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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434764/pediatric-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-current-views
#1
Jinfeng Liu, Wei Wang, Fengli Liu, Zhenguang Li
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) mainly involves acute respiratory failure. In addition to this affected patients feel progressive arterial hypoxemia, dyspnea, and a marked increase in the work of breathing. The only clinical solution for the above pathological state is ventilation. Mechanical ventilation is necessary to support life in ARDs but it itself worsen lung injury and the term is known clinically as 'ventilation induced lung injury' (VILI). At the cellular level, respiratory epithelial cells are subjected to cyclic stretch, i...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430442/effects-of-peep-on-lung-injury-pulmonary-function-systemic-circulation-and-mortality-in-animals-with-uninjured-lungs-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Anna Geke Algera, Luigi Pisani, Renato Carneiro de Freitas Chaves, Thiago Chaves Amorim, Thomas Cherpanath, Rogier Determann, Dave A Dongelmans, Frederique Paulus, Pieter Roel Tuinman, Paolo Pelosi, Marcelo Gama de Abreu, Marcus J Schultz, Ary Serpa Neto
It is well-known that positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) can prevent ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) and improve pulmonary physiology in animals with injured lungs. It's uncertain whether PEEP has similar effects in animals with uninjured lungs. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing different PEEP levels in animals with uninjured lungs was performed. Trials in animals with injured lungs were excluded, as were trials that compared ventilation strategies that also differed with respect to other ventilation settings, e...
January 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360425/the-use-of-home-brew-in-pacific-islands-countries-and-territories
#3
Vili Nosa, Shavonne Duffy, Debbie Singh, Save Lavelio, Uma Amber, Avanoa Homasi-Paelate, Julia Alfred
This review examines what is known about the production and use of home brew in the Pacific Islands countries and territories. Data collection involved interviews of 78 men and women from the Marshall Islands, Papua New Guinea, Toga, and Tuvalu. The interviews were conducted in 2013 by local interviewers. The questions fell into four key areas: people's history of home-brew consumption, the reasons for home-brew use, the effects of home brew, and people's perceptions about home brew. An open ethnographic approach revealed that males are the main consumers of home brew, that home brew is consumed in private venues by those with low socioeconomic status, and that there are positive and negative outcomes associated with the use of home brew...
January 2018: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338741/knowledge-and-practices-of-general-practitioners-at-district-hospitals-towards-cervical-cancer-prevention-in-burundi-2015-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Zacharie Ndizeye, Davy Vanden Broeck, Heleen Vermandere, John Paul Bogers, Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden
BACKGROUND: Well-organized screening and treatment programmes are effective to prevent Invasive Cervical Cancer (ICC) in LMICs. To achieve this, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the involvement of existing health personnel in casu doctors, nurses, midwives in ICC prevention. A necessary precondition is that health personnel have appropriate knowledge about ICC. Therefore, to inform policy makers and training institutions in Burundi, we documented the knowledge and practices of general practitioners (GPs) at district hospital level towards ICC control...
January 16, 2018: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330321/osteopontin-promotes-protective-antigenic-tolerance-against-experimental-allergic-airway-disease
#5
Themis Alissafi, Evangelia Kourepini, Davina C M Simoes, Nikolaos Paschalidis, Maria Aggelakopoulou, Tim Sparwasser, Louis Boon, Hamida Hammad, Bart N Lambrecht, Vily Panoutsakopoulou
In the context of inflammation, osteopontin (Opn) is known to promote effector responses, facilitating a proinflammatory environment; however, its role during antigenic tolerance induction is unknown. Using a mouse model of asthma, we investigated the role of Opn during antigenic tolerance induction and its effects on associated regulatory cellular populations prior to disease initiation. Our experiments demonstrate that Opn drives protective antigenic tolerance by inducing accumulation of IFN-β-producing plasmacytoid dendritic cells, as well as regulatory T cells, in mediastinal lymph nodes...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318290/ordering-effects-and-percolation-in-the-structure-formation-process-of-the-oriented-polyolefin-porous-films
#6
Galina Kazimirovna Elyashevich, Dmitrii Vladimirovich Novikov, Ivan Sergeevich Kuryndin, Andreja Jelen, Vili Bukošek
Structure transitions and mechanism of the formation of superlattices lamellae in microporous polyolefin (polyethylene and polypropylene) films obtained in the process based on polymer melt extrusion followed by annealing, uniaxial extension and thermal fixation have been studied by statistical analysis of electron microscopy images of the film surface. The structure of the porous films prepared in the multistage process has been studied by SEM, gravimetry and permeability measurements. It has been shown that the pore formation at the stage of uniaxial extension is accompanied by the ordering of lamellae and their self-organization controlled by spin draw ratio and annealing temperature...
