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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208663/endoplasmic-reticulum-er-stress-and-endocrine-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Daisuke Ariyasu, Hiderou Yoshida, Yukihiro Hasegawa
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the "unfolded protein response" (UPR), which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress...
February 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193628/management-of-endocrine-disease-neuroendocrine-surveillance-and-management-of-neurosurgical-patients-non-pituitary
#2
Aoife Garrahy, Mark Sherlock, Chris J Thompson
Advances in the management of traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid haemorrhage and intracranial tumours have led to improved survival rates and an increased focus on quality of life of survivors. Endocrine sequelae of the acute brain insult and subsequent neurosurgery, peri-operative fluid administration and/or cranial irradiation are now well described. Unrecognized acute hypopituitarism, particularly ACTH/cortisol deficiency and diabetes insipidus, can be life-threatening. While hypopituitarism may be transient, up to 30% of survivors of TBI have chronic hypopituitarism, which can diminish quality of life and hamper rehabilitation...
February 13, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190613/therapeutics-for-equine-endocrine-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Andy E Durham
Equine endocrine disease is commonly encountered by equine practitioners. Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) and equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) predominate. The most logical therapeutic approach in PPID uses dopamine agonists; pergolide mesylate is the most common. Bromocryptine and cabergoline are alternative drugs with similar actions. Drugs from other classes have a poor evidence basis, although cyproheptadine and trilostane might be considered. EMS requires management changes as the primary approach; reasonable justification for use of drugs such as levothyroxine and metformin may apply...
February 9, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183578/a-case-of-central-diabetes-insipidus-after-ketamine-infusion-during-an-external-to-internal-carotid-artery-bypass
#4
Sharib Gaffar, Jonathan P Eskander, Burton D Beakley, Brian P McClure, Peter Amenta, Nakeisha Pierre
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We report the first teenage case of ketamine-induced transient central diabetes insipidus. CASE SUMMARY: The patient was an 18-year-old woman with moyamoya disease undergoing an external carotid to internal carotid bypass and given a low-dose ketamine infusion. After approximately 2 hours in the supine position, with 0.5 Minimum Alveolar Concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane, a propofol infusion at 50 μg/kg/min, a remifentanil infusion at 0.5 μg/kg/min, and a ketamine infusion at a dose of 10 μg/kg/min, this patient had an excessive urine output...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168619/pure-endoscopic-management-of-epileptogenic-hypothalamic-hamartomas
#5
S Chibbaro, H Cebula, J Scholly, J Todeschi, I Ollivier, A Timofeev, M Ganau, P Di Emidio, M P Valenti, A M Staack, T Bast, B J Steinhoff, E Hirsch, P Kehrli, F Proust
Hypothalamic hamartomas (HH) are rare congenital malformations located in the region of the tuber cinereum and third ventricle. Their usual clinical presentation is characterized by gelastic/dacrystic seizures which often become pharmaco-resistant and progress to secondary focal/generalized intractable epilepsy causing mostly in children cognitive and behavioral problems (particularly in cases of progressive epileptic encephalopathy) and precocious puberty. Whereas gelastic seizures can be surgically controlled either by resection of the lesion or disconnection (tissue-destructive) procedures, aimed at functionally prevent the spreading of the epileptic burst; generalized seizures tend to respond better to HH excision rather than isolated neocortical resections, which generally fail to control them...
February 7, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153622/case-report-of-a-primary-pituitary-abscess-and-systematic-literature-review-of-pituitary-abscess-with-a-focus-on-patient-outcomes
#6
REVIEW
Justice O Agyei, Lindsay J Lipinski, Jody Leonardo
BACKGROUND: Pituitary abscess is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition with an incidence of 0.2-1.1% of operative pituitary lesions. Diagnosis can be challenging, as this disorder shares many similarities with other pituitary lesions in terms of symptomatology and radiographic findings. Most pituitary abscesses are categorized as secondary, arising from pre-existing pituitary lesions or in conjunction with transsphenoidal surgery, sepsis, meningitis, or sinusitis. To date, there have been only a handful of reports of primary pituitary abscess, which occurs without any of the aforementioned risk factors...
January 30, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153615/clinical-predictors-of-diabetes-insipidus-after-transcranial-surgery-for-pituitary-adenoma
#7
Songquan Wang, Deling Li, Ming Ni, Wang Jia, Qing Zhang, Jue He, Guijun Jia
OBJECTIVE: Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a well-known complication of transsphenoidal pituitary adenoma surgery. However, the risk factors for DI after transcranial surgery have not been clarified. In this study, the clinical parameters for predicting DI after transcranial surgery were investigated. METHOD: The perioperative records of 90 patients who underwent transcranial (TC) surgery at the authors' institution between November 2011 and March 2013 were chosen from 1657 pituitary adenoma patients and retrospectively analyzed...
