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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214327/improved-exposure-estimation-in-soil-screening-and-clean-up-criteria-for-volatile-organic-chemicals
#1
George E DeVaull
Soil clean-up criteria define acceptable concentrations of organic chemical constituents for exposed humans. These criteria sum the estimated soil exposure over multiple pathways. Assumptions for ingestion, dermal contact, and dust exposure generally presume a chemical persists in surface soils at a constant concentration level for the entire exposure duration. For volatile chemicals this is an unrealistic assumption. A calculation method is presented for surficial soil criteria which include volatile depletion of chemical for these uptake pathways...
February 18, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212418/experimental-evidence-of-formation-of-transparent-exopolymer-particles-tep-and-poc-export-provoked-by-dust-addition-under-current-and-high-pco2-conditions
#2
Justine Louis, Maria Luiza Pedrotti, Frédéric Gazeau, Cécile Guieu
The evolution of organic carbon export to the deep ocean, under anthropogenic forcing such as ocean warming and acidification, needs to be investigated in order to evaluate potential positive or negative feedbacks on atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and therefore on climate. As such, modifications of aggregation processes driven by transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) formation have the potential to affect carbon export. The objectives of this study were to experimentally assess the dynamics of organic matter, after the simulation of a Saharan dust deposition event, through the measurement over one week of TEP abundance and size, and to evaluate the effects of ocean acidification on TEP formation and carbon export following a dust deposition event...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211737/poynting-robertson-like-drag-at-the-sun-s-surface
#3
Ian Cunnyngham, Marcelo Emilio, Jeff Kuhn, Isabelle Scholl, Rock Bush
The Sun's internal rotation Ω(r,Θ) has previously been measured using helioseismology techniques and found to be a complex function of colatitude θ and radius r. From helioseismology and observations of apparently "rooted" solar magnetic tracers, we know that the surface rotates more slowly than much of the interior. The cause of this slow-down is not understood, but it is important for understanding stellar rotation generally and any plausible theory of the solar interior. A new analysis using 5-min solar p-mode limb oscillations as a rotation "tracer" finds an even larger velocity gradient in a thin region at the top of the photosphere...
February 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211313/detection-and-elimination-of-corynebacterium-bovis-from-barrier-rooms-by-using-an-environmental-sampling-surveillance-program
#4
Christopher A Manuel Umarani Pugazhenthi Shannon P Spiegel And Jori K Leszczynski
Rodent health-monitoring programs based on sampling an IVC system's exhaust air dust (EAD) has enhanced and evenreplaced traditional sentinels for some rodent pathogens. EAD testing by qPCR assay is an optimal surveillance methodfor the rapid detection of Corynebacterium bovis-infected immunodeficient mice. Here we demonstrate that an active EADsurveillance program for C. bovis can be used to maintain nude mice C. bovis-free after the transition from historically enzootically infected colonies. During 3 events over 3 y, rapid detection of infection, elimination of infected mice, aggressivequarantine measures, and local decontamination prevented the spread of C...
February 16, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210890/toward-a-holistic-environmental-impact-assessment-of-marble-quarrying-and-processing-proposal-of-a-novel-easy-to-use-ipat-based-method
#5
Cinzia Capitano, Giorgia Peri, Gianfranco Rizzo, Patrizia Ferrante
Marble is a natural dimension stone that is widely used in building due to its resistance and esthetic qualities. Unfortunately, some concerns have arisen regarding its production process because quarrying and processing activities demand significant amounts of energy and greatly affect the environment. Further, performing an environmental analysis of a production process such as that of marble requires the consideration of many environmental aspects (e.g., noise, vibrations, dust and waste production, energy consumption)...
March 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209048/waste-exposure-and-skin-diseases
#6
Matteo Megna, Maddalena Napolitano, Claudia Costa, Nicola Balato, Cataldo Patruno
Waste is a composite mixture of different substances including endotoxins, organic dust and bio-aerosol stuffed with micro-organisms, as well as various toxic organic and inorganic chemicals, which may be intrinsically hazardous to human health. Therefore, health risks may derive from direct or indirect contact with garbage. Although few epidemiological and clinical surveys investigated on the adverse effects of garbage exposure on human health, particularly regarding respiratory, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal and mucous membranes systems, only very limited data are available on the relationship between waste exposure and cutaneous diseases...
