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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198226/environmental-impacts-of-precision-feeding-programs-applied-in-pig-production
#1
I Andretta, L Hauschild, M Kipper, P G S Pires, C Pomar
This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect that switching from conventional to precision feeding systems during the growing-finishing phase would have on the potential environmental impact of Brazilian pig production. Standard life-cycle assessment procedures were used, with a cradle-to-farm gate boundary. The inputs and outputs of each interface of the life cycle (production of feed ingredients, processing in the feed industry, transportation and animal rearing) were organized in a model. Grain production was independently characterized in the Central-West and South regions of Brazil, whereas the pigs were raised in the South region...
December 4, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132394/comparative-epidemiology-of-porcine-circovirus-type-3-in-pigs-with-different-clinical-presentations
#2
Shao-Lun Zhai, Xia Zhou, He Zhang, Ben M Hause, Tao Lin, Runxia Liu, Qin-Ling Chen, Wen-Kang Wei, Dian-Hong Lv, Xiao-Hui Wen, Feng Li, Dan Wang
BACKGROUND: Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3), as an emerging circovirus species, was reported to be widely circulating in the United States, China, South Korea and Poland. Previous studies revealed that PCV3 was mainly concentrated in sick animals with respiratory disease, skin disease, reproductive disorders and so on. However, the circulating status of PCV3 in pigs with other clinical presentations (especilly asymptomatic or diarrhea) was not well established. FINDINGS: In this study, to conduct a comparative epidemiological survey of PCV3, 80 weaned pig serum samples with severe respiratory disease (SRD), 175 weaned pig serum samples with mild respiratory disease (MRD), 216 asymptomatic weaned pig serum samples, 35 diarrheal weaned pig samples and 35 non-diarrheal weaned pig samples were collected from eight provinces of China...
November 13, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123542/effects-of-diet-and-genetics-on-growth-performance-of-pigs-in-response-to-repeated-exposure-to-heat-stress
#3
Wendy M Rauw, E Johana Mayorga, Soi Meng Lei, Jack C M Dekkers, John F Patience, Nicholas K Gabler, Steven M Lonergan, Lance H Baumgard
Heat stress (HS) is one of the costliest issues in the U.S. pork industry. Aims of the present study were to determine the consequences of repeated exposure to HS on growth performance, and the effects of a high fiber diet, the genetic potential for high lean tissue accretion, and the genetic potential for residual feed intake (RFI) on resilience to HS. Barrows (n = 97) from three genetic lines (commercial, high RFI, low RFI) where subjected three times to a 4-day HS treatment (HS1, HS2, and HS3) which was preceded by a 9-day neutral (TN) adaptation period (TN1) and alternated by 7-day periods of neutral temperatures (TN2, TN3, and TN4)...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992016/determining-the-effects-of-early-gestation-in-utero-heat-stress-on-postnatal-fasting-heat-production-and-circulating-biomarkers-associated-with-metabolism-in-growing-pigs
#4
N M Chapel, C J Byrd, D W Lugar, G M Morello, L H Baumgard, J W Ross, T J Safranski, M C Lucy, J S Johnson
The study objective was to characterize effects of early gestation in utero heat stress (IUHS) on postnatal fasting heat production (FHP) and blood biomarkers associated with metabolism in growing pigs. Based on previous observation of increased postnatal core body temperature set point in IUHS pigs, we hypothesized that FHP would be altered during postnatal life because of IUHS. Pregnant first-parity gilts were exposed to thermoneutral (TN; = 4; 17.8 ± 0.1°C) or heat stress (HS; = 4; cyclical 28 to 38°C) conditions from d 30 to 60 of gestation...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797058/quantitative-approach-for-the-risk-assessment-of-african-swine-fever-and-classical-swine-fever-introduction-into-the-united-states-through-legal-imports-of-pigs-and-swine-products
#5
Diana María Herrera-Ibatá, Beatriz Martínez-López, Darla Quijada, Kenneth Burton, Lina Mur
The US livestock safety strongly depends on its capacity to prevent the introduction of Transboundary Animal Diseases (TADs). Therefore, accurate and updated information on the location and origin of those potential TADs risks is essential, so preventive measures as market restrictions can be put on place. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the current risk of African swine fever (ASF) and Classical swine fever (CSF) introduction into the US through the legal importations of live pigs and swine products using a quantitative approach that could be later applied to other risks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736022/use-of-nanoice-for-procurement-achieves-better-cooling-of-liver-grafts
#6
J D Reyes, F G Jalikis, L C Olson, M Yeh, M I Montenovo
BACKGROUND: Rapid cooling at procurement after cross-clamping has been the cornerstone of organ preservation. NanoICE is a new form of ice that has emerged in the food industry and is providing more efficient cooling and preservation than regular ice. We hypothesize that the use of NanoICE will accelerate the cooling process of the allograft and will be able to maintain a steady low temperature without causing any significant histologic damage. METHODS: In this randomized pilot study, 14 pigs were used to study the liver core/surface cooling in a non-survival organ procurement operation...
