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Mari Saito, Yutaka Kikuchi, Alan Kawarai Lefor, Wakamichi Shimamura
BACKGROUND: Allergen sensitization differs according to countries and regions. Understanding the characteristics of allergen sensitization in one's own country is useful for the treatment of patients with allergic diseases. Recently, Japanese cedar pollen (JCP) sensitization is increasing in young Japanese children. Therefore, we evaluated allergen sensitization patterns in under 60-month-old Japanese recurrent wheezers using multiple allergen tests. METHODS: Allergen tests for 204 Japanese recurrent wheezers between April 2010 and April 2016 were reviewed...
2018: Arerugī, [Allergy]
A Travaglini, S Masieri, C Cavaliere, M A Brighetti
Allergies caused by inhalant allergens, particularly pollens, are steadily increasing in urban centers. It is known that atmospheric pollution is strongly related to the inflammatory disease of the upper and lower airways but it is equally important in the development of sensitization towards pollens. Particulate Matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have an enhancement function on the persistence of pollens in the air, increasing the concentration and duration of pollinosis. It is therefore essential to use air quality control methods in urban centers to monitor the presence of pollen and fine dust that can drive the doctor and the patient to improve prevention, a step of primary importance in the treatment of allergies...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Ashley York
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
Xuandao Liu, Chew Lip Ng, De Yun Wang
Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has been proven to be safe and effective from an abundance of Western literature, but data from Asia is less complete. This review aims to examine the basic science, safety and efficacy of SLIT in Asian patients, and to determine future research needs in Asia. We performed a literature search on PUBMED, Scopus, and Cochrane Library database for articles on SLIT originating from Asian countries through Nov 2017. There were 18 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, of which 9 involved solely paediatric subjects...
March 15, 2018: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
Luo Jia-Ying, Chen Zhao, Guo Jia-Jun, Guo Zi-Jun, Lan Xiao, Sun Bao-Qing
BACKGROUND: With the rising prevalence of allergic rhinitis, the utility of indoor environmental management deserves increasing scrutiny. This research aims at evaluating the ability of air purifiers to be a therapy of allergic rhinitis. METHODS: 32 subjects (25±13.5 years old) diagnosed with allergic rhinitis were selected and HEPA air purifiers placed in their bedrooms for 4 months. Before the intervention and each month, dust samples were collected with a vacuum cleaner and the dust collector assessed for allergen content...
March 12, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
Ahmad Reza Mokhtari, Sadat Feiznia, Mohammad Jafari, Ali Tavili, Mohammad-Javad Ghaneei-Bafghi, Farah Rahmany, Ruth Kerry
The Kushk Pb-Zn mine is located in Central Iran and it has been in operation for the last 75 years. To investigate the role of wind dispersion of heavy metal pollutants from the mine area, dust samples were collected during 1 year and topsoil samples were collected around the mine. Results showed that the topsoil is polluted with Pb and Zn to about 1500 m away from the mine. It was also found that there was not a significant difference between the metal concentrations in topsoil and dust samples. The Pb and Zn concentrations in the dust samples exceeded 200 mg kg-1 and their lateral dispersion via wind was estimated to be about 4 km away from the mine...
March 16, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Yifeng Xue, Yong Wang, Xuefeng Li, Hezhong Tian, Lei Nie, Xiaoqing Wu, Junrui Zhou, Zhen Zhou
The mass concentration and major chemical components of fine particulate matter were measured before, during and after Beijing's massive parade commemorating 70th anniversary of the Chinese Victory in World War II on September 3, 2015. Regional emission inventory, positive matrix factorization (PMF), observations from space and backward air mass trajectories were jointly applied to identify the major pollution sources and their temporal and spatial variations. The contributions of emissions variations and the meteorological conditions related to the "parade blue" phenomenon in Beijing and its surrounding areas were investigated in detail...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Jamey R Szalay, Petr Pokorný, Peter Jenniskens, Mihály Horányi
The Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer mission orbited the Moon from 2013 October to 2014 April and detected impact ejecta generated by the continual bombardment of meteoroids to the lunar surface. While the Moon transited the Geminid meteoroid stream, LDEX observed a large enhancement in the lunar impact ejecta cloud, particularly above the portion of lunar surface normal to the Geminids radiant. Here, we present the LDEX measurements during the Geminids, using the surface density of impact ejecta at the Moon as a proxy for meteoroid activity...