February 16, 2017: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208496/extension-of-discrete-tribocharging-models-to-continuous-size-distributions
#7
Dylan Carter, Christine Hartzell
Triboelectric charging, the phenomenon by which electrical charge is exchanged during contact between two surfaces, has been known to cause significant charge separation in granular mixtures, even between chemically identical grains. This charging is a stochastic size-dependent process resulting from random collisions between grains. The prevailing models and experimental results suggest that, in most cases, larger grains in a mixture of dielectric grains acquire a positive charge, while smaller grains charge negatively...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207927/attenuated-airway-hyperresponsiveness-and-mucus-secretion-in-hdm-exposed-igf1r-deficient-mice
#8
S Piñeiro-Hermida, J A Gregory, I P López, R Torrens, C Ruíz-Martínez, M Adner, J G Pichel
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common chronic lung disease characterized by airflow obstruction, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation. IGFs have been reported to play a role in asthma but little is known about how the Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R) affects asthma pathobiology. METHODS: Female Igf1r-deficient and control mice were intranasally challenged with house dust mite (HDM) extract or PBS five days per week for four weeks. Lung function measurements, and bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), serum and lungs were collected on day 28 for further cellular, histological and molecular analysis...
February 16, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207081/can-we-be-too-clean-for-our-own-good-the-hygiene-hypothesis-reviewed
#9
Sheenal Patel, Rebecca Gruchalla
The hygiene hypothesis began as an attempt to explain the relatively rapid rise in atopic diseases. Strachan's early hypothesis regarding the role of family size and exposure to early childhood infections in the development of atopic diseases has clearly evolved to integrate the possible effects of hygiene, eradication of parasitic infections, immunizations, improvements in home heating and ventilation, dust mite exposure, breastfeeding duration, diet, parental smoking, pollution, and exposure to pets and farm animals...
February 1, 2017: Texas Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204888/ultra-high-sensitive-pah-analysis-of-certified-reference-materials-and-environmental-samples-by-gc-apli-ms
#10
Sigrid Große Brinkhaus, Jan B Thiäner, Christine Achten
Due to several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) being highly carcinogenic and at the same time occurring at very low environmental concentrations up to the microgram per kilogram range, highly sensitive chemical analysis in various matrices is needed. Here, for the first time, a method using gas chromatography (GC) and atmospheric pressure laser ionization-mass spectrometry (APLI-MS), which is much more sensitive compared to common GC-MS, proved to produce reliable (certified reference materials) and comparable (GC-MS) results...
February 15, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203645/saharan-dust-detection-using-multi-sensor-satellite-measurements
#11
Sriharsha Madhavan, John J Qu, X Hao
Contemporary scientists have vested interest in trying to understand the climatology of the North Atlantic Basin since this region is considered as the genesis for hurricane formation that eventually get shipped to the tropical Atlantic region and the Caribbean. The effects of atmospheric water cycle and the climate of West Africa and the Atlantic basin are hugely impacted by the radiative forcing of Saharan dust. The focus area in this paper would be to improve the dust detection schemes by employing the use of multi sensor measurements in the thermal emissive wavelengths using legacy sensors such as Terra (T) and Aqua (A) MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), fusing with Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)...
February 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202226/air-pollution-pm2-5-composition-source-factors-and-respiratory-symptoms-in-asthmatic-and-nonasthmatic-children-in-santiago-chile
#12
Laura Prieto-Parra, Karla Yohannessen, Cecilia Brea, Daniella Vidal, Carlos A Ubilla, Pablo Ruiz-Rudolph
The objective of this study was to determine the association of respiratory symptoms and medication use and exposure to various air pollutants, PM2.5 components, and source factors in a panel of asthmatic and nonasthmatic children in Santiago, Chile. To this end, 174 children (90 asthmatics and 84 nonasthmatics) were followed throughout the winter months of 2010 and 2011. During the study period, children filled out daily diaries to record respiratory symptoms and medication use. Air pollution data were obtained from government central site measurements and a PM2...
February 12, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195657/pulmonary-function-and-airway-inflammation-among-dairy-parlor-workers-after-exposure-to-inhalable-aerosols
#13
Matthew W Nonnenmann, David Gimeno Ruiz de Porras, Jeffrey Levin, David Douphrate, Vijay Boggaram, Joshua Schaffer, Michael Gallagher, Madeleine Hornick, Stephen Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Inhalation exposure to organic dust causes lung inflammation among agricultural workers. Due to changes in production and work organization, task-based inhalation exposure data, including novel lung inflammation biomarkers, will inform exposure recommendations for dairy farm workers. METHODS: Linear regression was used to estimate the associations of airborne exposure to dust concentration, endotoxin, and muramic acid with pulmonary outcomes (i.e., FEV1 , exhaled nitric oxide)...
March 2017: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194483/-placebo-effect-in-clinical-trials-with-allergen-specific-immunotherapy-with-inhalant-allergens
#14
B Wedi, D Wieczorek, A Kapp
Placebo effects play an important role in the treatment of allergic diseases. Therefore, in this study, we analysed the described effects of placebo in all double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials of allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) with inhalant allergens (birch, grass, house dust mites) listed in the tables (updated July 2016) attached to the German S2k guideline on allergen-specific immunotherapy in IgE-mediated allergic diseases. The most common placebo consisted of verum without allergen, but when the subcutaneous route was used, histamine was sometimes added...
