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Malick Mbengue, Gildas Bourdais, Fabio Gervasi, Martina Beck, Ji Zhou, Thomas Spallek, Sebastian Bartels, Thomas Boller, Takashi Ueda, Hannah Kuhn, Silke Robatzek
Sensing of potential pathogenic bacteria is of critical importance for immunity. In plants, this involves plasma membrane-resident pattern recognition receptors, one of which is the FLAGELLIN SENSING 2 (FLS2) receptor kinase. Ligand-activated FLS2 receptors are internalized into endosomes. However, the extent to which these spatiotemporal dynamics are generally present among pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and their regulation remain elusive. Using live-cell imaging, we show that at least three other receptor kinases associated with plant immunity, PEP RECEPTOR 1/2 (PEPR1/2) and EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR), internalize in a ligand-specific manner...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
John Baer, Isaiah Taylor, John C Walker
In Arabidopsis thaliana, the process of abscission, or the shedding of unwanted organs, is mediated by two genes, HAESA (HAE) and HAESA-LIKE 2 (HSL2), encoding receptor-like protein kinases (RLKs). The double loss-of-function mutant hae-3 hsl2-3 is completely deficient in floral abscission, but, interestingly, the hae-3 hsl2-9 mutant displays a less severe defect. This mutant was chosen for an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) screen to isolate enhancer and suppressor mutants, and two such suppressors are the focus of this study...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Jorge E Salazar-Henao, Reinhard Lehner, Isabel Betegón-Putze, Josep Vilarrasa-Blasi, Ana I Caño-Delgado
Brassinosteroid (BR) hormones are important regulators of plant growth and development. Recent studies revealed the cell-specific role of BRs in vascular and stem cell development by the action of cell-specific BR receptor complexes and downstream signaling components in Arabidopsis thaliana Despite the importance of spatiotemporal regulation of hormone signaling in the control of plant vascular development, the mechanisms that confer cellular specificity to BR receptors within the vascular cells are not yet understood...
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Yu Zhang, Yan-Jie Zhang, Bao-Jun Yang, Xian-Xian Yu, Dun Wang, Song-Hao Zu, Hong-Wei Xue, Wen-Hui Lin
Brassinosteroids (BRs) play key roles in plant growth and development, and regulate various agricultural traits. Enhanced BR signaling leads to increased seed number and yield in Arabidopsis bzr1-1D (AtBZR1(P234L), gain-of-function mutant of the important transcription factor in BR signaling/effects). BR signal transduction pathway is well elucidated in Arabidopsis but less known in other species. Soybean is an important dicot crop producing edible oil and protein. Phylogenetic analysis reveals AtBZR1-like genes are highly conserved in angiosperm and there are 4 orthologues in soybean (GmBZL1-4)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Yvon Jaillais, Grégory Vert
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a group of steroid molecules perceived at the cell surface and that act as plant hormones. Since their discovery as crucial growth substances, BRs were mainly studied for their action in above ground organs and the BR signaling pathway was largely uncovered in the context of hypocotyl elongation. However, for the past two years, most of the exciting findings on BR signaling have been made using roots as a model. The Arabidopsis root is a system of choice for cell biology and allowed detailed characterization of BR perception at the cell membrane...
July 12, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Yeon Hee Kang, Christian S Hardtke
Receptor kinases convey diverse environmental and developmental inputs by sensing extracellular ligands. In plants, one group of receptor-like kinases (RLKs) is characterized by extracellular leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains, which interact with various ligands that include the plant hormone brassinosteroid and peptides of the CLAVATA3/EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION (CLE) type. For instance, the CLE45 peptide requires the LRR-RLK BARELY ANY MERISTEM 3 (BAM3) to prevent protophloem formation in Arabidopsis root meristems...
August 2016: EMBO Reports
Suna Peng, Ping Tao, Feng Xu, Aiping Wu, Weige Huo, Jinxiang Wang
Brassinosteroids (BR) play important roles in plant growth and development. Although BR receptors have been intensively studied in Arabidopsis, the BR receptors in soybean remain largely unknown. Here, in addition to the known receptor gene Glyma06g15270 (GmBRI1a), we identified five putative BR receptor genes in the soybean genome: GmBRI1b, GmBRL1a, GmBRL1b, GmBRL2a, and GmBRL2b. Analysis of their expression patterns by quantitative real-time PCR showed that they are ubiquitously expressed in primary roots, lateral roots, stems, leaves, and hypocotyls...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Akanksha Singh, Priyanka Breja, Jitendra P Khurana, Paramjit Khurana
Brassinosteroids (BRs) hormones are important for plant growth, development and immune responses. They are sensed by the transmembrane receptor kinase Brassinosteroid-Insensitive 1 (BRI1) when they bind to its extracellular Leu-rich repeat (LRR) domain. We cloned and characterized the TaBRI1 from T. aestivum and raised overexpression transgenics in Arabidopsis to decipher its functional role. TaBRI1 protein consists of a putative signal peptide followed by 25 leucine rich repeats (LRR), a transmembrane domain and a C-terminal kinase domain...
