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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036457/feasibility-evaluation-of-long-term-use-of-beta-blockers-and-calcium-antagonists-in-patients-with-brugada-syndrome
#1
Tsukasa Kamakura, Mitsuru Wada, Kohei Ishibashi, Yuko Y Inoue, Koji Miyamoto, Hideo Okamura, Satoshi Nagase, Takashi Noda, Takeshi Aiba, Satoshi Yasuda, Wataru Shimizu, Shiro Kamakura, Kengo Kusano
Aims: Beta-blockers (BBs) and calcium antagonists (CAs) are reported to aggravate ST-segment elevation in some patients with Brugada syndrome (BrS). The feasibility of their long-term use in BrS still remains unknown. We investigated the safety of long-term use of BB and CA in BrS patients. Methods and results: Of the 360 consecutive BrS patients, 29 [5: a history of ventricular fibrillation (VF), 17: syncope, 7: asymptomatic] took BB and/or CA (BB: 22, CA: 8) for more than 1 year for the treatment of co-morbidities such as atrial tachyarrhythmia, vasospastic angina, and neurally mediated syncope...
September 23, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035086/notch-signaling-is-essential-for-maturation-self-renewal-and-tri-differentiation-of-in-vitro-derived-human-neural-stem-cells
#2
Katari Venkatesh, L Vinod Kumar Reddy, Salar Abbas, Madhubanti Mullick, Erfath Thanjeem Begum Moghal, Janardhana Papayya Balakrishna, Dwaipayan Sen
Although neural stem cells (NSCs) have potential applications in treating neurological disorders, much still needs to be understood about the differentiation biology for their successful clinical translation. In this study, we aimed at deriving NSCs from human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) and explored the role of Notch signaling in the differentiation process. The hUCB-MSCs were characterized as per guidelines of the International Society of Cellular Therapy. NSCs were successfully generated from hUCB-MSCs by using epidermal and fibroblast growth factors under serum-free conditions...
October 16, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033804/second-language-word-learning-through-repetition-and-imitation-functional-networks-as-a-function-of-learning-phase-and-language-distance
#3
Ladan Ghazi-Saidi, Ana Ines Ansaldo
Introduction and Aim: Repetition and imitation are among the oldest second language (L2) teaching approaches and are frequently used in the context of L2 learning and language therapy, despite some heavy criticism. Current neuroimaging techniques allow the neural mechanisms underlying repetition and imitation to be examined. This fMRI study examines the influence of verbal repetition and imitation on network configuration. Integration changes within and between the cognitive control and language networks were studied, in a pair of linguistically close languages (Spanish and French), and compared to our previous work on a distant language pair (Ghazi-Saidi et al...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033307/neurog1-regulates-cdk2-to-promote-proliferation-in-otic-progenitors
#4
Zhichao Song, Azadeh Jadali, Bernd Fritzsch, Kelvin Y Kwan
Loss of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) significantly contributes to hearing loss. Otic progenitor cell transplantation is a potential strategy to replace lost SGNs. Understanding how key transcription factors promote SGN differentiation in otic progenitors accelerates efforts for replacement therapies. A pro-neural transcription factor, Neurogenin1 (Neurog1), is essential for SGN development. Using an immortalized multipotent otic progenitor (iMOP) cell line that can self-renew and differentiate into otic neurons, NEUROG1 was enriched at the promoter of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) and neurogenic differentiation 1 (NeuroD1) genes...
October 11, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033030/how-to-use-stem-cells-for-repair-in-stroke-patients
#5
REVIEW
O Detante, C Rome, J Papassin
Regenerative cell therapy is a promising therapeutic strategy in neurology, most notably to improve stroke recovery. Although tolerability and feasibility have apparently been validated, many questions remain as to what is the best type of cells to use, the best route and the post-stroke delay for administration. Two main strategies have currently emerged: intravenous injection of mesenchymal stem cells with systemic trophic support; and intracerebral grafting of neural stem cells with brain repair effects at the lesion site...
October 12, 2017: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031874/an-update-on-the-physiopathology-and-therapeutic-management-of-cholestatic-pruritus-in-children
#6
A Thébaut, D Debray, E Gonzales
Pruritus is a disabling symptom accompanying chronic cholestasis. In extreme cases, the refractory nature of pruritus can result in a need for invasive therapies including liver transplantation. The pathogenesis of pruritus in cholestatic disease is poorly understood. It may involve a specific neural pathway (similar to that associated with pain) regulated by several pruritogenic substances such as bile acids, opioids, serotonin, and the more recently identified lysophosphatidic acid. While the therapeutic management of cholestatic pruritus is well established in adults, there is no consensus in children, in light of the difficulty of conducting controlled clinical studies...
