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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333493/a-quality-improvement-project-aimed-at-adapting-primary-care-to-ensure-the-delivery-of-evidence-based-psychotherapy-for-adult-anxiety
#1
Mark D Williams, Craig N Sawchuk, Nathan D Shippee, Kristin J Somers, Summer L Berg, Jay D Mitchell, Angela B Mattson, David J Katzelnick
Primary care patients frequently present with anxiety with prevalence ratios up to 30%. Brief cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) has been shown in meta-analytic studies to have a strong effect size in the treatment of anxiety. However, in surveys of anxious primary care patients, nearly 80% indicated that they had not received CBT. In 2010, a model of CBT (Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management (CALM)) adapted to primary care for adult anxiety was published based on results of a randomised controlled trial...
2018: BMJ Open Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329016/non-linear-effects-of-the-built-environment-on-automobile-involved-pedestrian-crash-frequency-a-machine-learning-approach
#2
Chuan Ding, Peng Chen, Junfeng Jiao
Although a growing body of literature focuses on the relationship between the built environment and pedestrian crashes, limited evidence is provided about the relative importance of many built environment attributes by accounting for their mutual interaction effects and their non-linear effects on automobile-involved pedestrian crashes. This study adopts the approach of Multiple Additive Poisson Regression Trees (MAPRT) to fill such gaps using pedestrian collision data collected from Seattle, Washington. Traffic analysis zones are chosen as the analytical unit...
January 9, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328877/designing-difference-in-difference-studies-best-practices-for-public-health-policy-research
#3
Coady Wing, Kosali Simon, Ricardo A Bello-Gomez
The difference in difference (DID) design is a quasi-experimental research design that researchers often use to study causal relationships in public health settings where randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are infeasible or unethical. However, causal inference poses many challenges in DID designs. In this article, we review key features of DID designs with an emphasis on public health policy research. Contemporary researchers should take an active approach to the design of DID studies, seeking to construct comparison groups, sensitivity analyses, and robustness checks that help validate the method's assumptions...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320910/predicting-and-explaining-inflammation-in-crohn-s-disease-patients-using-predictive-analytics-methods-and-electronic-medical-record-data
#4
Bhargava K Reddy, Dursun Delen, Rupesh K Agrawal
Crohn's disease is among the chronic inflammatory bowel diseases that impact the gastrointestinal tract. Understanding and predicting the severity of inflammation in real-time settings is critical to disease management. Extant literature has primarily focused on studies that are conducted in clinical trial settings to investigate the impact of a drug treatment on the remission status of the disease. This research proposes an analytics methodology where three different types of prediction models are developed to predict and to explain the severity of inflammation in patients diagnosed with Crohn's disease...
January 1, 2018: Health Informatics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318451/bringing-the-national-security-agency-into-the-classroom-ethical-reflections-on-academia-intelligence-agency-partnerships
#5
Christopher Kampe, Gwendolynne Reid, Paul Jones, Colleen S, Sean S, Kathleen M Vogel
Academia-intelligence agency collaborations are on the rise for a variety of reasons. These can take many forms, one of which is in the classroom, using students to stand in for intelligence analysts. Classrooms, however, are ethically complex spaces, with students considered vulnerable populations, and become even more complex when layering multiple goals, activities, tools, and stakeholders over those traditionally present. This does not necessarily mean one must shy away from academia-intelligence agency partnerships in classrooms, but that these must be conducted carefully and reflexively...
January 9, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306490/virtual-zika-transmission-after-the-first-u-s-case-who-said-what-and-how-it-spread-on-twitter
#6
Santosh Vijaykumar, Glen Nowak, Itai Himelboim, Yan Jin
BACKGROUND: This paper goes beyond detecting specific themes within Zika-related chatter on Twitter, to identify the key actors who influence the diffusive process through which some themes become more amplified than others. METHODS: We collected all Zika-related tweets during the 3 months immediately after the first U.S. case of Zika. After the tweets were categorized into 12 themes, a cross-section were grouped into weekly datasets, to capture 12 amplifier/user groups, and analyzed by 4 amplification modes: mentions, retweets, talkers, and Twitter-wide amplifiers...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298581/plurality-in-understandings-of-innovation-sociotechnical-progress-and-sustainable-development-an-analysis-of-oecd-expert-narratives
#7
Paulo Savaget, Liliana Acero
Deterministic theory and discourse on sociotechnical progress ignore the existence of multiple and equally viable pathways towards progress, obscure socioeconomic and environmental conflicting interests and values, and overshadow socially inclusive deliberative choices about policy strategies. Demystifying techno-determinism, by incorporating a plurality of understandings to policy appraisal, becomes a matter of not only democratic accountability but also of analytical rigour. This article analyses the normative and ontological understandings on scientific and technological pathways among a group of experts interviewed at one key Directorate of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, using Q-methodology...