2016: PloS One
Mathilde Laetitia Audrey Simon, Matthieu Pierre Platre, Maria Mar Marquès-Bueno, Laia Armengot, Thomas Stanislas, Vincent Bayle, Marie-Cécile Caillaud, Yvon Jaillais
Many signalling proteins permanently or transiently localize to specific organelles. It is well established that certain lipids act as biochemical landmarks to specify compartment identity. However, they also influence membrane biophysical properties, which emerge as important features in specifying cellular territories. Such parameters include the membrane inner surface potential, which varies according to the lipid composition of each organelle. Here, we found that the plant plasma membrane (PM) and the cell plate of dividing cells have a unique electrostatic signature controlled by phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PtdIns(4)P)...
2016: Nature Plants
Yan-Min Zhang, Zi-Hui Liu, Rui-Juan Yang, Guo-Liang Li, Xiu-Lin Guo, Hua-Ning Zhang, Hong-Mei Zhang, Rui Di, Qing-Song Zhao, Meng-Chen Zhang
Antagonists and sonication treatment relieved the structural barriers of Agrobacterium entering into cells; hindered signal perception and transmission; alleviated defense responses and increased cell susceptibility to Agrobacterium infection. Soybean gene expression analysis was performed to elucidate the general response of soybean plant to Agrobacterium at an early stage of infection. Agrobacterium infection stimulated the PAMPs-triggered immunity (BRI1, BAK1, BZR1, FLS2 and EFR) and effector-triggered immunity (RPM1, RPS2, RPS5, RIN4, and PBS1); up-regulated the transcript factors (WRKY25, WRKY29, MEKK1P, MKK4/5P and MYC2) in MAPK pathway; strengthened the biosynthesis of flavonoid and isoflavonoid in the second metabolism; finally led to a fierce defense response of soybean to Agrobacterium infection and thereby lower transformation efficiency...
June 2016: Plant Cell Reports
Isabel M L Saur, Yasuhiro Kadota, Jan Sklenar, Nicholas J Holton, Elwira Smakowska, Youssef Belkhadir, Cyril Zipfel, John P Rathjen
Plants use receptor kinases (RKs) and receptor-like proteins (RLPs) as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to sense pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are typical of whole classes of microbes. After ligand perception, many leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing PRRs interact with the LRR-RK BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE 1 (BAK1). BAK1 is thus expected to interact with unknown PRRs. Here, we used BAK1 as molecular bait to identify a previously unknown LRR-RLP required for the recognition of the csp22 peptide derived from bacterial cold shock protein...
March 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Xiangzong Meng, Jinggeng Zhou, Jiao Tang, Bo Li, Marcos V V de Oliveira, Jijie Chai, Ping He, Libo Shan
Abscission is a developmental process that enables plants to shed unwanted organs. In Arabidopsis, the floral organ abscission is regulated by a signaling pathway consisting of the peptide ligand IDA, the receptor-like kinases (RLKs) HAE and HSL2, and a downstream MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade. However, little is known about the molecular link between ligand-receptor pairs and intracellular signaling. Here, we report that the SERK family RLKs function redundantly in regulating floral organ abscission downstream of IDA and upstream of the MAPK cascade...
February 16, 2016: Cell Reports
Seo Youn Shin, Hayung Chung, Sun Young Kim, Kyoung Hee Nam
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant-specific steroids that are involved in plant growth and defense responses. However, the exact roles of BR in plant defense are unclear. We used the bes1-D gain-of-function mutant to define the underlying relationship between plant growth and defense through BR signaling and innate immunity. In bes1-D, further downstream component BES1 transcription factor is stabilized, leading to the activation of BR signaling. Previous reports on BES1 target genes showed that approximately 10% are related to biotic stress responses...
February 19, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Juthamas Chaiwanon, Veder J Garcia, Heather Cartwright, Ying Sun, Zhi-Yong Wang
Mutation of the immunophilin-like FK506-binding protein TWISTED DWARF1 (FKBP42/TWD1) causes dwarf and twisted-organ phenotypes in Arabidopsis. However, the function of FKBP42 is not fully understood at the molecular level. Using genetic, physiological, and immunological experiments, we show here that FKBP42/TWD1 is necessary for brassinosteroid (BR) signal transduction. The twd1 mutant showed reduced BR sensitivity in growth responses and activation of the BZR1 transcription factor. However, twd1 showed normal responses to an inhibitor of BIN2/GSK3, suggesting that twd1 has a defect upstream of BIN2 in the BR signaling pathway...
