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Acute lung injury

Deng-Wei Chou, Shu-Ling Wu, Kuo-Mou Chung, Shu-Chen Han, Bruno Man-Hon Cheung
OBJECTIVES: Septic pulmonary embolism is an uncommon but life-threatening disorder. However, data on patients with septic pulmonary embolism who require critical care have not been well reported. This study elucidated the clinicoradiological spectrum, causative pathogens and outcomes of septic pulmonary embolism in patients requiring critical care. METHODS: The electronic medical records of 20 patients with septic pulmonary embolism who required intensive care unit admission between January 2005 and December 2013 were reviewed...
October 1, 2016: Clinics
Yi Cheng, Mu Jin, Xiuhua Dong, Lizhong Sun, Jing Liu, Rong Wang, Yanwei Yang, Peirong Lin, Siyu Hou, Yuehua Ma, Yuefeng Wang, Xudong Pan, Jiakai Lu, Weiping Cheng
BACKGROUND: Stanford type-A acute aortic dissection (AAD) is a severe cardiovascular disease demonstrating the characteristics of acute onset and rapid development, with high morbidity and mortality. The available evidence shows that preoperative acute lung injury (ALI) induced by Stanford type-A AAD is a frequent and important cause for a number of untoward consequences. However, there is no study assessing the incidence of preoperative ALI and its independent determinants before Standford type-A AAD surgery in Chinese adult patients...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Rachel Boxio, Julien Wartelle, Béatrice Nawrocki-Raby, Brice Lagrange, Laurette Malleret, Timothee Hirche, Clifford Taggart, Yves Pacheco, Gilles Devouassoux, Abderrazzaq Bentaher
BACKGROUND: In acutely injured lungs, massively recruited polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) secrete abnormally neutrophil elastase (NE). Active NE creates a localized proteolytic environment where various host molecules are degraded leading to impairment of tissue homeostasis. Among the hallmarks of neutrophil-rich pathologies is a disrupted epithelium characterized by the loss of cell-cell adhesion and integrity. Epithelial-cadherin (E-cad) represents one of the most important intercellular junction proteins...
October 17, 2016: Respiratory Research
Jonne Doorduin, Joeke L Nollet, Lisanne H Roesthuis, Hieronymus W H van Hees, Laurent J Brochard, Christer A Sinderby, Johannes G van der Hoeven, Leo M A Heunks
RATIONALE: Controlled mechanical ventilation is used to deliver lung-protective ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Despite recognized benefits, such as preserved diaphragm activity, partial support ventilation modes may be incompatible with lung-protective ventilation due to high tidal volume and high transpulmonary pressure. As an alternative to high dose sedatives and controlled mechanical ventilation, pharmacologically induced neuromechanical uncoupling of the diaphragm should facilitate lung-protective ventilation under partial support modes...
October 17, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Seiya Urae, Kayori Tsuruoka, Sayaka Kuroya, Yugo Shibagaki
Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a metabolic disorder that is generally associated with a malignancy leading to hyperuricemia, hyperphosphatemia, and acute kidney injury. On the other hand, we sometimes encounter these phenomena in nonmalignant disease, which has been referred to as tumor lysis-like syndrome in some studies. We herein experienced a case in which tumor lysis-like syndrome occurred in the course of therapy for eosinophilic disease of the lung, a nonmalignant disease. Even in nonmalignant disease, massive cell lysis induced by therapy can cause phenomena such as TLS or tumor lysis-like syndrome...
2016: Internal Medicine
Corey J Langer, Shirish M Gadgeel, Hossein Borghaei, Vassiliki A Papadimitrakopoulou, Amita Patnaik, Steven F Powell, Ryan D Gentzler, Renato G Martins, James P Stevenson, Shadia I Jalal, Amit Panwalkar, James Chih-Hsin Yang, Matthew Gubens, Lecia V Sequist, Mark M Awad, Joseph Fiore, Yang Ge, Harry Raftopoulos, Leena Gandhi
BACKGROUND: Limited evidence exists to show that adding a third agent to platinum-doublet chemotherapy improves efficacy in the first-line advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) setting. The anti-PD-1 antibody pembrolizumab has shown efficacy as monotherapy in patients with advanced NSCLC and has a non-overlapping toxicity profile with chemotherapy. We assessed whether the addition of pembrolizumab to platinum-doublet chemotherapy improves efficacy in patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC...