March 1, 2017: Public Understanding of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298180/medical-education-videos-for-the-world-an-analysis-of-viewing-patterns-for-a-youtube-channel
#8
Sean Tackett, Kyle Slinn, Tanner Marshall, Shiv Gaglani, Vincent Waldman, Rishi Desai
PURPOSE: Medical education videos can enhance learning and easily integrate into common instructional methods. YouTube permits worldwide access to high-quality medical education videos; however, no studies have described the reach of medical education videos on YouTube or what topics are preferred. METHOD: One year of YouTube analytics data (February 1, 2016, to January 31, 2017) was collected for a medical education-focused channel called Osmosis. Created December 20, 2015, the channel had 189 disease-focused videos by January 2017...
January 2, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297360/dynamically-analyzing-cell-interactions-in-biological-environments-using-multiagent-social-learning-framework
#9
Chengwei Zhang, Xiaohong Li, Shuxin Li, Zhiyong Feng
BACKGROUND: Biological environment is uncertain and its dynamic is similar to the multiagent environment, thus the research results of the multiagent system area can provide valuable insights to the understanding of biology and are of great significance for the study of biology. Learning in a multiagent environment is highly dynamic since the environment is not stationary anymore and each agent's behavior changes adaptively in response to other coexisting learners, and vice versa. The dynamics becomes more unpredictable when we move from fixed-agent interaction environments to multiagent social learning framework...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287932/legislating-how-critical-care-physicians-discuss-and-implement-do-not-resuscitate-orders
#10
EDITORIAL
Courtenay R Bruce, Trevor Bibler, Andrew Childress, Savitri Fedson
A few weeks ago, Texas took an unprecedented position on unilateral DNRs by passing Senate Bill (SB) 11, which requires patient/surrogate consent for writing DNR orders. The motivation behind the bill was based on the drafters' beliefs that physicians frequently write unilateral DNR orders. SB 11, however, does not stop at requiring physicians to seek consent for DNR orders. Instead, the legislation uncharacteristically exceeds what is typically within the scope and role boundaries for lawmakers by legislating how physicians discuss and implement DNR orders...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285834/evidence-for-increased-use-of-the-society-of-pediatric-anesthesia-critical-events-checklist-in-resource-limited-environments-a-retrospective-observational-study-of-app-data
#11
Vikas N O'Reilly-Shah, Jamie Kitzman, Craig S Jabaley, Grant C Lynde
BACKGROUND: Electronic decision support tools in anesthesiology practice have great value, including the potential for mobile applications to simplify delivery of best-practice guidelines. AIMS: We sought to combine demographics with usage information to elucidate important patterns in the rate of use of the Society of Pediatric Anesthesia Critical Events Checklist, as measured by in-app accesses of the checklist via the freely available anesthesia calculator app anesthesiologist...
December 28, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280752/medical-graduates-truthful-and-useful-analytics-with-big-data-and-the-art-of-persuasion
#12
Des Gorman, T Michael Kashner
The authors propose that the provision of state-of-the-art, effective, safe, and affordable health care requires medical school graduates not only to be competent practitioners and scientists, but also to be policy makers and professional leaders. To meet this challenge in the era of big data and cloud computing, these graduates must be able to understand and critically interpret analyses of large, observational datasets from electronic health records, third party claims files, surveys, and epidemiologic health datasets...
December 26, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278490/application-of-a-deep-neural-network-to-metabolomics-studies-and-its-performance-in-determining-important-variables
#13
Yasuhiro Date, Jun Kikuchi
Deep neural networks (DNNs), which are kinds of the machine learning approaches, are powerful tools for analyzing big sets of data derived from biological and environmental systems. However, DNNs are not applicable to metabolomics studies because they have difficulty in identifying contribution factors, e.g., biomarkers, in constructed classification and regression models. In this paper, we describe an improved DNN-based analytical approach that incorporates an importance estimation for each variable using a mean decrease accuracy (MDA) calculation, which is based on a permutation algorithm; this approach is called DNN-MDA...
