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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153720/overexpression-of-brassinosteroid-insensitive1-associated-receptor-kinase-1-causes-salicylic-acid-accumulation-and-deregulation-of-cell-death-control-genes
#1
Sun Young Kim, Yun Shang, Se-Hwan Joo, Seong-Ki Kim, Kyoung Hee Nam
Since the BRI1-Associated Receptor Kinase 1 (BAK1) was firstly identified as a co-receptor of BRI1 that mediates brassinosteroids (BR) signaling, the functional roles of BAK1, as a versatile co-receptor for various ligand-binding leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing receptor-like kinase (RLKs), are being extended to involvement with plant immunity, cell death, stomatal development and ABA signaling in plants. During more than a decade of research on the BAK1, it has been known that transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing BAK1 tagged with various reporters do not fully represent its natural functions...
January 30, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124254/probing-activation-and-deactivation-of-the-brassinosteroid-insensitive1-receptor-kinase-by-immunoprecipitation
#2
Sara Martins, Grégory Vert, Yvon Jaillais
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are sterol-derived hormones that control plant growth and development. The BR receptor complex is encoded by the BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) and members of the SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR KINASE family. For activation and deactivation, the BR receptor complex uses different posttranslational modifications and recruits various partner proteins. Here, we describe optimized immunoprecipitation protocols and variants for biochemical analyses of posttranslational modifications of BRI1 and of protein-protein interactions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124252/identification-of-brassinosteroid-signaling-complexes-by-coimmunoprecipitation-and-mass-spectrometry
#3
Walter van Dongen, Luc van Heerde, Sjef Boeren, Sacco C de Vries
A combination of coimmunoprecipitation (coIP) of tagged proteins followed by protein identification and quantitation using Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry (LCMS/MS) has proven to be a reliable method to qualitatively characterize membrane-bound receptor complexes from plants. Success depends on a range of parameters, such as abundance and stability of the complex and functionality of the tagged receptors, efficiency of the protein complex isolation procedure, MS equipment, and analysis software in use...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124251/analysis-of-in-vitro-dna-interactions-of-brassinosteroid-controlled-transcription-factors-using-electrophoretic-mobility-shift-assay
#4
Simon J Unterholzner, Wilfried Rozhon, Brigitte Poppenberger
Most signaling cascades ultimately lead to changes in gene expression by modulating the activity of transcription factors (TFs). The electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) is a simple but powerful in vitro method for investigation of specific protein-DNA interactions. It makes use of the fact that protein-DNA complexes have a lower electrophoretic mobility in gels than free DNA has. The application of labeled probes in combination with unlabeled competitors allows investigation of DNA-binding specificity and identification of binding motifs with single base-pair resolution...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124250/quantitative-microscopic-analysis-of-plasma-membrane-receptor-dynamics-in-living-plant-cells
#5
Yu Luo, Eugenia Russinova
Plasma membrane-localized receptors are essential for cellular communication and signal transduction. In Arabidopsis thaliana, BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) is one of the receptors that is activated by binding to its ligand, the brassinosteroid (BR) hormone, at the cell surface to regulate diverse plant developmental processes. The availability of BRI1 in the plasma membrane is related to its signaling output and is known to be controlled by the dynamic endomembrane trafficking. Advances in fluorescence labeling and confocal microscopy techniques enabled us to gain a better understanding of plasma membrane receptor dynamics in living cells...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124246/a-technical-framework-for-studying-the-signaling-nexus-of-brassinosteroids-and-immunity
#6
Rosa Lozano-Durán, Youssef Belkhadir
Pathway cross-communication cannot be simply tackled by studying isolated signaling systems. Yet understanding how signal transduction pathways attenuate or reinforce each other in vivo is a challenging task. In plants, biosynthesis and signaling of brassinosteroids (BRs) finely regulate growth and defense programs through a complex array of mechanistic and physiological interactions. Conversely, induction of defenses also impacts on the BR biosynthesis at the transcriptional level. In this chapter, we present an experimental framework to study the physiological connection between BR-controlled growth and defenses...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114413/visualization-of-bri1-and-serk3-bak1-nanoclusters-in-arabidopsis-roots
#7
Stefan J Hutten, Danny S Hamers, Marije Aan den Toorn, Wilma van Esse, Antsje Nolles, Christoph A Bücherl, Sacco C de Vries, Johannes Hohlbein, Jan Willem Borst
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant hormones that are perceived at the plasma membrane (PM) by the ligand binding receptor BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) and the co-receptor SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR LIKE KINASE 3/BRI1 ASSOCIATED KINASE 1 (SERK3/BAK1). To visualize BRI1-GFP and SERK3/BAK1-mCherry in the plane of the PM, variable-angle epifluorescence microscopy (VAEM) was employed, which allows selective illumination of a thin surface layer. VAEM revealed an inhomogeneous distribution of BRI1-GFP and SERK3/BAK1-mCherry at the PM, which we attribute to the presence of distinct nanoclusters...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096215/brassinosteroid-signaling-directs-formative-cell-divisions-and-protophloem-differentiation-in-arabidopsis-root-meristems
#8
Yeon Hee Kang, Alice Breda, Christian S Hardtke
Brassinosteroids (BRs) trigger an intracellular signaling cascade through its receptors BR INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1), BRI1-LIKE 1 (BRL1) and BRL3. Recent studies suggest that BR-independent inputs related to vascular differentiation, for instance root protophloem development, modulate downstream BR signaling components. Here, we report that protophloem sieve element differentiation is indeed impaired in bri1 brl1 brl3 mutants, although this effect might not be mediated by canonical downstream BR signaling components...