October 10, 2016: Lancet Oncology
L Benítez-Gutiérrez, C de Mendoza, I Baños, A Duca, A Arias, A Treviño, S Requena, M J Citores, V Cuervas-Mons
New direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have dramatically improved sustained virologic response (SVR) rates in patients treated for chronic hepatitis C. Although the safety of these agents has been very good in registration trials, unexpected side effects have been reported after much broader use of DAAs on marketing. We retrospectively examined all liver transplant recipients with chronic hepatitis C that received sofosbuvir-based regimens at our clinic. A total of 24 liver transplant recipients with recurrent chronic hepatitis C had received sofosbuvir up to April 2015...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Yujiro Matsuishi, Subrina Jesmin, Satoru Kawano, Sakuramoto Hideaki, Nobutake Shimojo, Chishimba Nathan Mowa, Shila Akhtar, Sohel Zaedi, Tanzila Khatun, Yoshiya Tsunoda, Takumi Kiwamoto, Nobuyuki Hizawa, Yoshiaki Inoue, Taro Mizutani
Among the dysfunctions and pathologies associated with sepsis, the underlying molecular mechanisms of sepsis-induced acute lung injury (ALI) are poorly understood. Endothelin (ET)-1, a potent vasoconstrictor and pro-inflammatory peptide, is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of ALI in a rat model of sepsis. Here, we investigated whether landiolol hydrochloride, an ultra-short-acting β-blocker, plays a crucial role in ameliorating and attenuating LPS-induced ALI through modulation of the ET-1 system. Male Wistar rats at 8weeks of age were administered with either saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for three hours (3h) and some of the LPS-administered rats were continuously treated with landiolol for 3h...
October 11, 2016: Life Sciences
Surat Tongyoo, Chairat Permpikul, Wasineenart Mongkolpun, Veerapong Vattanavanit, Suthipol Udompanturak, Mehmet Kocak, G Umberto Meduri
BACKGROUND: Authors of recent meta-analyses have reported that prolonged glucocorticoid treatment is associated with significant improvements in patients with severe pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) of multifactorial etiology. A prospective randomized trial limited to patients with sepsis-associated ARDS is lacking. The objective of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of hydrocortisone treatment in sepsis-associated ARDS. METHODS: In this double-blind, single-center (Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok), randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited adult patients with severe sepsis within 12 h of their meeting ARDS criteria...
October 15, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Pablo G Sanchez, Chetan Pasrija, Matthew J Mulligan, Mandheer Wadhwa, Diana L Pratt, Tieluo Li, James S Gammie, Zachary N Kon, Si M Pham, Bartley P Griffith
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to create a reproducible lung injury model utilizing injection of mitochondrial damage-associated molecular products. Our goal was to characterize the pathophysiologic response to damage-associated molecular pattern mediated organ injury. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: There remain significant gaps in our understanding of acute respiratory distress syndrome, in part due to the lack of clinically applicable animal models of this disease. Animal models of noninfectious, tissue damage-induced lung injury are needed to understand the signals and responses associated with this injury...
October 4, 2016: Annals of Surgery
Y Wu, L Wang, L Meng, G-K Cao, Y Zhang
OBJECTIVE: In this study the levels of macrophage inflammatory protein-1α and NF-κB were measured in patients suffering acute kidney injury secondary to acute lung injury induced by mechanical ventilation and in controls, to determine whether they are differentially expressed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 160 patients were enrolled in our study: 40 had acute kidney injury secondary to acute lung injury induced by mechanical ventilation (group A), 40 had acute lung injury induced by mechanical ventilation, but no secondary acute kidney injury (group B), 40 were treated with mechanical ventilation but suffered no complications (group C), and 40 were treated with a conventional nasal catheter or oxygen mask inhalation (group D)...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Q Lv
OBJECTIVE: In order to seek an effective strategy for clinical treatment of acute lung injury (ALI), we are committed to explore the effect of combination therapy of glucocorticoid and hyaluronic acid on acute lung injury caused by an endotoxin (LPS) and its mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided randomly into 5 groups: normal group (n=8); LPS group (n=8); dexamethasone +LPS group (DXMS group, n=8); hyaluronic acid+ LPS group (HA group, n=8); dexamethasone +hyaluronic acid +LPS group (DXMS+HA group, n=8)...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Darlene A Monlish, Sima T Bhatt, Laura G Schuettpelz
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of pattern recognition receptors that shape the innate immune system by identifying pathogen-associated molecular patterns and host-derived damage-associated molecular patterns. TLRs are widely expressed on both immune cells and non-immune cells, including hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, effector immune cell populations, and endothelial cells. In addition to their well-known role in the innate immune response to acute infection or injury, accumulating evidence supports a role for TLRs in the development of hematopoietic and other malignancies...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Nathaniel B Bone, Zhongyu Liu, Jean-Francois Pittet, Jaroslaw W Zmijewski
Catecholamines, including β-adrenergic and dopaminergic neurotransmitters, have an essential role in regulating the "fight or flight" reflex and also affects immune cell proinflammatory action. However, little is known about whether catecholamines prevent dysfunction of metabolic pathways associated with inflammatory organ injury, including development of acute lung injury (ALI). We hypothesize that selected catecholamines may reduce metabolic alterations in LPS-stimulated macrophages and in the lungs of mice subjected to endotoxin-induced ALI, a situation characterized by diminished activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Aysel Kurt, Hasan Turut, Ahmet Acipayam, Aynur Kirbas, Suleyman Yuce, Medine Cumhur Cure, Erkan Cure
OBJECTIVE: Multiple rib fractures (RFs) and pulmonary contusions (PCs), with resulting systemic lung inflammation, are the most common injuries caused by blunt chest trauma (BCT) in motor vehicle accidents. This study examined levels of the inflammation marker interleukin (IL)-6 and those of the acute-phase reactant surfactant protein (SP)-D in patients with BCT. DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional, observational study. SETTING: Single-centre, tertiary care hospital in the Black Sea Region of Turkey...