January 30, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139295/hypercalcemia-induces-targeted-autophagic-degradation-of-aquaporin-2-at-the-onset-of-nephrogenic-diabetes-insipidus
#8
Sookkasem Khositseth, Komgrid Charngkaew, Chatikorn Boonkrai, Poorichaya Somparn, Panapat Uawithya, Nusara Chomanee, D Michael Payne, Robert A Fenton, Trairak Pisitkun
Hypercalcemia can cause renal dysfunction such as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), but the mechanisms underlying hypercalcemia-induced NDI are not well understood. To elucidate the early molecular changes responsible for this disorder, we employed mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) isolated from parathyroid hormone-treated rats at onset of hypercalcemia-induced NDI. Forty-one proteins, including the water channel aquaporin-2, exhibited significant changes in abundance, most of which were decreased...
January 27, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134709/nephrogenic-diabetes-insipidus
#9
D Bockenhauer, Daniel G Bichet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), the kidney is unable to concentrate urine despite elevated concentrations of the antidiuretic hormone arginine-vasopressin. In congenital NDI, polyuria and polydipsia are present from birth and should be immediately recognized to avoid severe episodes of dehydration. Unfortunately, NDI is still often recognized late after a 'diagnostic odyssey' involving false leads and dangerous treatments.Once diagnosed, appropriate treatment can be started...
January 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133694/spontaneous-intracranial-hemorrhage-in-a-patient-with-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-corona-virus
#10
Fahad M Al-Hameed
The Middle East respiratory syndrome corona virus (MERS-CoV) is a novel positive sense singlestranded ribonucleic acid virus of the genus Beta corona virus. This virus was first isolated from a patient who died from severe respiratory illness in June 2012 in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We describe an unusual case of a 42 year old healthcare worker who was admitted to our Intensive Care Unit (ICU)King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, with MERS-CoV and severe acute respiratory distress Syndrome and developed a sudden-onset diabetes insipidus and spontaneous massive intracranial hemorrhage with intra-ventricular extension and tonsillar herniation...
February 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127476/vasopressin-bolus-protocol-compared-to-desmopressin-ddavp-for-managing-acute-postoperative-central-diabetes-insipidus-and-hypovolemic-shock
#11
Anukrati Shukla, Syeda Alqadri, Ashley Ausmus, Robert Bell, Premkumar Nattanmai, Christopher R Newey
Introduction. Management of postoperative central diabetes insipidus (DI) can be challenging from changes in volume status and serum sodium levels. We report a case successfully using a dilute vasopressin bolus protocol in managing hypovolemic shock in acute, postoperative, central DI. Case Report. Patient presented after bifrontal decompressive craniotomy for severe traumatic brain injury. He developed increased urine output resulting in hypovolemia and hypernatremia. He was resuscitated with intravenous fluids including a dilute vasopressin bolus protocol...
2017: Case Reports in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123549/factors-related-to-endocrine-changes-and-hormone-substitution-treatment-during-pre-and-post-operation-stages-in-craniopharyngioma
#12
Fenglei Sun, Xintang Sun, Xiaolong Du, Hongshun Xing, Bin Yang
Factors related to endocrine changes and hormone substitution treatment during pre- and post-operation periods in craniopharyngioma cases were examined. Twenty patients who underwent tumor resection from January 2012 to January 2015 were included in the study. We monitored factors related to endocrine changes and hormone substitution treatment during pre- and post-operation periods. Blood thyroid-stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and cortisol levels were measured in the patients...
January 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122547/amyloid-like-aggregation-of-provasopressin-in-diabetes-insipidus-and-secretory-granule-sorting
#13
Nicole Beuret, Franziska Hasler, Cristina Prescianotto-Baschong, Julia Birk, Jonas Rutishauser, Martin Spiess
BACKGROUND: Aggregation of peptide hormone precursors in the trans-Golgi network is an essential process in the biogenesis of secretory granules in endocrine cells. It has recently been proposed that this aggregation corresponds to the formation of functional amyloids. Our previous finding that dominant mutations in provasopressin, which cause cell degeneration and diabetes insipidus, prevent native folding and produce fibrillar aggregates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) might thus reflect mislocalized amyloid formation by sequences that evolved to mediate granule sorting...
