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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351008/aerosol-characteristics-and-sources-in-yangzhou-china-resolved-by-offline-aerosol-mass-spectrometry-and-other-techniques
#1
Xinlei Ge, Ling Li, Yanfang Chen, Hui Chen, Dan Wu, Junfeng Wang, Xinchun Xie, Shun Ge, Zhaolian Ye, Jianzhong Xu, Mindong Chen
Detailed chemical characterization of fine aerosols (PM2.5) is important for reducing air pollution in densely populated areas, such as the Yangtze River Delta region in China. This study systematically analyzed PM2.5 samples collected during November 2015 to April 2016 in urban Yangzhou using a suite of techniques, in particular, an Aerodyne soot particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SP-AMS). The techniques used here reconstructed the majority of total PM2.5 measured where extracted species comprised on average 91...
March 25, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351006/variola-minor-in-coalfield-areas-of-england-and-wales-1921-34-geographical-determinants-of-a-national-smallpox-epidemic-that-spread-out-of-effective-control
#2
Matthew R Smallman-Raynor, Sarah Rafferty, Andrew D Cliff
This paper uses techniques of binary logistic regression to identify the spatial determinants of the last national epidemic of smallpox to spread in England and Wales, the variola minor epidemic of 1921-34. Adjusting for age and county-level variations in vaccination coverage in infancy, the analysis identifies a dose-response gradient with increasing odds of elevated smallpox rates in local government areas with (i) medium (odds ratio [OR] = 5.32, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.96-14.41) and high (OR = 11...
March 23, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346234/outstanding-animal-studies-in-allergy-i-from-asthma-to-food-allergy-and-anaphylaxis
#3
Erika Jensen-Jarolim, Isabella Pali-Schöll, Franziska Roth-Walter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Animal models published within the past 18 months on asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis, all conditions of rising public health concern, were reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: While domestic animals spontaneously develop asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis, in animal models, divergent sensitization and challenge routes, dosages, intervals and antigens are used to induce asthmatic, food allergic or anaphylactic phenotypes. This must be considered in the interpretation of results...
March 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345684/-analysis-of-changes-in-radiographic-lung-image-and-lung-ventilation-disorders-in-workers-occupationally-exposed-to-chrysotile-in-the-past
#4
Elżbieta Cwynar, Beata Świątkowska, Jarosław Tomczyk
BACKGROUND: The adverse health effects of occupational exposure to asbestos dust may occur several years after first exposure. The objective of the study was to assess the relationship between lesions in the respiratory system and the factors contributing to occupational exposure to asbestos described in the first medical examination as well as to analyze the factors responsible for the progression of these changes in further medical tests. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group comprised 591 former workers of asbestos processing plant "Gambit" in Lubawka...
March 24, 2017: Medycyna Pracy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344367/cross-saharan-transport-of-water-vapor-via-recycled-cold-pool-outflows-from-moist-convection
#5
Tomasz M Trzeciak, Luis Garcia-Carreras, John H Marsham
Very sparse data have previously limited observational studies of meteorological processes in the Sahara. We present an observed case of convectively driven water vapor transport crossing the Sahara over 2.5 days in June 2012, from the Sahel in the south to the Atlas in the north. A daily cycle is observed, with deep convection in the evening generating moist cold pools that fed the next day's convection; the convection then generated new cold pools, providing a vertical recycling of moisture. Trajectories driven by analyses were able to capture the direction of the transport but not its full extent, particularly at night when cold pools are most active, and analyses missed much of the water content of cold pools...