July 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659600/comparative-genetic-proteomic-and-phosphoproteomic-analysis-of-c-elegans-embryos-with-a-focus-on-ham-1-stox-and-pig-1-melk-in-dopaminergic-neuron-development
#7
Sarah-Lena Offenburger, Dalila Bensaddek, Alejandro Brenes Murillo, Angus I Lamond, Anton Gartner
Asymmetric cell divisions are required for cellular diversity and defects can lead to altered daughter cell fates and numbers. In a genetic screen for C. elegans mutants with defects in dopaminergic head neuron specification or differentiation, we isolated a new allele of the transcription factor HAM-1 [HSN (Hermaphrodite-Specific Neurons) Abnormal Migration]. Loss of both HAM-1 and its target, the kinase PIG-1 [PAR-1(I)-like Gene], leads to abnormal dopaminergic head neuron numbers. We identified discrete genetic relationships between ham-1, pig-1 and apoptosis pathway genes in dopaminergic head neurons...
June 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652378/caenorhabditis-elegans-ces-1-snail-represses-pig-1-melk-expression-to-control-asymmetric-cell-division
#8
Hai Wei, Bo Yan, Julien Gagneur, Barbara Conradt
Snail-like transcription factors affect stem cell function through mechanisms that are incompletely understood. In the Caenorhabditis elegans neurosecretory motor neuron (NSM) neuroblast lineage, CES-1 Snail coordinates cell cycle progression and cell polarity to ensure the asymmetric division of the NSM neuroblast and the generation of two daughter cells of different sizes and fates. We have previously shown that CES-1 Snail controls cell cycle progression by repressing the expression of cdc-25.2 CDC25. However, the mechanism through which CES-1 Snail affects cell polarity has been elusive...
August 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615864/prevalence-of-gastro-intestinal-parasites-in-pigs-in-punjab-india
#9
Mandeep Kaur, Balbir Bagicha Singh, Rajnish Sharma, Jatinder Paul Singh Gill
Gastrointestinal parasites are a common problem in pigs in India. The important risk factors include coprophagic behaviour of pigs and their free access to garbage. To investigate the gastrohelmenthic spectrum in pigs of Punjab, we examined 265 faecal samples from farm (n = 47) and scavenging pigs (n = 218) using faecal floatation method. Ascaris suum, unsporulated oocysts, Trichuris spp. and Strongyloides were recorded in 27.5, 15.4, 1.8 and 4.5 % of the pig faecal samples, respectively. Overall prevalence was significantly higher in pigs >1 year (56...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489173/new-technique-for-obesity-surgery-internal-gastric-plication-technique-using-intragastric-single-port-igs-igp-in-experimental-model
#10
Verena Müller, Panagiotis Fikatas, Safak Gül, Maximilian Noesser, Kirs Ten Fuehrer, Igor Sauer, Johann Pratschke, Ricardo Zorron
Background: Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective method to ameliorate co-morbidities as consequence of morbidly obese patients with BMI over 35 kg/m2. Endoscopic techniques have been developed to treat patients with mild obesity and ameliorate comorbidities, but endoscopic skills are needed, beside the costs of the devices. Aim: To report a new technique for internal gastric plication using an intragastric single port device in an experimental swine model...
