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Manjie Li, Zhaowei Liu, Yongcan Chen, Yang Hai
Interaction between old, corroded iron pipe surfaces and bulk water is crucial to the water quality protection in drinking water distribution systems (WDS). Iron released from corrosion products will deteriorate water quality and lead to red water. This study attempted to understand the effects of pipe materials on corrosion scale characteristics and water quality variations in WDS. A more than 20-year-old hybrid pipe section assembled of unlined cast iron pipe (UCIP) and galvanized iron pipe (GIP) was selected to investigate physico-chemical characteristics of corrosion scales and their effects on water quality variations...
October 18, 2016: Water Research
Zhe Yang, Chao Shan, Weiming Zhang, Zhao Jiang, Xiaohong Guan, Bingcai Pan
Enhanced removal of As(V) and Se(VI) by zero valent iron (ZVI) has been recently revealed by using H2O2 as the corrosion accelerator, however, the detailed performance of such enhanced removal in ZVI column as well as the underlying mechanism is still unclear. In this study, the temporospatial evolution of As(V) and Se(VI) along a self-designed ZVI/H2O2 column in down-flow mode was systematically investigated. The variations of concerned aqueous parameters (pH, ORP, H2O2, Fe(2+), As, and Se) were monitored at different positions along the column throughout the experiments...
October 12, 2016: Water Research
Wei Zhou, Jihui Gao, Haiqian Zhao, Xiaoxiao Meng, Shaohua Wu
The reaction between Fe(2+) and H2O2 generates ·OH, which is capable of degrading organic pollutants. However, the weak conversion from Fe(3+) back to Fe(2+) limits its continuous reaction. Here, difference between Fenton system and modified Fenton system (i.e., Hydroquinone-Fenton, 1,4-Bezoquinone-Fenton, NH2OH-Fenton) for the regeneration of Fe(2+) was analyzed. UV-vis spectrometer and redox potential measurements were used to detect Fe(2+) concentration. HPLC was used to detect concentration of ·OH. Results indicated that, different from traditional Fenton system, Fe(2+) could be better regenerated in modified Fenton system...
October 13, 2016: Environmental Technology
Jim H Hu, Padraic O'Malley, Bilal Chughtai, Abby Isaacs, Jialin Mao, Jason D Wright, Dawn Hershman, Art Sedrakyan
PURPOSE: Robot-assisted surgery has been rapidly adopted in the U.S. for prostate cancer. Its adoption has been driven by market forces and patient preference, and debate continues regarding whether it offers improved outcomes to justify the higher cost relative to open surgery. We examined the comparative effectiveness of robot-assisted vs open radical prostatectomy in cancer control and survival in a nationally representative population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This population based observational cohort study of patients with prostate cancer undergoing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy and open radical prostatectomy during 2003 to 2012 used data captured in the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results)-Medicare linked database...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Urology
Jayeeta Sarkar, Sufia K Kazy, Abhishek Gupta, Avishek Dutta, Balaram Mohapatra, Ajoy Roy, Paramita Bera, Adinpunya Mitra, Pinaki Sar
Nutrient deficiency severely impairs the catabolic activity of indigenous microorganisms in hydrocarbon rich environments (HREs) and limits the rate of intrinsic bioremediation. The present study aimed to characterize the microbial community in refinery waste and evaluate the scope for biostimulation based in situ bioremediation. Samples recovered from the wastewater lagoon of Guwahati refinery revealed a hydrocarbon enriched [high total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)], oxygen-, moisture-limited, reducing environment...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ashok Agarwal, Shubhadeep Roychoudhury, Kimberly B Bjugstad, Chak-Lam Cho
The diagnosis of male infertility relies largely on conventional semen analysis, and its interpretation has a profound influence on subsequent management of patients. Despite poor correlation between conventional semen parameters and male fertility potential, inclusion of advanced semen quality tests to routine male infertility workup algorithms has not been widely accepted. Oxidative stress is one of the major mediators in various etiologies of male infertility; it has deleterious effects on spermatozoa, including DNA damage...
October 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Urology
C Balasubramanian, B Joseph, P B Orpe, N L Saini, S Mukherjee, K Dziedzic-Kocurek, J Stanek, D Di Gioacchino, A Marcelli
Magnetic properties and phase compositions of iron-oxide nanoparticles synthesised by a high temperature arc plasma route have been investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy and high harmonic magnetic AC susceptibility measurements, and correlated with morphological and structural properties for different synthesis conditions. The Mössbauer spectra precisely determined the presence of different iron-oxide fractions in the investigated nanoparticles, while the high harmonic magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed the occurrence of metastable magnetic phases evolving in temperature and time...