February 16, 2017: Geophysical Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343359/characterization-of-pm2-5-chemical-composition-at-the-demokritos-suburban-station-in-athens-greece-the-influence-of-saharan-dust
#6
Vasiliki Vasilatou, Evangelia Diapouli, Dimitrios Abatzoglou, Evangelos B Bakeas, Michael Scoullos, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis
The aim of this work is to study the atmospheric concentrations of selected major and trace elements and ions found in PM2.5, at a suburban site in Athens, Greece, and discuss on the impact of the different sources. Special focus is given to the influence of Saharan dust episodes. The seasonal variability in the metal and ion concentrations is also examined. The results show that PM2.5 mass concentrations are significantly influenced by Saharan dust events; it is observed that when the PM2.5 concentration is higher than 25 μg/m(3), five out of six times, the air mass crossed North Africa at an altitude within the boundary layer...
March 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343320/allergic-airway-inflammation-induces-migration-of-mast-cell-populations-into-the-mouse-airway
#7
David Schmit, Duc Dung Le, Sebastian Heck, Markus Bischoff, Thomas Tschernig, Christian Herr, Christoph Beisswenger, Peter Kobelt, Phillipp Moritz Lepper, Kian Fan Chung, Robert Bals, Quoc Thai Dinh
Mast cells (MCs) and airway nerves play an important role in allergic asthma. However, little is known about the MCs and their interaction with airway nerves during allergic airway inflammation. This study aims to investigate the distribution and proliferation of MC populations in different lung compartments, along with the association of mast cells with nerve endings, using a house dust mite (HDM) model for allergic airway inflammation. BALB/c mice were exposed to HDM extract intranasally (25 μg/50 μl) for 5 consecutive days a week over 7 weeks...
March 25, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343099/source-apportionments-of-ambient-fine-particulate-matter-in-israeli-jordanian-and-palestinian-cities
#8
Jongbae Heo, Bo Wu, Ziad Abdeen, Radwan Qasrawi, Jeremy A Sarnat, Geula Sharf, Kobby Shpund, James J Schauer
This manuscript evaluates spatial and temporal variations of source contributions to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Israeli, Jordanian, and Palestinian cities. Twenty-four hour integrated PM2.5 samples were collected every six days over a 1-year period (January to December 2007) in four cities in Israel (West Jerusalem, Eilat, Tel Aviv, and Haifa), four cities in Jordan (Amman, Aqaba, Rahma, and Zarka), and three cities in Palestine (Nablus, East Jerusalem, and Hebron). The PM2.5 samples were analyzed for major chemical components, including organic carbon and elemental carbon, ions, and metals, and the results were used in a positive matrix factorization (PMF) model to estimate source contributions to PM2...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343040/the-influence-of-lead-content-in-drinking-water-household-dust-soil-and-paint-on-blood-lead-levels-of-children-in-flin-flon-manitoba-and-creighton-saskatchewan
#9
Adam M Safruk, Erin McGregor, Melissa L Whitfield Aslund, Paul H Cheung, Celine Pinsent, Blair J Jackson, Alan T Hair, Murray Lee, Elliot A Sigal
Lead exposure continues to be an important health issue despite the general removal of lead sources in commercial and industrial applications. Low levels of lead exposure have been found to produce adverse neurodevelopmental effects in children with no evidence that a threshold exists for this critical endpoint. Blood lead levels (BLLs) were measured in children (n=118) under the age of 7years in the northern Canadian smelter community of Flin Flon, Manitoba and Creighton, Saskatchewan. An environmental sampling component was included to examine the relationship between lead content in outdoor soil, household dust, tap water, and paint within a given household and the corresponding BLLs in participating children...
March 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343023/classification-of-footwear-outsole-patterns-using-fourier-transform-and-local-interest-points
#10
Nicole Richetelli, Mackenzie C Lee, Carleen A Lasky, Madison E Gump, Jacqueline A Speir
Successful classification of questioned footwear has tremendous evidentiary value; the result can minimize the potential suspect pool and link a suspect to a victim, a crime scene, or even multiple crime scenes to each other. With this in mind, several different automated and semi-automated classification models have been applied to the forensic footwear recognition problem, with superior performance commonly associated with two different approaches: correlation of image power (magnitude) or phase, and the use of local interest points transformed using the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and compared using Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC)...