January 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339619/relationship-of-neuropeptide-ff-receptors-with-pubertal-maturation-of-gilts-%C3%A2
#11
Jennifer F Thorson, Neely L Heidorn, Vitaly Ryu, Krzysztof Czaja, Danny J Nonneman, C Richard Barb, Gary J Hausman, Gary A Rohrer, Ligia D Prezotto, Richard B McCosh, Elane C Wright, Brett R White, Bradley A Freking, William T Oliver, Stanley M Hileman, Clay A Lents
Mechanisms governing the timing of puberty in pigs are poorly understood. A genome-wide association study for age at first estrus in pigs identified candidate genes including neuropeptide FF receptor 2 (NPFFR2), which is a putative receptor for RFamide-related peptides (RFRP). RFRP has been shown to negatively regulate secretion of reproductive hormones from hypothalamic and pituitary tissue of pigs in culture. Here, the porcine NPFFR2 gene was further screened and four potentially functional variants were identified to be associated with age at first estrus in pigs (1,288 gilts)...
March 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898928/predicting-pork-loin-chop-yield-using-carcass-and-loin-characteristics
#12
K B Wilson, M F Overholt, E K Hogan, C Schwab, C M Shull, M Ellis, N S Grohmann, A C Dilger, D D Boler
The objective was to determine the predictive ability of carcass length for the number of equal-thickness chops obtained from a boneless pork loin. Longer pork carcasses are assumed to yield longer loins and, therefore, an increased number of chops. Loins were collected from pigs (1,238 total) raised under commercial conditions and marketed when the mean pig weight in a pen reached 138 kg. Pigs were slaughtered over 7 wk in a commercial facility. Carcass length was measured at 1 d postmortem on the left side of each carcass from the anterior edge of the symphysis pubis bone to the anterior edge of the first rib...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668273/diffusion-tensor-microscopy-data-15-6%C3%A2-%C3%AE-m-in-plane-of-white-matter-tracts-in-the-human-pig-and-rat-spinal-cord-with-corresponding-tissue-histology
#13
Jeremy J Flint, Brian Hansen, Stephen J Blackband
The following article contains nine diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) datasets acquired with magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM, 15.6 μm in-plane). All data was collected in the region bordering the ventral horn and white matter of cross sections from the spinal cord enlargements along with each sample׳s corresponding tissue histology. These data are collected in fixed spinal cord sections of varying thicknesses taken from rat (2×21 direction DTI datasets), pig (1×21 direction DTI dataset), and human (5×21 direction DTI datasets + 1×6 direction DTI dataset) tissue sources...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484711/influenza-a-virus-in-backyard-pigs-and-poultry-in-rural-cambodia
#14
K Osbjer, M Berg, S Sokerya, K Chheng, S San, H Davun, U Magnusson, B Olsen, S Zohari
Surveillance of influenza virus in humans and livestock is critical, given the worldwide public health threats and livestock production losses. Livestock farming involving close proximity between humans, pigs and poultry is often practised by smallholders in low-income countries and is considered an important driver of influenza virus evolution. This study determined the prevalence and genetic characteristics of influenza A virus (IAV) in backyard pigs and poultry in Cambodia. A total of 751 animals were tested by matrix gene-based rRT-PCR, and influenza virus was detected in 1...
August 2, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27393873/prevalence-of-hydatidosis-and-fertility-of-hydatid-cysts-in-food-animals-in-northern-greece
#15
Anastasia Founta, Spyridon Chliounakis, Konstantina Antoniadou Sotiriadou, Maria Koidou, Vasileios Bampidis
This study was conducted in order to determine the prevalence of hydatidosis due to Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato and the fertility rate of hydatid cysts in sheep, goats, cattle, and pigs slaughtered at the abattoir of Lagkada, in the Prefecture of Thessaloniki, Northern Greece. Lungs and livers from a total of 294 sheep (31.3% infected), 126 goats (8.7% infected), 372 cattle (4.8% infected), and 641 pigs (1.7% infected) were examined. The number of hydatid cysts found in infected sheep was 657 (58.3% fertile, 12...