January 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069895/brassinosteroid-induced-transcriptional-repression-and-dephosphorylation-dependent-protein-degradation-negatively-regulate-bin2-interacting-aif2-a-br-signaling-negative-regulator-bhlh-transcription-factor
#9
Yoon Kim, Ji-Hye Song, Seon-U Park, You-Seung Jeong, Soo-Hwan Kim
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant polyhydroxy-steroids that play important roles in plant growth and development via extensive signal integration through direct interactions between regulatory components of different signaling pathways. Recent studies have shown that diverse helix-loop-helix/basic helix-loop-helix (HLH/bHLH) family proteins are actively involved in control of BR signaling pathways and interact with other signaling pathways. In this study, we show that ATBS1-INTERACTING FACTOR 2 (AIF2), a nuclear-localized atypical bHLH transcription factor, specifically interacts with BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 2 (BIN2) among other BR-signaling molecules...
January 9, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061864/identification-of-brassinosteroid-genes-in-brachypodium-distachyon
#10
Claudia Corvalán, Sunghwa Choe
BACKGROUND: Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroidal phytohormones that are involved in diverse physiological processes and affect many important traits, such as plant stature, stress tolerance, leaf angle, fertility, and grain filling. BR signaling and biosynthetic pathways have been studied in various plants, such as the model dicot Arabidopsis thaliana; however, relatively little is known about these pathways in monocots. RESULTS: To characterize BR-related processes in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon, we studied the response of these plants to the specific BR biosynthesis inhibitor, propiconazole (Pcz)...
January 6, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035023/related-to-abi3-vp1-like-1-ravl1-regulates-brassinosteroid-mediated-activation-of-amt1-2-in-rice-oryza-sativa
#11
Yuan Hu Xuan, Feng Ying Duan, Byoung Il Je, Chul Min Kim, Tian Ya Li, Jing Miao Liu, Soon Ju Park, Jun Hyeon Cho, Tae Ho Kim, Nicolaus von Wiren, Chang-Deok Han
The promotive effects of brassinosteroids (BRs) on plant growth and development have been widely investigated; however, it is not known whether BRs directly affect nutrient uptake. Here, we explored the possibility of a direct relationship between BRs and ammonium uptake via AMT1-type genes in rice (Oryza sativa). BR treatment increased the expression of AMT1;1 and AMT1;2, whereas in the mutant d61-1, which is defective in the BR-receptor gene BRI1, BR-dependent expression of these genes was suppressed. We then employed Related to ABI3/VP1-Like 1 (RAVL1), which is involved in BR homeostasis, to investigate BR-mediated AMT1 expression and its effect on NH4(+) uptake in rice roots...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995670/the-tomato-i-gene-for-fusarium-wilt-resistance-encodes-an-atypical-leucine-rich-repeat-receptor-like-protein-whose-function-is-nevertheless-dependent-on-sobir1-and-serk3-bak1
#12
Ann-Maree Catanzariti, Huong T T Do, Pierrick Bru, Mara de Sain, Louise F Thatcher, Martijn Rep, David A Jones
We have identified the tomato I gene for resistance to the Fusarium wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) and show that it encodes a membrane-anchored leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein (LRR-RLP). Unlike most other LRR-RLP genes involved in plant defence, the I gene is not a member of a gene cluster and contains introns in its coding sequence. The I gene encodes a loopout domain larger than those in most other LRR-RLPs with a distinct composition rich in serine and threonine residues...
December 20, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988365/bki1-regulates-plant-architecture-through-coordinated-inhibition-of-the-brassinosteroid-and-erecta-signaling-pathways-in-arabidopsis
#13
Dongxu Wang, Cangjing Yang, Haijiao Wang, Zhihua Wu, Jianjun Jiang, Jingjing Liu, Zhuona He, Fang Chang, Hong Ma, Xuelu Wang
Hundreds of leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) play indispensable roles in a wide range of plant developmental and physiological processes. The mechanisms controlling LRR-RLKs at a basal and inactive status are essential but rarely studied. BKI1 is the only reported inhibitor of receptor kinases in Arabidopsis, which negatively regulates BRI1 in the brassinosteroid pathway. In this study, we found that BKI1 can also interact with another important LRR-RLK, ERECTA (ER). Phenotypic analysis showed that BKI1 and ER together regulate plant architecture, including pedicel orientation, which is a newly reported phenotype in the BR- and ER-mediated developmental processes...