February 13, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194190/prevalence-of-allergen-sensitization-in-1000-adults-in-saskatchewan
#15
Stacey D Lok, Beth E Davis, Donald W Cockcroft
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of sensitization varies geographically based on multiple environmental factors including humidity. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of atopy in symptomatic adults. More importantly we aimed to obtain a regional statistic of sensitization to common allergens given Saskatchewan's dry climate. METHODS: One thousand consecutive symptomatic adults were screened for atopy via skin prick test over 10 years (2006-2016) in the Division of Respirology...
2017: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194087/occupational-bronchiolitis-induced-by-cotton-dust-exposure-in-a-nonsmoker
#16
Richa Mittal, Pawan Gupta, Sunil K Chhabra
The most well-known disease caused by cotton dust is byssinosis though it is also associated with chronic obstructive airways disease, and very rarely, interstitial lung disease. Obliterative bronchiolitis has never been reported in this setting. We report a 63-year-old, nonsmoker male, who presented with complaints of cough and exertional dyspnoea for 10 years. He had worked in textile industry for 35 years and symptoms had persisted even after quitting. Examination revealed prolonged expiration with expiratory wheeze, and pulmonary function tests revealed severe airflow limitation with air trapping and impaired diffusion capacity...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192994/cats-internal-exposure-to-selected-bfrs-and-organochlorines-correlated-to-house-dust-and-cat-food
#17
Jessica Norrgran Engdahl, Anders Bignert, Bernt Jones, Ioannis Athanassiadis, Ake Bergman, Jana Melinda Weiss
Pet cats may be used as a biomarker for assessing exposures to organohalogen compounds (OHCs) adsorbed to household dust in home environments. This study explores two exposure routes of OHCs, i) ingestion of OHCs via house dust and ii) via cat food. House dust from 17 Swedish homes and serum from the participating families' pet cats were collected and cat food purchased matching the diet reported. Paired samples of cat serum, house dust, and cat food were analysed for brominated flame retardants/natural products (PBDEs, BB-209, DBDPE, 2,4,6-TBP, OH-PBDEs) and organochlorines (PCBs, DDT, DDE, HCB, PCP)...
February 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192144/maternal-house-dust-mite-exposure-during-pregnancy-enhances-severity-of-hdm-induced-asthma-in-murine-offspring
#18
Phoebe K Richgels, Amnah Yamani, Claire A Chougnet, Ian P Lewkowich
BACKGROUND: Atopic status of the mother and maternal exposure to environmental factors is associated with increased asthma risk. Moreover, animal models demonstrate that exposure to allergens in strongly sensitized mothers influences offspring asthma development, suggesting that in utero exposures can influence offspring asthma. However, it is unclear whether maternal exposure to common human allergens like house dust mite (HDM), in the absence of additional adjuvants, influences offspring asthma development...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191303/alma-observations-of-the-water-fountain-pre-planetary-nebula-iras-16342-3814-high-velocity-bipolar-jets-and-an-expanding-torus
#19
R Sahai, W H T Vlemmings, T Gledhill, C Sánchez Contreras, E Lagadec, L-Å Nyman, G Quintana-Lacaci
We have mapped (12)CO J=3-2 and other molecular lines from the "water-fountain" bipolar pre-planetary nebula (PPN) IRAS 16342-3814 with [Formula: see text] resolution using ALMA. We find (i) two very high-speed knotty, jet-like molecular outflows, (ii) a central high-density (> few × 10(6) cm(-3)), expanding torus of diameter 1300 AU, and (iii) the circumstellar envelope of the progenitor AGB, generated by a sudden, very large increase in the mass-loss rate to > 3.5 × 10(-4)M⊙ yr(-1) in the past ~455 yr...
January 20, 2017: Astrophysical Journal. Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190887/alma-compact-array-observations-of-the-fried-egg-nebula-evidence-for-large-scale-asymmetric-mass-loss-from-the-yellow-hypergiant-iras-17163-3907
#20
S H J Wallström, E Lagadec, S Muller, J H Black, N L J Cox, R Galván-Madrid, K Justtanont, S Longmore, H Olofsson, R D Oudmaijer, G Quintana-Lacaci, R Szczerba, W Vlemmings, H van Winckel, A Zijlstra
Yellow hypergiants are rare and represent a fast evolutionary stage of massive evolved stars. That evolutionary phase is characterised by a very intense mass loss, the understanding of which is still very limited. Here we report ALMA Compact Array observations of a 50″-mosaic toward the Fried Egg nebula, around one of the few Galactic yellow hypergiants IRAS 17163-3907. The emission from the (12)CO J=2-1 line, H30α recombination line, and continuum is imaged at a resolution of ~8″, revealing the morphology of the molecular environment around the star...
January 10, 2017: Astronomy and Astrophysics
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