October 11, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031791/biofeedback-in-dysphonia-progress-and-challenges
#7
Geová Oliveira de Amorim, Patrícia Maria Mendes Balata, Laís Guimarães Vieira, Thaís Moura, Hilton Justino da Silva
INTRODUCTION: There is evidence that all the complex machinery involved in speech acts along with the auditory system, and their adjustments can be altered. OBJECTIVE: To present the evidence of biofeedback application for treatment of vocal disorders, emphasizing the muscle tension dysphonia. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted in Scielo, Lilacs, PubMed and Web of Sciences databases, using the combination of descriptors, and admitting as inclusion criteria: articles published in journals with editorial committee, reporting cases or experimental or quasi-experimental research on the use of biofeedback in real time as additional source of treatment monitoring of muscle tension dysphonia or for vocal training...
August 19, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031500/transcription-and-signaling-regulators-in-developing-neuronal-subtypes-of-mouse-and-human-enteric-nervous-system
#8
Fatima Memic, Viktoria Knoflach, Khomgrit Morarach, Rebecca Sadler, Catia Laranjeira, Jens Hjerling-Leffler, Erik Sundström, Vassilis Pachnis, Ulrika Marklund
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The enteric nervous system (ENS) regulates gastrointestinal function via different subtypes of neurons, organized into fine-tuned neural circuits. It is not clear how cell diversity is created within the embryonic ENS-information required for development of cell-based therapies and models of enteric neuropathies. We aimed to identify proteins that regulate ENS differentiation and network formation. METHODS: We generated and compared RNA expression profiles of the entire ENS, ENS progenitor cells, and non-ENS gut cells of mice, collected at embryonic days 11...
October 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031245/decrease-in-cavity-size-and-oligodendrocyte-cell-death-using-neurosphere-derived-oligodendrocyte-like-cells-in-spinal-cord-contusion-model
#9
Hojjat Allah Abbaszadeh, Taki Tiraihi, Yousef Sadeghi, Ali Reza Delshad, Majid Sadeghizadeh, Taher Taheri, Ali Noori-Zadeh
Background: Oligodendrocyte cell death is among the important features of spinal cord injury, which appears within 15 min and occurs intensely for 4 h after injury, in the rat spinal contusion model. Accordingly, the number of oligodendrocytes is progressively reduced within 24 h after injury. Administration of oligodendrocyte-like cells (OLCs) into the lesion area is one of the approaches to counterbalance this condition. Methods: Bone marrow stromal cells were transdifferentiated into neurospheres and then into neural stem cells and later were differentiated into OLCs using triiodothyronine and transplanted into the spinal cord contusion rats...
October 15, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027617/zebrafish-as-a-model-to-study-neuroblastoma-development
#10
REVIEW
Mattie J Casey, Rodney A Stewart
Neuroblastoma is a pediatric solid tumor arising from embryonic neural crest progenitor cells that normally generate the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. As such, the location of neuroblastoma tumors is correlated with the distribution of major post-ganglionic clusters throughout the sympathetic chain, with the highest incidence in the adrenal medulla or lumbar sympathetic ganglia (~65%). Neuroblastoma is an enigmatic tumor that can spontaneously regress with minimal treatment or become highly metastatic and develop resistance to aggressive treatments, including radiation and high-dose chemotherapy...
October 13, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026460/stem-cell-therapy-for-nerve-injury
#11
REVIEW
Sara Sayad Fathi, Arash Zaminy
Peripheral nerve injury has remained a substantial clinical complication with no satisfactory treatment options. Despite the great development in the field of microsurgery, some severe types of neural injuries cannot be treated without causing tension to the injured nerve. Thus, current studies have focused on the new approaches for the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries. Stem cells with the ability to differentiate into a variety of cell types have brought a new perspective to this matter. In this review, we will discuss the use of three main sources of mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries...
September 26, 2017: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026201/dual-contribution-of-trpv4-antagonism-in-the-regulatory-effect-of-vasoinhibins-on-blood-retinal-barrier-permeability-diabetic-milieu-makes-a-difference
#12
David Arredondo Zamarripa, Ramsés Noguez Imm, Ana María Bautista Cortés, Osvaldo Vázquez Ruíz, Michela Bernardini, Alessandra Fiorio Pla, Dimitra Gkika, Natalia Prevarskaya, Fernando López-Casillas, Wolfgang Liedtke, Carmen Clapp, Stéphanie Thébault
Breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB), as occurs in diabetic retinopathy and other chronic retinal diseases, results in vasogenic edema and neural tissue damage, causing vision loss. Vasoinhibins are N-terminal fragments of prolactin that prevent BRB breakdown during diabetes. They modulate the expression of some transient receptor potential (TRP) family members, yet their role in regulating the TRP vanilloid subtype 4 (TRPV4) remains unknown. TRPV4 is a calcium-permeable channel involved in barrier permeability, which blockade has been shown to prevent and resolve pulmonary edema...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023717/recovery-from-the-anatomical-effects-of-long-term-monocular-deprivation-in-cat-lateral-geniculate-nucleus
#13
Kevin R Duffy, Ming-Fai Fong, Donald E Mitchell, Mark F Bear
Monocular deprivation (MD) imposed early in postnatal life elicits profound structural and functional abnormalities throughout the primary visual pathway. The ability of MD to modify neurons within the visual system is restricted to a so-called critical period that, for cats, peaks at about one postnatal month and declines thereafter so that by about 3 months of age MD has little effect. Recovery from the consequences of MD likewise adheres to a critical period that ends by about 3 months of age, after which the effects of deprivation are thought to be permanent and without capacity for reversal...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022921/current-progress-in-the-derivation-and-therapeutic-application-of-neural-stem-cells
#14
REVIEW
Yuewen Tang, Pei Yu, Lin Cheng
Neural stem cells (NSCs) have a unique role in neural regeneration. Cell therapy based on NSC transplantation is a promising tool for the treatment of nervous system diseases. However, there are still many issues and controversies associated with the derivation and therapeutic application of these cells. In this review, we summarize the different sources of NSCs and their derivation methods, including direct isolation from primary tissues, differentiation from pluripotent stem cells and transdifferentiation from somatic cells...