June 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27280737/a-non-invasive-and-accurate-measurement-of-gingival-thickness-using-cone-beam-computerized-imaging-for-the-assessment-of-planning-immediate-implant-in-the-esthetic-zone-a-pig-jaw-model
#16
Sze Lok Lau, Lop Keung Chow, Yiu Yan Leung
INTRODUCTION: The objective of the study is to compare the accuracy of the measurement of gingival thickness using cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) with direct clinical measurement on a pig jaw model, aiming to provide an alternate and precise method to aid assessment of the gingival biotype before immediate implant placement at the esthetic zone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four pig mandibles were categorized separately into 14 different zones with each prominent tooth cusp as one...
October 2016: Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27244295/quantifying-potential-sources-of-surface-water-contamination-with-campylobacter-jejuni-and-campylobacter-coli
#17
Lapo Mughini-Gras, Christian Penny, Catherine Ragimbeau, Franciska M Schets, Hetty Blaak, Birgitta Duim, Jaap A Wagenaar, Albert de Boer, Henry-Michel Cauchie, Joel Mossong, Wilfrid van Pelt
Campylobacter is the most common causative agent of human bacterial gastroenteritis and is frequently found in surface water, where it indicates recent contamination with animal faeces, sewage effluent, and agricultural run-off. The contribution of different animal reservoirs to surface water contamination with Campylobacter is largely unknown. In the Netherlands, the massive poultry culling to control the 2003 avian influenza epidemic coincided with a 44-50% reduction in human campylobacteriosis cases in the culling areas, suggesting substantial environment-mediated spread of poultry-borne Campylobacter...
September 15, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27222592/systolic-flow-displacement-using-3d-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-an-experimental-model-of-ascending-aorta-aneurysm-impact-of-rheological-factors
#18
Ali Ayaon-Albarran, Rodrigo Fernandez-Jimenez, Jacobo Silva-Guisasola, Jaume Agüero, Javier Sanchez-Gonzalez, Carlos Galan-Arriola, Fernando Reguillo-Lacruz, Luis C Maroto Castellanos, Borja Ibanez
OBJECTIVES: The impact of systolic flow displacement on the development and progression of ascending aorta dilatation in aortic valve disease is a matter of controversy. Our objective was to study the association between rheological stimuli and development of aortic dilatation in a large animal model of supravalvular aortic stenosis and eccentric flow. METHODS: Twenty-four pigs weighing 10-14 kg were randomly allocated (ratio 2:1) to either restrictive ascending aortic banding or sham operation...
October 2016: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27215423/low-occurrence-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-in-finnish-food-producing-animals
#19
M Päivärinta, L Pohjola, M Fredriksson-Ahomaa, A Heikinheimo
ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli is increasingly isolated from humans and animals worldwide. The occurrence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli was studied in food-producing animals in Finland, a country with a low and controlled use of antimicrobials in meat production chain. A total of 648 cattle, 531 pig, 495 broiler and 35 turkey faecal samples were collected from four Finnish slaughterhouses to determine the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL/AmpC)-producing E. coli. In addition, 260 broiler and 15 turkey samples were screened for carbapenemase-producing E...
December 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27175888/phenotypic-transformation-of-smooth-muscle-cells-from%C3%A2-porcine-coronary-arteries-is-associated-with-connexin%C3%A2-43
#20
Xumin Zhang, Xiaodong Wang, Xiaohui Zhou, Xiaoye Ma, Yian Yao, Xuebo Liu
The current study aimed to investigate the relevance of the gap junction protein connexin Cx43 in coronary artery smooth muscle cell (SMC) heterogeneity and coronary artery restenosis. SMCs were isolated from the coronary artery of 3‑month‑old pigs using enzymatic digestion. Two distinct SMC populations were isolated: Rhomboid (R) and spindle‑shaped (S) cells. S‑SMCs exhibited relatively lower rates of proliferation, exhibiting a classic ''hills‑and valleys'' growth pattern; R‑SMCs displayed increased proliferation rates, growing as mono‑ or multi‑layers...
July 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
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