October 12, 2016: BMJ Open
Elisabetta Fenocchio, Ilaria Depetris, Delia Campanella, Lucia Garetto, Fabrizio Carnevale Schianca, Danilo Galizia, Giovanni Grignani, Massimo Aglietta, Francesco Leone
BACKGROUND: Gemcitabine is currently the standard chemotherapy for the adjuvant treatment of pancreatic cancer. This chemotherapeutic agent is generally well-tolerated, myelosuppression and gastrointestinal toxicity being common side effects. Nevertheless, gemcitabine-induced pulmonary toxicity has been rarely reported. Despite its low incidence, the spectrum of pulmonary injury is wide, including potentially fatal conditions. We report a case of acute interstitial pneumonia related to gemcitabine, completely solved with Imatinib Mesylate (IM)...
October 12, 2016: BMC Cancer
Heedoo Lee, Duo Zhang, Ziwen Zhu, Charles S Dela Cruz, Yang Jin
Intercellular communications between lung epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages play an essential role in host defense against acute lung injury. Hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress is an established model to mimic human lung injury. We show that after hyperoxia-associated oxidative stress, a large amount of extracellular vesicles (EVs) are detectable in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and culture medium of lung epithelial cells. Microvesicles (MVs), but not exosomes (Exos) or apoptotic bodies (Abs), are the main type of EVs found in the early stages after hyperoxia...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Anastasia Asimakopoulou, Sabine Weiskirchen, Ralf Weiskirchen
Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) is a secreted protein that belongs to the Lipocalins, a group of transporters of small lipophilic molecules such as steroids, lipopolysaccharides, iron, and fatty acids in circulation. Two decades after its discovery and after a high variety of published findings, LCN2's altered expression has been assigned to critical roles in several pathological organ conditions, including liver injury and steatosis, renal damage, brain injury, cardiomyopathies, muscle-skeletal disorders, lung infection, and cancer in several organs...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Nathalia M Pinheiro, Fernanda P R Santana, Rafael Ribeiro Almeida, Marina Guerreiro, Milton A Martins, Luciana C Caperuto, Niels O S Câmara, Lislaine A Wensing, Vânia F Prado, Iolanda F L C Tibério, Marco Antônio M Prado, Carla M Prado
Nicotinic α-7 acetylcholine receptor (nAChRα7) is a critical regulator of cholinergic anti-inflammatory actions in several diseases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Given the potential importance of α7nAChR as a therapeutic target, we evaluated whether PNU-282987, an α7nAChR agonist, is effective in protecting the lung against inflammation. We performed intratracheal instillation of LPS to generate acute lung injury (ALI) in C57BL/6 mice. PNU-282987 treatment, either before or after ALI induction, reduced neutrophil recruitment and IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), and IL-10 cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (P < 0...
October 11, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Ce Yang, Jie Gao, Juan Du, Haiyan Wang, Jianxin Jiang, Zhengguo Wang
BACKGROUND: Rescue after a maritime disaster remains a great challenge in emergency medicine. OBJECTIVE: We performed an overview of rescue efforts among the victims in the sunken cruise ship Eastern Star in the 2015 Changjiang River marine disaster, as well as possible preventive measures in maritime transport situations. METHODS: The rescue records of 454 victims of the sunken ship were analyzed retrospectively. Their demographic data, rescue effects, accident inducement, and injury disposition were reviewed...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
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