October 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017306/solitary-osteochondroma-presenting-as-a-dumbbell-tumor-compressing-the-cervical-spinal-cord
#15
Ju Hyung Lee, Sung Han Oh, Pyung Goo Cho, Eun Mi Han, Je Beom Hong
We report a case of a solitary osteochondroma as a dumbbell tumor compressing the spinal cord and its surgical strategy. The patient is a 16-year-old female with longstanding posterior neck pain and left arm abduction weakness. She was examined by plain X-ray, three-dimensional-computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and vertebral angiography. The analyses indicated a calcified extradural mass compressing the cord in the C3-4 portion extending into the neural and vertebral foramen with eroded vertebral body...
September 2017: Korean Journal of Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994665/combining-deep-learning-with-anatomy-analysis-for-segmentation-of-portal-vein-for-liver-sbrt-planning
#16
Bulat Ibragimov, Diego Toesca, Daniel Chang, Albert Koong, Lei Xing
Automated segmentation of portal vein (PV) for liver radiotherapy planning is a challenging task due to potentially low vasculature contrast, complex PV anatomy and image artifacts originated from fiducial markers and vasculature stents. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for automated PV segmentation from computed tomography (CT) images. We apply convolutional neural networks (CNN) to learn consistent appearance patterns of PV using a training set of CT images with reference annotations and then enhance PV in previously unseen CT images...
October 10, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994459/neural-network-dose-models-for-knowledge-based-planning-in-pancreatic-sbrt
#17
Warren G Campbell, Moyed Miften, Lindsey Olsen, Priscilla Stumpf, Tracey Schefter, Karyn A Goodman, Bernard L Jones
PURPOSE: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for pancreatic cancer requires a skillful approach to deliver ablative doses to the tumor while limiting dose to the highly sensitive duodenum, stomach, and small bowel. Here, we develop knowledge-based artificial neural network dose models (ANN-DMs) to predict dose distributions that would be approved by experienced physicians. METHODS: Arc-based SBRT treatment plans for 43 pancreatic cancer patients were planned, delivering 30-33 Gy in five fractions...
October 10, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993834/ipsc-derived-neural-precursor-cells-potential-for-cell-transplantation-therapy-in-spinal-cord-injury
#18
REVIEW
Narihito Nagoshi, Hideyuki Okano
A number of studies have demonstrated that transplantation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the NPCs had been mostly harvested from embryonic stem cells or fetal tissue, raising the ethical concern. Yamanaka and his colleagues established induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) which could be generated from somatic cells, and this innovative development has made rapid progression in the field of SCI regeneration. We and other groups succeeded in producing NPCs from iPSCs, and demonstrated beneficial effects after transplantation for animal models of SCI...
October 9, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993773/targeting-malignant-brain-tumors-with-antibodies
#19
REVIEW
Rok Razpotnik, Neža Novak, Vladka Čurin Šerbec, Uros Rajcevic
Antibodies have been shown to be a potent therapeutic tool. However, their use for targeting brain diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases and brain cancers, has been limited, particularly because the blood-brain barrier (BBB) makes brain tissue hard to access by conventional antibody-targeting strategies. In this review, we summarize new antibody therapeutic approaches to target brain tumors, especially malignant gliomas, as well as their potential drawbacks. Many different brain delivery platforms for antibodies have been studied such as liposomes, nanoparticle-based systems, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), and cell-based approaches...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991262/ndpka-is-not-just-a-metastasis-suppressor-be-aware-of-its-metastasis-promoting-role-in-neuroblastoma
#20
Choon-Yee Tan, Christina L Chang
NDPK-A, encoded by nm23-H1 (also known as NME1) was the first metastasis suppressor discovered. Much of the attention has been focused on the metastasis-suppressing role of NDPK-A in human tumors, including breast carcinoma and melanoma. However, compelling evidence points to a metastasis-promoting role of NDPK-A in certain tumors such as neuroblastoma and lymphoma. To balance attention on this contrariety of NDPK-A in different cancer types, this review addresses the metastasis-promoting role of NDPK-A in neuroblastoma...
October 9, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
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