December 14, 2016: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864768/hormone-receptor-glycosylation
#14
Ulrike Vavra, Christiane Veit, Richard Strasser
Glycosylation is essential for all trees of life. N-glycosylation is one of the most common covalent protein modifications and influences a large variety of cellular processes including protein folding, quality control and protein-receptor interactions. Despite recent progress in understanding of N-glycan biosynthesis, our knowledge of N-glycan function on individual plant proteins is still very limited. In this respect, plant hormone receptors are an interesting group of proteins as several of these proteins are present at distinct sites in the secretory pathway or at the plasma membrane and have numerous potential N-glycosylation sites...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856707/brassinosteroids-modulate-aba-induced-stomatal-closure-in-arabidopsis
#15
Yunmi Ha, Yun Shang, Kyoung Hee Nam
Stomatal movement in response to water availability is an important physiological process in the survival of land plants. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate stomatal closure. The physiological functions of ABA and BRs, including germination, cell elongation and stomatal movement, are generally known to be antagonistic. Here, we investigated how BRs affect stomatal movement alone and in combination with ABA. We demonstrate that brassinoslide (BL), the most active BR, promotes stomatal closure in an ABA-independent manner...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803191/transcriptional-analysis-of-serk1-and-serk3-coreceptor-mutants
#16
G Wilma van Esse, Colette A Ten Hove, Francesco Guzzonato, H Peter van Esse, Mark Boekschoten, Lars Ridder, Jacques Vervoort, Sacco C de Vries
Somatic embryogenesis receptor kinases (SERKs) are ligand-binding coreceptors that are able to combine with different ligand-perceiving receptors such as BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) and FLAGELLIN-SENSITIVE2. Phenotypical analysis of serk single mutants is not straightforward because multiple pathways can be affected, while redundancy is observed for a single phenotype. For example, serk1serk3 double mutant roots are insensitive toward brassinosteroids but have a phenotype different from bri1 mutant roots...
December 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651493/clathrin-dependent-endocytosis-is-required-for-immunity-mediated-by-pattern-recognition-receptor-kinases
#17
Malick Mbengue, Gildas Bourdais, Fabio Gervasi, Martina Beck, Ji Zhou, Thomas Spallek, Sebastian Bartels, Thomas Boller, Takashi Ueda, Hannah Kuhn, Silke Robatzek
Sensing of potential pathogenic bacteria is of critical importance for immunity. In plants, this involves plasma membrane-resident pattern recognition receptors, one of which is the FLAGELLIN SENSING 2 (FLS2) receptor kinase. Ligand-activated FLS2 receptors are internalized into endosomes. However, the extent to which these spatiotemporal dynamics are generally present among pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and their regulation remain elusive. Using live-cell imaging, we show that at least three other receptor kinases associated with plant immunity, PEP RECEPTOR 1/2 (PEPR1/2) and EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR), internalize in a ligand-specific manner...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566817/disrupting-er-associated-protein-degradation-suppresses-the-abscission-defect-of-a-weak-hae-hsl2-mutant-in-arabidopsis
#18
John Baer, Isaiah Taylor, John C Walker
In Arabidopsis thaliana, the process of abscission, or the shedding of unwanted organs, is mediated by two genes, HAESA (HAE) and HAESA-LIKE 2 (HSL2), encoding receptor-like protein kinases (RLKs). The double loss-of-function mutant hae-3 hsl2-3 is completely deficient in floral abscission, but, interestingly, the hae-3 hsl2-9 mutant displays a less severe defect. This mutant was chosen for an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) screen to isolate enhancer and suppressor mutants, and two such suppressors are the focus of this study...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511026/bes1-regulates-the-localization-of-the-brassinosteroid-receptor-brl3-within-the-provascular-tissue-of-the-arabidopsis-primary-root
#19
Jorge E Salazar-Henao, Reinhard Lehner, Isabel Betegón-Putze, Josep Vilarrasa-Blasi, Ana I Caño-Delgado
Brassinosteroid (BR) hormones are important regulators of plant growth and development. Recent studies revealed the cell-specific role of BRs in vascular and stem cell development by the action of cell-specific BR receptor complexes and downstream signaling components in Arabidopsis thaliana Despite the importance of spatiotemporal regulation of hormone signaling in the control of plant vascular development, the mechanisms that confer cellular specificity to BR receptors within the vascular cells are not yet understood...
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498784/functional-characterization-of-gmbzl2-atbzr1-like-gene-reveals-the-conserved-br-signaling-regulation-in-glycine-max
#20
Yu Zhang, Yan-Jie Zhang, Bao-Jun Yang, Xian-Xian Yu, Dun Wang, Song-Hao Zu, Hong-Wei Xue, Wen-Hui Lin
Brassinosteroids (BRs) play key roles in plant growth and development, and regulate various agricultural traits. Enhanced BR signaling leads to increased seed number and yield in Arabidopsis bzr1-1D (AtBZR1(P234L), gain-of-function mutant of the important transcription factor in BR signaling/effects). BR signal transduction pathway is well elucidated in Arabidopsis but less known in other species. Soybean is an important dicot crop producing edible oil and protein. Phylogenetic analysis reveals AtBZR1-like genes are highly conserved in angiosperm and there are 4 orthologues in soybean (GmBZL1-4)...
2016: Scientific Reports
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