March 2018: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Qinjian Jin, Chien Wang
The trends of both rainfall and circulation strength of the Indian summer monsoon has been reviving since 2002. Here, using observational data, we demonstrate a statistically significant greening over the Northwest Indian Subcontinent and a consequent decline in dust abundance due to the monsoon revival. The enhanced monsoonal rainfall causes an increase in soil moisture, which results in a significant greening in the Northwest Indian Subcontinent. These increases in rainfall, soil moisture, and vegetation together lead to a substantial reduction of the dust abundance in this region, especially the Thar Desert, as shown by a negative trend in satellite-retrieved aerosol optical depth...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jihui Zhang, Jie Chen, Shannon C Mangat, Chathuri Perera Baruhupolage, David R Garrod, Clive Robinson
INTRODUCTION: Intracellular reactive oxidant species (ROS) are generated in human airway epithelial cells by the prothrombinase action of Group 1 house dust mite (HDM) allergens and by ligation of viral RNA sensor Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We explored signaling convergence between HDM allergens and TLRs in ROS generation because epithelial cells form the primary barrier against inhaled substances and dictate host responses to allergens and viruses. METHODS: ROS formation by Calu-3 human airway cells was studied by measuring dihydrorhodamine 123 oxidation after activation by polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (to activate TLR3), CL097 (to activate TLR7), a natural mixture of HDM allergens, or BzATP...
March 15, 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
Jonathan C Ryan, Alun Hubbard, Marek Stibal, Tristram D Irvine-Fynn, Joseph Cook, Laurence C Smith, Karen Cameron, Jason Box
Albedo-a primary control on surface melt-varies considerably across the Greenland Ice Sheet yet the specific surface types that comprise its dark zone remain unquantified. Here we use UAV imagery to attribute seven distinct surface types to observed albedo along a 25 km transect dissecting the western, ablating sector of the ice sheet. Our results demonstrate that distributed surface impurities-an admixture of dust, black carbon and pigmented algae-explain 73% of the observed spatial variability in albedo and are responsible for the dark zone itself...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Mette Schou Nissen, Zara Ann Stokholm, Mette Skovgaard Christensen, Vivi Schlünssen, Jesper Medom Vestergaard, Inge Brosbøl Iversen, Henrik Albert Kolstad
BACKGROUND: Sinonasal adenocarcinoma is a rare disease expected to have rare causes and potential for strong risk factors as reflected by the strong association with occupational wood dust exposure. High level styrene exposure is a rare and suspected carcinogen, and this study examines the exposure-response relation between occupational styrene exposure, sinonasal adenocarcinoma and other subtypes. METHODS: We followed 73 092 styrene-exposed workers from 1968 to 2011 and identified sinonasal cancers in the Danish Cancer Registry...
March 14, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Qike Wang, Yidan Shang, Douglas S Hilton, Kiao Inthavong, Dong Zhang, Mark A Elgar
The elaborate bipectinate antennae of male moths are thought to increase their sensitivity to female sex pheromones, and so should be favoured by selection. Yet simple filamentous antennae are the most common structure among moths. The stereotypic arrangements of scales on the surface of antennae may resolve this paradox. We use computational fluid dynamics techniques to model how scales on the filamentous antennae of moths affect the passage of different particles in the airflow across the flagellum in both small and large moths...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Tunga Salthammer, Yinping Zhang, Jinhan Mo, Holger M Koch, Charles J Weschler
There is an ongoing probing of the role of chemicals in the indoor environment. The majority of potential target substances are so-called very volatile, volatile and semi volatile organic compounds (VVOCs, VOCs and SVOCs). Depending on their physical properties and mass transfer conditions, they distribute in or between the gas phase, particle phase, settled house dust, surface films, clothing and other fabrics as well as the exposed skin and hair of the occupants themselves. Therefore, inhalation, ingestion and dermal uptake all must be considered as relevant pathways for the exposure assessment in human habitats...