November 4, 2016: Nanotechnology
Mario Milazzo, Serena Danti, Francesco Inglese, Godfried Jansen van Vuuren, Vera Gramigna, Gabriella Bonsignori, Andrea De Vito, Luca Bruschini, Cesare Stefanini, Stefano Berrettini
This study shows the fabrication of innovative ossicular replacement prostheses (ORPs) based on banked cortical bone using computer numerically controlled ultraprecision micromilling, as a substantial improvement of "second generation" ORPs. Our aim is to combine optimal middle ear compatibility and surgical manageability in a single device, by releasing off-the-shelf homograft ORPs provided with the appealing features of synthetic ORPs, such as lightness, safety, measurement accuracy, surface decoration, and geometric plasticity...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Ugo Soffientini, Annette Graham
Effective cholesterol homoeostasis is essential in maintaining cellular function, and this is achieved by a network of lipid-responsive nuclear transcription factors, and enzymes, receptors and transporters subject to post-transcriptional and post-translational regulation, whereas loss of these elegant, tightly regulated homoeostatic responses is integral to disease pathologies. Recent data suggest that sterol-binding sensors, exchangers and transporters contribute to regulation of cellular cholesterol homoeostasis and that genetic overexpression or deletion, or mutations, in a number of these proteins are linked with diseases, including atherosclerosis, dyslipidaemia, diabetes, congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia, cancer, autosomal dominant hearing loss and male infertility...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
L A Costa, C C C Ribeiro, L M Cantanhede, J F Santiago Júnior, M R de Mendonça, A L P Pereira
Intrusive luxation is a severe form of dental trauma and there is no consensus regarding its management for permanent teeth. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to identify the appropriate treatment for teeth with intrusive luxation. The PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, US Clinical Trials, and ISRCTN Registry electronic databases were used to search for articles in English and unpublished studies without a date limit. Eligible studies evaluated periodontal results (root resorption as the primary outcome; marginal bone defects and/or pulpal changes as secondary outcomes) after spontaneous re-eruption (SRE), orthodontic repositioning (ORP), or surgical repositioning (SRP) for patients with one or more traumatically intruded permanent teeth...
September 17, 2016: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Kimberly B Bjugstad, Leonard T Rael, Stewart Levy, Matthew Carrick, Charles W Mains, Denetta S Slone, David Bar-Or
There are few reliable markers for assessing traumatic brain injury (TBI). Elevated levels of oxidative stress have been observed in TBI patients. We hypothesized that oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) could be a potent biomarker in TBI. Two types of ORP were measured in patient plasma samples: the static state of oxidative stress (sORP) and capacity for induced oxidative stress (icORP). Differences in ORP values as a function of time after injury, severity, and hospital discharge were compared using ANOVAs with significance at p ≤ 0...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Di Zhang, Huaming Guo, Wei Xiu, Ping Ni, Hao Zheng, Cao Wei
Although reductive dissolution of Fe(III) oxides has been well accepted for As mobilization in alluvial aquifers, the key factors controlling this process are poorly understood. Arsenic(V)-adsorbing ferrihydrite, goethite and hematite were used to examine in-situ mobilization and transformation of adsorbed As(V) and Fe(III) oxides. In the Hetao basin, seven wells with wide ranges of groundwater As were selected to host As(V)-Fe(III) oxides sand. During 80 d experiments, As was firstly desorbed and then released via reductive dissolution of iron oxide from ferrihydrite, while only desorption was observed from goethite/hematite sand...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Michela Langone, Roberta Ferrentino, Maria Cadonna, Gianni Andreottola
A laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) performing partial nitritation - anammox and denitrification was used to treat anaerobic digester effluents. The SBR cycle consisted of a short mixing filling phase followed by oxic and anoxic reaction phases. Working at 25 °C, an ammonium conversion efficiency of 96.5%, a total nitrogen removal efficiency of 88.6%, and an organic carbon removal efficiency of 63.5% were obtained at a nitrogen loading rate of 0.15 kg N m(-3) d(-1), and a biodegradable organic carbon to nitrogen ratio of 0...
December 2016: Chemosphere
Zhaoran Li, Yanqing Sheng, Jian Yang, Edward D Burton
The release of phosphorus (P) from benthic sediments can affect the P content, nutrient status and quality of overlying waters in coastal ecosystem. This study was carried out to investigate the influence of oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and sulfide on P release from sediments in the coastal estuary of the Yuniao River, China. The results showed that ferric iron-bound P was the main P burial phase in the sediments. The P concentration in overlying water increased with ORP decrease and sulfide increase, displaying a significant linear correlation with the ORP and sulfide concentration...