March 4, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341862/follistatin-like-1-aggravates-silica-induced-mouse-lung-injury
#11
Yinshan Fang, Si Zhang, Xiaohe Li, Fangxin Jiang, Qiao Ye, Wen Ning
Occupational inhalation of dust, such as crystalline silica, for prolonged periods in the workplace leads to fibrotic lung diseases worldwide. The mechanisms underlying the diseases are unknown, so that no effective treatment exists for these conditions. We found elevated levels of follistatin like 1 (FSTL1) in serum from patients with silicosis and in lungs from silica-induced mouse model. The induced Fstl1 regulated inflammation response via activation of nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3v (NLRP3) inflammasome-mediated IL-1β production from macrophages...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340540/use-of-the-moses-technology-to-improve-holmium-laser-lithotripsy-outcomes-a-preclinical-study
#12
Mostafa M Elhilali, Shadie Badaan, Ahmed Ibrahim, Sero Andonian
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in vitro and in vivo effects of Moses technology in Holmium laser and to compare it with the Regular mode in terms of lithotripsy efficiency and laser-tissue interactions. METHODS: The Lumenis® PulseTM P120H holmium laser system together with Moses D/F/L fibers were used to compare Regular mode with the Moses modes in stone retropulsion using a high-speed camera, and stone ablation efficiency. In addition, a porcine ureteroscopy model was used to assess stone fragmentation and dusting as well as laser-tissue interaction with the ureteral wall...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339019/occupational-exposure-to-mount-etna-s-basaltic-dust-assessment-of-mutagenic-and-cytotoxic-effects
#13
Caterina Ledda, Salvatore Cocuzza, Monica Salerno, Paola Senia, Serena Matera, Venerando Rapisarda, Carla Loreto
Basalt and volcanic ash are natural constituents of the ground surrounding volcanic areas such as Mount Etna. The dust may be daily inhaled by the general population as well as by several types of workers, such as construction workers. In this experiment, we analyzed the potential mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of the materials used in construction industry, excavated from Mt. Etna. Ground basalt (A), volcanic ash (B), mixed basalt and cement (C) and cement (D) were studied with Ames test, for mutagenic assessment and with MMT assay for cytotoxic evaluation...
March 24, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338636/survey-on-urinary-levels-of-aflatoxins-in-professionally-exposed-workers
#14
Fulvio Ferri, Carlo Brera, Barbara De Santis, Giorgio Fedrizzi, Tiziana Bacci, Lorena Bedogni, Sauro Capanni, Giorgia Collini, Enrica Crespi, Francesca Debegnach, Patrizia Ferdenzi, Angelo Gargano, Daniela Gattei, Ferdinando Luberto, Ines Magnani, Massimo Giuseppe Magnani, Pamela Mancuso, Simonetta Menotta, Stefania Mozzanica, Milva Olmi, Giuseppe Ombrini, Orietta Sala, Sabina Soricelli, Massimo Vicentini, Paolo Giorgi Rossi
Feed mill workers may handle or process maize contaminated with aflatoxins (AFs). This condition may lead to an unacceptable intake of toxins deriving from occupational exposure. This study assessed the serological and urinary levels of AFs in workers exposed to potentially contaminated dusts in two mills. From March to April 2014, blood and urine samples were collected, on Monday and Friday morning of the same working week from 29 exposed workers and 30 non-exposed controls. AFs (M₁, G₂, G₁, B₁, B₂) and aflatoxicol (AFOH) A were analyzed...
