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Gillian Franklin, Homero Harari, Samavi Ahsan, Dhimiter Bello, David A Sterling, Jonathan Nedrelow, Scott Raynaud, Swati Biswas, Youcheng Liu
We conducted a pilot qualitative and quantitative assessment of residual isocyanates and their potential initial exposures in neonates, as little is known about their contact effect. After a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stockroom inventory, polyurethane (PU) and PU foam (PUF) devices and products were qualitatively evaluated for residual isocyanates using Surface SWYPE™. Those containing isocyanates were quantitatively tested for methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) species, using UPLC-UV-MS/MS method...
2016: Environmental Health Insights
Vladimir V Apyari, Viktoria V Arkhipova, Maria V Gorbunova, Pavel A Volkov, Andrey I Isachenko, Stanislava G Dmitrienko, Yury A Zolotov
In this paper, we report on a novel type of nanocomposites based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and polyurethane foam (PUF), which represents an ability of AuNP aggregation on solid polymer matrix with the strongly different selectivity in comparison with aggregation of the same AuNPs in solution. This may indicate that a new type of aggregation takes place, which can be called solid-phase aggregation. A systematic study using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy revealed features of the solid-phase aggregation...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
José Pinela, João C M Barreira, Lillian Barros, Sandra Cabo Verde, Amilcar L Antonio, M Beatriz P P Oliveira, Ana Maria Carvalho, Isabel C F R Ferreira
The effects of conventional and inert-gas enriched atmospheres, as well as those caused by different γ-irradiation doses, on buckler sorrel (Rumex induratus) leaves quality were evaluated and compared after 12 days of storage at 4 °C. The green colour of the abaxial surface of the leaves was relatively stable, as well as the carbohydrates content and the calorific value. The storage time decreased the amounts of fructose, glucose, trehalose, α-tocopherol, and β-tocopherol and increased the levels of total organic acids and δ-tocopherol...
July 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Tibor Becske, Matthew B Potts, Maksim Shapiro, David F Kallmes, Waleed Brinjikji, Isil Saatci, Cameron G McDougall, István Szikora, Giuseppe Lanzino, Christopher J Moran, Henry H Woo, Demetrius K Lopes, Aaron L Berez, Daniel J Cher, Adnan H Siddiqui, Elad I Levy, Felipe C Albuquerque, David J Fiorella, Zsolt Berentei, Miklós Marosföi, Saruhan H Cekirge, Peter K Nelson
OBJECTIVE The long-term effectiveness of endovascular treatment of large and giant wide-neck aneurysms using traditional endovascular techniques has been disappointing, with high recanalization and re-treatment rates. Flow diversion with the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) has been recently used as a stand-alone therapy for complex aneurysms, showing significant improvement in effectiveness while demonstrating a similar safety profile to stent-supported coil treatment. However, relatively little is known about its long-term safety and effectiveness...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
R J Robinson, E C Hensel, K A Roundtree, A G Difrancesco, J M Nonnemaker, Y O Lee
Results of an observational, descriptive study quantifying topography characteristics of twenty first generation electronic nicotine delivery system users in their natural environment for a one week observation period are presented. The study quantifies inter-participant variation in puffing topography between users and the intra-participant variation for each user observed during one week of use in their natural environment. Puff topography characteristics presented for each user include mean puff duration, flow rate and volume for each participant, along with descriptive statistics of each quantity...
2016: PloS One
Theodore L Wagener, Evan L Floyd, Irina Stepanov, Leslie M Driskill, Summer G Frank, Ellen Meier, Eleanor L Leavens, Alayna P Tackett, Neil Molina, Lurdes Queimado
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes' (e-cigarettes) viability as a public health strategy to end smoking will likely be determined by their ability to mimic the pharmacokinetic profile of a cigarette while also exposing users to significantly lower levels of harmful/potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs). The present study examined the nicotine delivery profile of third- (G3) versus second-generation (G2) e-cigarette devices and their users' exposure to nicotine and select HPHCs compared with cigarette smokers...
October 11, 2016: Tobacco Control
Jun Zhang, Kathleen L McCann, Chen Qiu, Lauren E Gonzalez, Susan J Baserga, Traci M Tanaka Hall
Numerous factors direct eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis, and defects in a single ribosome assembly factor may be lethal or produce tissue-specific human ribosomopathies. Pre-ribosomal RNAs (pre-rRNAs) must be processed stepwise and at the correct subcellular locations to produce the mature rRNAs. Nop9 is a conserved small ribosomal subunit biogenesis factor, essential in yeast. Here we report a 2.1-Å crystal structure of Nop9 and a small-angle X-ray-scattering model of a Nop9:RNA complex that reveals a 'C'-shaped fold formed from 11 Pumilio repeats...
