vouches to understand the molecular mechanisms of ZIKV infection to develop effective drug therapy. A systems-level understanding of biological process affected by ZIKV infection in fetal brain sample led us to identify the candidate genes for pharmaceutical intervention and potential biomarkers for diagnosis...
April 2, 2018: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607495/acupuncture-for-acute-stroke
#19
REVIEW
Mangmang Xu, Dan Li, Shihong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Sensory stimulation via acupuncture has been reported to alter activities of numerous neural systems by activating multiple efferent pathways. Acupuncture, one of the main physical therapies in Traditional Chinese Medicine, has been widely used to treat patients with stroke for over hundreds of years. This is the first update of the Cochrane Review originally published in 2005. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether acupuncture could reduce the proportion of people with death or dependency, while improving quality of life, after acute ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke...
March 30, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605259/gene-expression-profiling-coupled-with-connectivity-map-database-mining-reveals-potential-therapeutic-drugs-for-hirschsprung-disease
#20
Shang-Jie Xiao, Xiao-Chun Zhu, Hua Deng, Wei-Ping Zhou, Wen-Yi Yang, Li-Ke Yuan, Jiang-Yu Zhang, Song Tian, Lu Xu, Liang Zhang, Hui-Min Xia
BACKGROUND: Hirschsprung disease (HD) is a congenital intestinal anomaly resulting from a failure to form enteric ganglia in the lower bowel. Surgery is the main therapeutic strategy, although neural stem cell transplantation has recently shown promise. However, HD remains a challenging disorder to treat. Our aim was to identify drugs that could counteract the dysregulated pathways in HD and could thus be potential novel therapies. METHODS: We used microarray analysis to identify genes differentially expressed in ganglionic and aganglionic bowel samples from eight children with HD...
March 4, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
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