March 24, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338053/optimal-array-of-sand-fences
#15
Izael A Lima, Ascânio D Araújo, Eric J R Parteli, José S Andrade, Hans J Herrmann
Sand fences are widely applied to prevent soil erosion by wind in areas affected by desertification. Sand fences also provide a way to reduce the emission rate of dust particles, which is triggered mainly by the impacts of wind-blown sand grains onto the soil and affects the Earth's climate. Many different types of fence have been designed and their effects on the sediment transport dynamics studied since many years. However, the search for the optimal array of fences has remained largely an empirical task...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336946/real-time-observational-evidence-of-changing-asian-dust-morphology-with-the-mixing-of-heavy-anthropogenic-pollution
#16
Xiaole Pan, Itsushi Uno, Zhe Wang, Tomoaki Nishizawa, Nobuo Sugimoto, Shigekazu Yamamoto, Hiroshi Kobayashi, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Xiao Tang, Zifa Wang
Natural mineral dust and heavy anthropogenic pollution and its complex interactions cause significant environmental problems in East Asia. Due to restrictions of observing technique, real-time morphological change in Asian dust particles owing to coating process of anthropogenic pollutants is still statistically unclear. Here, we first used a newly developed, single-particle polarization detector and quantitatively investigate the evolution of the polarization property of backscattering light reflected from dust particle as they were mixing with anthropogenic pollutants in North China...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336663/-c-ii-158-%C3%AE-m-emission-from-the-host-galaxies-of-damped-lyman-alpha-systems
#17
Marcel Neeleman, Nissim Kanekar, J Xavier Prochaska, Marc Rafelski, Chris L Carilli, Arthur M Wolfe
Gas surrounding high-redshift galaxies has been studied through observations of absorption line systems toward background quasars for decades. However, it has proven difficult to identify and characterize the galaxies associated with these absorbers due to the intrinsic faintness of the galaxies compared with the quasars at optical wavelengths. Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array, we report on detections of [C ii] 158-μm line and dust-continuum emission from two galaxies associated with two such absorbers at a redshift of z ~ 4...
March 24, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336085/the-dual-effect-of-vegetation-green-up-date-and-strong-wind-on-the-return-period-of-spring-dust-storms
#18
Jieling Feng, Ning Li, Zhengtao Zhang, Xi Chen
Vegetation phenology changes have been widely applied in the disaster risk assessments of the spring dust storms, and vegetation green-up date shifts have a strong influence on dust storms. However, the effect of earlier vegetation green-up dates due to climate warming on the evaluation of dust storms return periods remains an important, but poorly understood issue. In this study, we evaluate the spring dust storm return period (February to June) in Inner Mongolia, Northern China, using 165 observations of severe spring dust storm events from 16 weather stations, and regional vegetation green-up dates as an integrated factor from NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), covering a period from 1982 to 2007, by building the bivariate Copula model...
March 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335405/association-of-short-term-exposure-to-ambient-fine-particulate-matter-with-skin-symptoms-in-schoolchildren-a-panel-study-in-a-rural-area-of-western-japan
#19
Masanari Watanabe, Hisashi Noma, Jun Kurai, Hiroyuki Sano, Kyoko Iwata, Degejirihu Hantan, Yuji Tohda, Eiji Shimizu
Numerous studies have unmasked the deleterious effects of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) on health. However, epidemiologic evidence focusing on the effects of PM2.5 on skin health remains limited. An important aspect of Asian dust (AD) in relationship to health is the amount of PM2.5 contained therein. Several studies have demonstrated that AD can aggravate skin symptoms. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of short-term exposure to PM2.5 and AD particles on skin symptoms in schoolchildren...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334298/distribution-and-persistence-of-sterile-screwworms-diptera-calliphoridae-released-at-the-panama-colombia-border
#20
Steven R Skoda, Pamela L Phillips, Agustin Sagel, Muhammad F Chaudhury
The sterile insect technique is used by the Comisión Panamá - Estados Unidos para la Erradicación y Prevención del Gusano Barrenador del Ganado (COPEG) to maintain a barrier at the border of Panama and Colombia to prevent screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), from South America reinfesting North America. Before studying the distribution and persistence of sterilized, mass-produced screwworms released in the barrier zone, the utility of applying fluorescent dust (∼1.0 mg/fly) to pupae and to newly emerged adults was evaluated to determine the potential effect on fly survival...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
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