December 2017: Acta Chimica Slovenica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308751/-role-and-mechanism-of-mitochondrial-dna-mediated-toll-like-receptor-9-myeloid-differentiation-factor-88-signaling-pathway-activation-in-rats-with-ventilator-induced-lung-injury
#7
Jinyuan Lin, Ren Jing, Linghui Pan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role and mechanism of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in rats with ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) via Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)-myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) signaling pathway. METHODS: Thirty adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups (each n = 10): spontaneous breathing group, normal tidal volume (VT) group (NVT group, VT = 8 mL/kg), and high VT group (HVT group, VT = 40 mL/kg). Rats in the NVT group and HVT group were ventilated mechanically with a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 0 and the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) at 0...
January 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308750/-changes-in-circulating-microparticles-in-mice-with-ventilator-induced-lung-injury
#8
Yingjie Yin, Shouqin Zhang, Sanqiang Wang, Hu Long, Chengjin Gao, Xiangyu Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes in serum level of microparticles (EMPs) in mice with ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), and explore its significance in VILI. METHODS: Forty-eight grade SPF male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into two groups, with 24 mice in each group: the mice in mechanical ventilation (MV) group were given high tidal volume (VT 30 mL/kg) MV for 4 hours after tracheal intubation, and those in spontaneous breathing group were spontaneously breathed for 4 hours...
January 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301259/sphingolipids-in-ventilator-induced-lung-injury-role-of-sphingosine-1-phosphate-lyase
#9
Vidyani Suryadevara, Panfeng Fu, David Lenin Ebenezer, Evgeny Berdyshev, Irina A Bronova, Long Shuang Huang, Anantha Harijith, Viswanathan Natarajan
Mechanical ventilation (MV) performed in respiratory failure patients to maintain lung function leads to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). This study investigates the role of sphingolipids and sphingolipid metabolizing enzymes in VILI using a rodent model of VILI and alveolar epithelial cells subjected to cyclic stretch (CS). MV (0 PEEP (Positive End Expiratory Pressure), 30 mL/kg, 4 h) in mice enhanced sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (S1PL) expression, and ceramide levels, and decreased S1P levels in lung tissue, thereby leading to lung inflammation, injury and apoptosis...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297365/regional-physiology-of-ards
#10
REVIEW
Luciano Gattinoni, Tommaso Tonetti, Michael Quintel
The acute respiratory distress (ARDS) lung is usually characterized by a high degree of inhomogeneity. Indeed, the same lung may show a wide spectrum of aeration alterations, ranging from completely gasless regions, up to hyperinflated areas. This inhomogeneity is normally caused by the presence of lung edema and/or anatomical variations, and is deeply influenced by the gravitational forces.For any given airway pressure generated by the ventilator, the pressure acting directly on the lung (i.e., the transpulmonary pressure or lung stress) is determined by two main factors: 1) the ratio between lung elastance and the total elastance of the respiratory system (which has been shown to vary widely in ARDS patients, between 0...