March 14, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Kelsey J Pieper, Victoria E Nystrom, Jeffrey Parks, Kyle Jennings, Harold Faircloth, Jane B Morgan, Jim Bruckner, Marc A Edwards
Recent research has indicated that lead in water of private wells is in the range of that which caused problems in Flint, Michigan. However, there is limited understanding of the mechanisms for water lead release in these systems. We evaluated water lead at the homes of two children with elevated blood lead in Macon County (North Carolina), which did not have identifiable lead paint or lead dust hazards, and examined water lead release patterns among 15 private wells in the county. Water lead release patterns differed among the 15 private wells...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Yonggang Liu, Ming Zhang, Zhengyu Liu, Yan Xia, Yi Huang, Yiran Peng, Jiang Zhu
Climate models generally fail to produce a warmer (by as much as 0.5 °C) early to mid-Holocene than the pre-industrial in the global annual temperature, which has been termed the Holocene temperature conundrum. Here we use a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model to test whether the conundrum can be partially resolved by considering the fact that atmospheric dust loading was much reduced during the early to mid-Holocene. Our experiments show that the global annual mean surface temperature increases by 0...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yrina Rochman, Krista Dienger-Stambaugh, Phoebe K Richgels, Ian P Lewkowich, Andrey V Kartashov, Artem Barski, Gurjit K Khurana Hershey, Warren J Leonard, Harinder Singh
Pathogenic T helper 2 (TH 2) cells, which produce increased amounts of the cytokines interleukin-5 (IL-5) and IL-13, promote allergic disorders, including asthma. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), a cytokine secreted by epithelial and innate immune cells, stimulates such pathogenic TH 2 cell responses. We found that TSLP signaling in mouse CD4+ T cells initiated transcriptional changes associated with TH 2 cell programming. IL-4 signaling amplified and stabilized the genomic response of T cells to TSLP, which increased the frequency of T cells producing IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13...
March 13, 2018: Science Signaling
(no author information available yet)
Tetanus is an acute specific infection caused by obligate anaerobes, which is still a serious public health problem. Tetanus bacterium is an obligate anaerobic bacterium, widely distributed in nature, which can exist in dust, soil, human or animal excrement. The bacteria invade the body primarily through the skin or mucosal wounds, and most commonly in trauma and burn patients, unclean newborns, and unsafe surgical instruments. Exotoxin produced by tetanus bacteria can cause temporary changes in the central nervous system, manifested as systemic skeletal muscle persistence and paroxysmal spasm, severe cases of laryngospasm, asphyxia, lung infections and organ failure, which is a very serious and potentially fatal disease...
March 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
Zhaojie Lu, Qingyang Liu, Ying Xiong, Fan Huang, Jiabin Zhou, James J Schauer
The molecular marker-based chemical mass balance (MM-CMB) method performs well in the source apportionment of organic carbon (OC) but has some difficulty with contributions from primary sources to inorganic secondary ions when apportioning PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less) sources. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) with the input of inorganic and organic tracers can properly estimate the contributions of primary and secondary sources to inorganic secondary ions; however, PMF is unable to apportion several PM2...
March 10, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Muhammad Ishtiaq, Noor Jehan, Said Akbar Khan, Said Muhammad, Umar Saddique, Bushra Iftikhar, Zahidullah
This study was aimed to investigate the potential harmful element (PHE) concentrations in coal dust and evaluate the human risk assessment and health effects near coal mining areas. For this purpose, dust samples were collected near various coal mines in Cherat, Pakistan, and analyzed for the PHE concentrations. Determined PHE concentrations were evaluated for the health risk assessment. Results revealed that ingestion was the major pathway as compared to others for PHE exposure. Individual chronic daily intake (CDI) of PHEs was higher than their respective permissible exposure limits set for oral exposure routes by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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