December 26, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278256/the-purpose-of-united-nations-security-council-practice-contesting-competence-claims-in-the-normative-context-created-by-the-responsibility-to-protect
#14
Jason Ralph, Jess Gifkins
Practice theory provides important insights into the workings of the Security Council. The contribution is currently limited, however, by the conjecture that practice theory operates on 'a different analytical plane' to norm/normative theory. Building on existing critiques, we argue that analysing practices separately from normative positions risks misappropriating competence and reifying practice that is not fit for purpose. This risk is realized in Adler-Nissen and Pouliot's practice-based account of the Libya crisis...
September 2017: Eur J Int Relat
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239630/a-meta-analytic-review-of-two-modes-of-learning-and-the-description-experience-gap
#15
Dirk U Wulff, Max Mergenthaler-Canseco, Ralph Hertwig
People can learn about the probabilistic consequences of their actions in two ways: One is by consulting descriptions of an action's consequences and probabilities (e.g., reading up on a medication's side effects). The other is by personally experiencing the probabilistic consequences of an action (e.g., beta testing software). In principle, people taking each route can reach analogous states of knowledge and consequently make analogous decisions. In the last dozen years, however, research has demonstrated systematic discrepancies between description- and experienced-based choices...
December 14, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237237/clinical-judgement-in-the-era-of-big-data-and-predictive-analytics
#16
Benjamin Chin-Yee, Ross Upshur
Clinical judgement is a central and longstanding issue in the philosophy of medicine which has generated significant interest over the past few decades. In this article, we explore different approaches to clinical judgement articulated in the literature, focusing in particular on data-driven, mathematical approaches which we contrast with narrative, virtue-based approaches to clinical reasoning. We discuss the tension between these different clinical epistemologies and further explore the implications of big data and machine learning for a philosophy of clinical judgement...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234023/discriminating-single-bacterial-shape-using-low-aspect-ratio-pores
#17
Makusu Tsutsui, Takeshi Yoshida, Kazumichi Yokota, Hirotoshi Yasaki, Takao Yasui, Akihide Arima, Wataru Tonomura, Kazuki Nagashima, Takeshi Yanagida, Noritada Kaji, Masateru Taniguchi, Takashi Washio, Yoshinobu Baba, Tomoji Kawai
Conventional concepts of resistive pulse analysis is to discriminate particles in liquid by the difference in their size through comparing the amount of ionic current blockage. In sharp contrast, we herein report a proof-of-concept demonstration of the shape sensing capability of solid-state pore sensors by leveraging the synergy between nanopore technology and machine learning. We found ionic current spikes of similar patterns for two bacteria reflecting the closely resembled morphology and size in an ultra-low thickness-to-diameter aspect-ratio pore...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233377/application-of-a-systematic-approach-to-evaluating-psychometric-properties-of-a-cumulative-exit-from-degree-objective-structured-clinical-examination-osce
#18
Ahmed Hesham Sobh, Zubin Austin, Mohamed Izham M I, Mohammad I Diab, Kyle John Wilby
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) are considered gold standard performance-based assessments yet comprehensive evaluation data is currently lacking. The objective of this study was to critically evaluate the psychometric properties of a cumulative OSCE for graduating pharmacy students in Qatar for which policies and procedures were adapted from a Canadian context. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: A 10-station OSCE was conducted for graduating students in Qatar...
November 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232317/attitude-of-nursing-students-toward-scientific-research-a-cross-sectional-study-in-turkey
#19
Seher Ünver, Remziye Semerci, Zeynep Kizilcik Özkan, Ilker Avcibaşi
BACKGROUND: Nursing, a social applied science, is a dynamic profession. Professional nurses must be curious, investigative, and open to learning as well as practice critical and analytic thinking to sustain their professionalism. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the attitudes of nursing students toward scientific research. METHODS: A descriptive and cross-sectional study design was used. This study was conducted at a nursing department of a university in Turkey...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232195/crossover-design-in-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-studies-on-motor-learning-potential-pitfalls-and-difficulties-in-interpretation-of-findings
#20
Mana Biabani, Michael Farrell, Maryam Zoghi, Gary Egan, Shapour Jaberzadeh
Crossover designs are used by a high proportion of studies investigating the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on motor learning. These designs necessitate attention to aspects of data collection and analysis to take account of design-related confounds including order, carryover, and period effects. In this systematic review, we appraised the method sections of crossover-designed tDCS studies of motor learning and discussed the strategies adopted to address these factors. A systematic search of 10 databases was performed and 19 research papers, including 21 experimental studies, were identified...
December 12, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
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