December 28, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282104/association-between-continuous-hyperosmolar-therapy-and-survival-in-patients-with-traumatic-brain-injury-a-multicentre-prospective-cohort-study-and-systematic-review
#11
Karim Asehnoune, Sigismond Lasocki, Philippe Seguin, Thomas Geeraerts, Pierre François Perrigault, Claire Dahyot-Fizelier, Catherine Paugam Burtz, Fabrice Cook, Dominique Demeure Dit Latte, Raphael Cinotti, Pierre Joachim Mahe, Camille Fortuit, Romain Pirracchio, Fanny Feuillet, Véronique Sébille, Antoine Roquilly
BACKGROUND: Intracranial hypertension (ICH) is a major cause of death after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Continuous hyperosmolar therapy (CHT) has been proposed for the treatment of ICH, but its effectiveness is controversial. We compared the mortality and outcomes in patients with TBI with ICH treated or not with CHT. METHODS: We included patients with TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale ≤ 12 and trauma-associated lesion on brain computed tomography (CT) scan) from the databases of the prospective multicentre trials Corti-TC, BI-VILI and ATLANREA...
December 28, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250319/patients-with-uninjured-lungs-may-also-benefit-from-lung-protective-ventilator-settings
#12
REVIEW
Roger Alencar, Vittorio D'Angelo, Rachel Carmona, Marcus J Schultz, Ary Serpa Neto
Although mechanical ventilation is a life-saving strategy in critically ill patients and an indispensable tool in patients under general anesthesia for surgery, it also acts as a double-edged sword. Indeed, ventilation is increasingly recognized as a potentially dangerous intrusion that has the potential to harm lungs, in a condition known as 'ventilator-induced lung injury' (VILI). So-called 'lung-protective' ventilator settings aiming at prevention of VILI have been shown to improve outcomes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and, over the last few years, there has been increasing interest in possible benefit of lung-protective ventilation in patients under ventilation for reasons other than ARDS...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238232/efficacy-of-thermoablation-in-treating-cervical-precancerous-lesions-in-a-low-resource-setting
#13
Phuong Lien Tran, Bruno Kenfack, Eveline Tincho Foguem, Manuela Viviano, Liliane Temogne, Pierre-Marie Tebeu, Rosa Catarino, Anne-Caroline Benski, Pierre Vassilakos, Patrick Petignat
Introduction: Treating cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades 2 and 3 is the recommended strategy for preventing invasive carcinoma in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Our objective was to assess the efficacy of thermoablation in the treatment of CIN2 and CIN3 in a screen-and-treat approach. Methods: Women aged 30-49 years in Dschang, Cameroon, were invited to undergo vaginal sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV), samples being assessed by an Xpert HPV Assay...
2017: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216437/epha2-modulation-associates-with-protective-effect-of-prone-position-in-ventilator-induced-lung-injury
#14
Byung Hoon Park, Mi Hwa Shin, Ivor S Douglas, Kyung Soo Chung, Joo Han Song, Song Yee Kim, Eun Young Kim, Ji Ye Jung, Young Ae Kang, Joon Chang, Young Sam Kim, Moo Suk Park
The erythropoietin-producing hepatoma receptor tyrosine kinase A2 (EphA2) and its ligand ephrinA1 play a pivotal role in inflammation and tissue injury by modulating the epithelial and endothelial barrier integrity. Therefore, EphA2 receptor may be a potential therapeutic target for modulating ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). To support this hypothesis, here we analyzed EphA2/ephrinA1 signaling in the process of VILI and determined the role of EphA2/ephrinA1 signaling in the protective mechanism of prone positioning in a VILI model...
December 7, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206492/intravenous-controlled-release-hydrogen-sulfide-protects-against-ventilator-induced-lung-injury
#15
Lifeng Wang, Hao Yu, Yana Zhang, Caiyu Dong, Bo Liu
BACKGROUND: Despite its critical utility in providing life support to patients with impaired respiratory functions, prolonged mechanical ventilation has been found to cause a series of pathological changes in the lung that are collectively referred to as ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (DATS-MSN), which is capable of releasing H2S in a slow and controlled manner, on VILI. METHODS: A murine VILI model was generated...