October 11, 2016: Nature Communications
Atousa Abdollahi, Anita Eng, Liisa M Jantunen, Lutz Ahrens, Mahiba Shoeib, J Mark Parnis, Tom Harner
This study aimed to characterize the uptake of organophosphate esters (OPEs) by polyurethane foam (PUF) and sorbent-impregnated polyurethane foam (SIP) disk passive air samplers (PAS). Atmospheric OPE concentrations were monitored with high-volume active air samplers (HV-AAS) that were co-deployed with passive air samplers. Samples were analyzed for tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tri(phenyl) phosphate (TPhP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), and tris(2,3-dichloropropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP). The mean concentration of ∑OPEs in air was 2650 pg/m(3) for the HV-AAS...
October 7, 2016: Chemosphere
Anthony Cunningham, Sandra Slayford, Carl Vas, Jodie Gee, Sandra Costigan, Krishna Prasad
With the rapidly rising popularity and substantial evolution of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in the past 5-6 years, how these devices are used by vapers and consumers' exposure to aerosol emissions need to be understood. We used puffing topography to measure directly product use. We adapted a cigarette puffing topography device for use with e-cigarettes. We performed validation using air and e-cigarette aerosol under multiple regimes. Consumer puffing topography was measured for 60 vapers provided with rechargeable "cig-a-like" or larger button-activated e-cigarettes, to use ad-libitum in two sessions...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jean-Pierre Schaller, Daniela Keller, Laurent Poget, Pascal Pratte, Etienne Kaelin, Damian McHugh, Gianluca Cudazzo, Daniel Smart, Anthony R Tricker, Lydia Gautier, Michel Yerly, Roger Reis Pires, Soazig Le Bouhellec, David Ghosh, Iris Hofer, Eva Garcia, Patrick Vanscheeuwijck, Serge Maeder
The chemical composition, in vitro genotoxicity, and cytotoxicity of the mainstream aerosol from the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS2.2) were compared with those of the mainstream smoke from the 3R4F reference cigarette. In contrast to the 3R4F, the tobacco plug in the THS2.2 is not burnt. The low operating temperature of THS2.2 caused distinct shifts in the aerosol composition compared with 3R4F. This resulted in a reduction of more than 90% for the majority of the analyzed harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs), while the mass median aerodynamic diameter of the aerosol remained similar...
October 6, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Tomoaki Mori, Kento Nakamura, Keisuke Masaoka, Yusuke Fujita, Ryosuke Morisada, Koichi Mori, Takamasa Tobimatsu, Takashi Sera
Various viruses infect animals and humans and cause a variety of diseases, including cancer. However, effective methodologies to prevent virus infection have not yet been established. Therefore, development of technologies to inactivate viruses is highly desired. We have already demonstrated that cleavage of a DNA virus genome was effective to prevent its replication. Here, we expanded this methodology to RNA viruses. In the present study, we used staphylococcal nuclease (SNase) instead of the PIN domain (PilT N-terminus) of human SMG6 as an RNA-cleavage domain and fused the SNase to a human Pumilio/fem-3 binding factor (PUF)-based artificial RNA-binding protein to construct an artificial RNA restriction enzyme with enhanced RNA-cleavage rates for influenzavirus...
October 28, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Elliot G Arsoniadis, Yen-Yi Ho, Genevieve B Melton, Robert D Madoff, Chap Le, Mary R Kwaan
BACKGROUND: Previous reports on racial disparities in the treatment of Crohn's Disease (CD) in African American (AA) patients have shown differences in both medical and surgical treatments in this population. No study thus far has examined the effect of AA race on outcomes after surgery for CD. METHODS: Utilizing the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) Participant User File (PUF) for years 2005-2013, we examined the effect of AA race on post-operative complications in patients with CD undergoing intestinal surgery...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Sharon Cox, Leon Kośmider, Hayden McRobbie, Maciej Goniewicz, Catherine Kimber, Mira Doig, Lynne Dawkins
BACKGROUND: Contrary to intuition, use of lower strength nicotine e-liquids might not offer reduced health risk if compensatory puffing behaviour occurs. Compensatory puffing (e.g. more frequent, longer puffs) or user behaviour (increasing the wattage) can lead to higher temperatures at which glycerine and propylene glycol (solvents used in e-liquids) undergo decomposition to carbonyl compounds, including the carcinogens formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. This study aims to document puffing patterns and user behaviour associated with using high and low strength nicotine e-liquid and associated toxicant/carcinogen exposure in experienced e-cigarette users (known as vapers herein)...