September 7, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Lehua Zhang, Willy Verstraete, María de Lourdes Mendoza, Zhihao Lu, Yongdi Liu, Guangtuan Huang, Lankun Cai
: Natural magnetite and hematite were explored to decrease sulfide in sewage, compared with iron salts (FeCl3 and FeSO4). A particle size of magnetite and hematite ranging from 45 to 60μm was used. The results showed that 40mgL(-1) of powdered magnetite and hematite addition decreased the sulfide in sewage by 79%and 70%, respectively. The achieved decrease of sulfide production capacities were 197.3, 210.6, 317.6 and 283.3mgSg(-1)Fe for magnetite, hematite, FeCl3 and FeSO4 at the optimal dosage of 40mgL(-1), respectively...
September 6, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Bhavna M Vyas, Ashish V Orpe, Manish Kaushal, Yogesh M Joshi
We studied the aging dynamics of an aqueous suspension of LAPONITE®, a model time dependent soft glassy material, using a passive microrheology technique. This system is known to undergo physical aging during which its microstructure evolves progressively to explore lower free energy states. Optical microscopy is used to monitor the motion of micron-sized tracer probes embedded in a sample kept between two glass plates. The mean square displacements (MSD) obtained from the motion of the tracer particles show a systematic change from a purely diffusive behavior at short aging times to a subdiffusive behavior as the material ages...
October 21, 2016: Soft Matter
Dexin Wang, Wencheng Ma, Hongjun Han, Kun Li, Hao Xu, Fang Fang, Baolin Hou, Shengyong Jia
Coupling of the Fe-C micro-electrolysis (IC-ME) into the up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) was developed for enhanced Fischer-Tropsch wastewater treatment. The COD removal efficiency and methane production in R3 with IC-ME assisted both reached up to 80.6 ± 1.7% and 1.38 ± 0.11 L/L·d that higher than those values in R1 with GAC addition (63.0 ± 3.4% and 0.95 ± 0.09 L/L·d) and R2 with ZVI addition (74.5 ± 2.8% and 1.21 ± 0.09 L/L·d) under the optimum HRT (5 d). The Fe corrosion as electron donor reduced the ORP values and stimulated the activities of hydrogenotrophic methanogens to lower H2 partial pressure in R2 and R3...
December 2016: Chemosphere
Jennifer L Murphy, Tracy L Ayers, Jacqueline Knee, Jared Oremo, Aloyce Odhiambo, Sitnah H Faith, Ronald O Nyagol, Christine E Stauber, Daniele S Lantagne, Robert E Quick
Household water treatment with chlorine can improve microbiological quality and reduce diarrhea. Chlorination is typically assessed using free chlorine residual (FCR), with a lower acceptable limit of 0.2 mg/L, however, accurate measurement of FCR is challenging with turbid water. To compare potential measures of adherence to treatment and water quality, we chlorinated recently-collected water in rural Kenyan households and measured total chlorine residual (TCR), FCR, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), and E...
November 1, 2016: Water Research
I O Ntwampe, F B Waanders, J R Bunt
The physicochemical treatment was employed to treat acid mine drainage (AMD) in the removal of turbid materials using clay only (exp A) and a combination of clay, FeCl3 and Mg(OH)2 (exp B) to form a polymer. A 5 g sample of clay (bentonite) was added to 1.2 L of AMD and treated in a jar test at 250 rpm for 2 min and reduced to 100 rpm for 10 min. A 200 mL sub-sample from the 1.2 L mother liquor was poured into five 500 mL glass beakers, and 20 mL dosages of a polymer of 0.1 M Fe(3+) in (FeCl3) and 0.1 M Mg(2+) in (Mg(OH)2) was added to the beakers...
2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Jiwei Li, Xiuting Zheng, Ning Lou, Wenbin Zhong, Daoguang Yan
Oxysterols are 27-carbon oxidized derivatives of cholesterol or by-products of cholesterol biosynthesis that can induce cell apoptosis in addition to a number of other bioactions. However, the mechanisms underlying this cytotoxicity are not completely understood. ORP8 is a member of the oxysterol binding protein-related protein (ORP) family, implicated in cellular lipid homeostasis, migration, and organization of the microtubule cytoskeleton. Here, we report that 25-hydroxycholesterol (OHC) induced apoptosis of the hepatoma cell lines, HepG2 and Huh7, via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response pathway, and ORP8 overexpression resulted in a similar cell response as 25-OHC, indicating a putative functional relationship between oxysterol cytotoxicity and ORP8...
October 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
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