November 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176330/dissipation-of-energy-during-the-respiratory-cycle-conditional-importance-of-ergotrauma-to-structural-lung-damage
#16
John J Marini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe and put into context recent conceptual advances regarding the relationship of energy load and power to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). RECENT FINDINGS: Investigative emphasis regarding VILI has almost exclusively centered on the static characteristics of the individual tidal cycle - tidal volume, plateau pressure, positive end-expiratory pressure, and driving pressure. Although those static characteristics of the tidal cycle are undeniably important, the 'dynamic' characteristics of ventilation must not be ignored...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153541/screening-for-cervical-cancer-among-hiv-positive-and-hiv-negative-women-in-cameroon-using-simultaneous-co-testing-with-carehpv-dna-testing-and-visual-inspection-enhanced-by-digital-cervicography-findings-of-initial-screening-and-one-year-follow-up
#17
Preetam Cholli, Leslie Bradford, Simon Manga, Kathleen Nulah, Edith Kiyang, Florence Manjuh, Geneva DeGregorio, Rebecca K Ogembo, Enow Orock, Yuxin Liu, Richard G Wamai, Lisa Kennedy Sheldon, Philimon N Gona, Zacharie Sando, Thomas Welty, Edith Welty, Javier Gordon Ogembo
OBJECTIVE: The World Health Organization (WHO)'s cervical cancer screening guidelines for limited-resource settings recommend sequential screening followed by same-day treatment under a "screen-and-treat" approach. We aimed to (1) assess feasibility and clinical outcomes of screening HIV-positive and HIV-negative Cameroonian women by pairing visual inspection with acetic acid and Lugol's iodine enhanced by digital cervicography (VIA/VILI-DC) with careHPV, a high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) nucleic acid test designed for low-resource settings; and (2) determine persistence of HR-HPV infection after one-year follow-up to inform optimal screening, treatment, and follow-up algorithms...
January 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152933/ventilator-induced-lung-injury-does-it-occur-in-children
#18
Martin C Kneyber
Mechanical ventilation is one of the most practiced interventions in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Although unmistakable life-saving, it can also injury the lung, a process coined ventilator induced lung injury (VILI). To date, almost all of our knowledge VILI has been obtained from studies in adults or experimental studies mimicking the adult critical care situation. This leaves the question if VILI is of importance in the paediatric context. Paediatric clinical studies did not confirm an association between large tidal volume (Vt) and adverse outcome...
November 17, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142373/a-pilot-study-of-nebulized-heparin-for-prevention-of-ventilator-induced-lung-injury-comparative-effects-with-an-inhaled-corticosteroid
#19
Farzin Ghiasi, Mohsen Sadeghian, Mohammad Emami, Babak Ali Kiaie, Sarah Mousavi
Background: Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is a side effect of mechanical ventilation. Lung inflammation and pulmonary activation of coagulation are induced by mechanical stress. Clinical and preclinical studies show that heparin possesses anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, we assessed the effects of nebulized heparin in VILI. Methods: Sixty critically ill adult patients who require mechanical ventilation for more than 48 h were included in this prospective, nonrandomized controlled study...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116360/role-of-the-extracellular-matrix-in-the-genesis-of-ventilator-induced-lung-injury
#20
REVIEW
F F Cruz, P R M Rocco, P Pelosi
The extracellular matrix represents the three-dimensional scaffold of the alveolar wall, which is composed of a layer of epithelial and endothelial cells, their basal membrane, and a thin interstitial layer containing fibrous proteins, glycoproteins, glycosaminoglycans, and proteoglycans. Mechanical ventilation with low and high tidal volumes can induce proteoglycan fragmentation, which may cause activation of the inflammatory cascade, leading to the main features of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI): alveolar edema and collagen deposition...
November 7, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
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