January 26, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120772/an-unusual-pituitary-stalk-lesion-what-is-the-place-of-surgery
#14
J Todeschi, S Chibbaro, J-B Clavier, B Lhermitte, B Goichot, F Proust
BACKGROUND: Sellar and suprasellar primary melanocytic tumors are exceptional occurrences. Besides the difficulty of differential diagnosis between a primary and secondary lesion, treatment of these pathologies is still unclear and controversial. CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a 36-year-old woman with no relevant previous medical history who presented with 1 month history of diabetes insipidus, blurred vision and generalized weakness; a brain MRI disclosed an atypical pituitary stalk lesion; initially the tumor was biopsied through an endonasal endoscopic approach that revealed a melanocytic tumor; the patient was afterwards managed by a second stage extended endonasal endoscopic approach achieving a subtotal tumor removal...
December 2016: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114247/neuroendocrine-dysfunction-in-a-young-athlete-with-concussion-a-case-report
#15
David M Langelier, Gregory A Kline, Chantel T Debert
An 18-year-old female ringette and basketball player presented to our sport concussion clinic 27 months after concussion with fatigue, headache, exercise intolerance, polyuria, nocturia, and difficulties concentrating. Her history was remarkable for 4 previous concussions. Her neurologic examination was normal. Neuroendocrine screen including thyroid function, morning cortisol, glucose, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (screening test for growth hormone deficiency) were normal. Further testing for growth hormone deficiency with an insulin hypoglycemia test revealed severe growth hormone deficiency...
January 20, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108651/roflumilast-and-aquaporin-2-regulation-in-rat-renal-inner-medullary-collecting-duct
#16
Ezigbobiara N Umejiego, Yanhua Wang, Mark A Knepper, Chung-Lin Chou
Roflumilast is a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor that is FDA-approved for treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. With a view toward possible use for treatment of patients with X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) due to hemizygous mutations in the V2 vasopressin receptor, this study sought to determine the effect of roflumilast on aquaporin-2 (AQP2) phosphorylation, AQP2 trafficking, and water permeability in the rat inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD). In the presence of the vasopressin analog dDAVP (0...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104521/endoscopic-versus-microscopic-transsphenoidal-surgery-in-the-treatment-of-pituitary-adenoma-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Aijun Li, Weisheng Liu, Peicheng Cao, Yuehua Zheng, Zhenfu Bu, Tao Zhou
BACKGROUND: Inconsistent findings have been reported regarding the efficacy and safety of endoscopic and microscopic transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenoma. This study aimed to assess the benefits and shortcomings of these surgical methods in patients with pituitary adenoma. METHODS: The electronic databases PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched, as well as proceedings of major meetings. Eligible studies with retrospective or prospective design that evaluated endoscopic versus microscopic methods in patients with pituitary adenoma were included...
January 16, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095294/a-novel-slc12a1-gene-mutation-associated-with-hyperparathyroidism-hypercalcemia-nephrogenic-diabetes-insipidus-and-nephrocalcinosis-in-four-patients
#18
Sariya Wongsaengsak, Alaina P Vidmar, Ananta Addala, Elaine S Kamil, Paola Sequeira, Benjamin Fass, Pisit Pitukcheewanont
Solute Carrier Family 12 member 1 (SLC12A1) gene encodes the sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter (NKCC2) at the apical membrane of the thick ascending loop of Henle (TAL). Bartter's syndrome (BS) type I is a rare, autosomal recessive, renal tubular disorder associated with mutation of the SLC12A1 gene. Presenting features include: hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. The many allelic variants reported present with a spectrum of phenotypes, biochemical abnormalities and clinical severities...
January 14, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087208/-child-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis
#19
REVIEW
Jean Donadieu, Sébastien Héritier
DEFINITION: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is defined by the association of a clinical and radiological involvement and a biopsy of a pathological tissue. Extension: it can affect any organ or system of the body but most commonly the bone (80% of cases), the skin (33%) and the pituitary (25%). Other organs are concerned such as liver, spleen, hematopoietic system and the lungs (15% each), lymph nodes (5-10%) and central nervous system (CNS) excluding the pituitary (2-4%). Natural history: the natural history of the disease is very heterogeneous, ranging from auto-regressive lesions to a disease affecting multiple organs with fatal consequences, while some lesions may be responsible for permanent sequels...
January 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079350/transcranial-approach-in-giant-pituitary-adenomas-results-and-outcome-in-a-modern-series
#20
Thomas Graillon, Frédéric Castinetti, Stéphane Fuentes, Regis Gras, Thierry Brue, Henry Dufour
BACKGROUND: Today, transcranial (TC) approach indications are particularly rare in pituitary adenomas (PA), representing 1.1% of all PA surgeries in our experience. In these rare and selected cases, the complications, advantages, and disadvantages of TC approach were also analyzed. METHODS: 19 cases of giant PA (≥40 mm) operated via TC approach alone or combined with transsphenoidal (TS) approach between 2000 and 2016 were selected. RESULTS: The most frequently observed symptom was visual disturbance...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
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