2016: BMC Public Health
Jennifer Margham, Kevin McAdam, Mark Forster, Chuan Liu, Christopher Wright, Derek Mariner, Christopher Proctor
There is interest in the relative toxicities of emissions from electronic cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes. Lists of cigarette smoke priority toxicants have been developed to focus regulatory initiatives. However, a comprehensive assessment of e-cigarette chemical emissions including all tobacco smoke Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents, and additional toxic species reportedly present in e-cigarette emissions, is lacking. We examined 150 chemical emissions from an e-cigarette (Vype ePen), a reference tobacco cigarette (Ky3R4F), and laboratory air/method blanks...
October 17, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Ki-Hyun Kim, Ehsanul Kabir, Shamin Ara Jahan
Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are devised to deliver nicotine in a vapor rather than in smoke without tar. ECs are hence advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarette products as the chemical compounds inhaled in the former are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those of the latter. Hazardous chemicals (e.g., formaldehyde) are nonetheless found to be generated incidentally by contacting the heated wire (i.e., the oxidation of glycerol/glycol in e-liquid). Although the extent of their release varies by several variables (e...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
Seyed Jalal Kiani, Tahereh Taheri, Sima Rafati, Katayoun Samimi-Rad
RNA-binding proteins play critical roles in the regulation of gene expression. Among several families of RNA-binding proteins, PUF (Pumilio and FBF) proteins have been the subject of extensive investigations, as they can bind RNA in a sequence-specific manner and they are evolutionarily conserved among a wide range of organisms. The outstanding feature of these proteins is a highly conserved RNA-binding domain, which is known as the Pumilio-homology domain (PUM-HD) that mostly consists of eight tandem repeats...
September 14, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Frank Lüdicke, Gizelle Baker, John Magnette, Patrick Picavet, Rolf Weitkunat
INTRODUCTION: Heating rather than burning tobacco reduces levels of harmful and potentially harmful constituents, and consumer products using this approach aim to reduce exposure to tobacco toxicants. The Tobacco Heating System (THS) version 2.1 has been enhanced from earlier prototypes with an improved heat control and sensorial experience and thereby user acceptance. Exposure measurements are required to determine whether it may be possible to reduce the individual health risk compared to smoking combustible cigarettes (CCs)...
July 1, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Tory Spindle, Marzena Hiler, Alison Breland, Nareg Karaoghlanian, Alan L Shihadeh, Thomas Eissenberg
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) aerosolize a liquid solution often containing nicotine. ECIG nicotine delivery may be influenced by user puffing behaviors ("puff topography"). ECIG puff topography can be recorded using mouthpiece-based computerized systems. The present study sought to examine the extent to which these systems influence ECIG nicotine delivery and other ECIG-associated acute effects under ad libitum use conditions. METHODS: Plasma nicotine concentration, heart rate, and subjective effects were assessed in 29 experienced ECIG users using their preferred ECIG battery and liquid (≥ 12 mg/ml nicotine) in two sessions differing only by the presence of a mouthpiece-based device...
July 11, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Yang Yang, Weiping Chen, Meie Wang, Chi Peng
A regional investigation in the Youxian prefecture, southern China, was conducted to analyze the impact of environmental factors including soil properties and irrigation in conjunction with the use of fertilizers on the accumulation of Cd in vegetables. The Cd transfer potential from soil to vegetable was provided by the plant uptake factor (PUF), which varied by three orders of magnitude and was described by a Gaussian distribution model. The soil pH, content of soil organic matter (SOM), concentrations of Zn in the soil, pH of irrigation water and nitrogenous fertilizers contributed significantly to the PUF variations...
September 6, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Ning Ma, Zhao-Ping Liu, Da-Jin Yang, Jiang Liang, Jiang-Hui Zhu, Hai-Bin Xu, Feng-Qin Li, Ning Li
In order to address the issue of excessive intake of aluminium (Al) from Al-containing food additives in the Chinese diet, this study conducted a dietary exposure assessment of Al in the general population based on the national surveillance data of Al content in foods and national food consumption data. It was found that the mean dietary exposure of the whole Chinese population to Al from Al-containing food additives was 1.795 mg kg(‒1) bw week(‒1), not exceeding the PTWI, while high dietary exposures (e...
October 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
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