April 4, 2016: Molecular Plant
Baolin Zhao, Minghui Lv, Zengxiu Feng, Thomas Campbell, Emmanuel Liscum, Jia Li
A genome-wide screen for mutants showing altered brassinosteroid (BR) sensitivity or bri1-like phenotypes resulted in the identification of two new mutant alleles of TWISTED DWARF 1 (TWD1), twd1-4, and twd1-5. Previous studies indicated that TWD1, also named as ULTRACURVATA 2 or FKBP42, associates with auxin efflux transporters and is essential for their biological functions. Although earlier reports showed that BR signaling is downregulated in twd1, how TWD1 is integrated in BR signaling has not been elucidated...
April 4, 2016: Molecular Plant
Tomoko Endo, Hiroshi Fujii, Aiko Sugiyama, Michiharu Nakano, Naoko Nakajima, Yoshinori Ikoma, Mitsuo Omura, Takehiko Shimada
To explore the transcription factors associated with carotenoid metabolism in citrus fruit, one transcription factor (CubHLH1) was selected through microarray screening in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) fruit, which was treated with exogenous ethylene or gibberellin (GA), accelerating or retarding carotenoid accumulation in peel, respectively. The amino acid sequence of CubHLH1 has homology to Arabidopsis activation-tagged bri1 suppressor 1 (ATBS1) interacting factor (AIF), which is functionally characterized as a negative regulator of the brassinolide (BR) signalling pathway...
February 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Junbo Du, Yang Gao, Yanyan Zhan, Shasha Zhang, Yujun Wu, Yao Xiao, Bo Zou, Kai He, Xiaoping Gou, Guojing Li, Honghui Lin, Jia Li
BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE 1 (BAK1) was initially identified as a co-receptor of the brassinosteroid (BR) receptor BRI1. Genetic analyses also revealed that BAK1 and its closest homolog BAK1-LIKE 1 (BKK1) regulate a BR-independent cell-death control pathway. The double null mutant bak1 bkk1 displays a salicylic acid- and light-dependent cell-death phenotype even without pathogen invasion. Molecular mechanisms of the spontaneous cell death mediated by BAK1 and BKK1 remain unknown. Here we report our identification of a suppressor of bak1 bkk1 (sbb1-1)...
February 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Jelle Postma, Thomas W H Liebrand, Guozhi Bi, Alexandre Evrard, Ruby R Bye, Malick Mbengue, Hannah Kuhn, Matthieu H A J Joosten, Silke Robatzek
The first layer of plant immunity is activated by cell surface receptor-like kinases (RLKs) and proteins (RLPs) that detect infectious pathogens. Constitutive interaction with the SUPPRESSOR OF BIR1 (SOBIR1) RLK contributes to RLP stability and kinase activity. As RLK activation requires transphosphorylation with a second associated RLK, it remains elusive how RLPs initiate downstream signaling. We employed live-cell imaging, gene silencing and coimmunoprecipitation to investigate the requirement of associated kinases for functioning and ligand-induced subcellular trafficking of Cf RLPs that mediate immunity of tomato against Cladosporium fulvum...
April 2016: New Phytologist
Baowen Zhang, Xiaolong Wang, Zhiying Zhao, Ruiju Wang, Xiahe Huang, Yali Zhu, Li Yuan, Yingchun Wang, Xiaodong Xu, Alma L Burlingame, Yingjie Gao, Yu Sun, Wenqiang Tang
Many plant receptor kinases transduce signals through receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases (RLCKs); however, the molecular mechanisms that create an effective on-off switch are unknown. The receptor kinase BR INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) transduces brassinosteroid (BR) signal by phosphorylating members of the BR-signaling kinase (BSK) family of RLCKs, which contain a kinase domain and a C-terminal tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain. Here, we show that the BR signaling function of BSKs is conserved in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa) and that the TPR domain of BSKs functions as a "phospho-switchable" autoregulatory domain to control BSKs' activity...
February 2016: Plant Physiology
Michael P Wierzba, Frans E Tax
Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) mediate cell-signaling pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana, including those controlling growth and development, immune response, and cell death. The RLK coreceptor BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE-1 (BAK1) partners with multiple ligand-binding RLKs and contributes to their signaling in diverse pathways. An additional RLK, BAK1-INTERACTING RECEPTOR-1 (BIR1), physically interacts with BAK1, and loss-of-function mutations in BIR1 display constitutive activation of cell death and immune response pathways and dwarfism and a reduction in lateral root number...
February 2016: Genetics
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