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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340829/trends-and-surgical-outcomes-of-laparoscopic-versus-open-pyloromyotomy
#1
William C Kethman, Alex H S Harris, Mary T Hawn, James K Wall
BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) is one of the most common pediatric illnesses necessitating surgical intervention. Controversy remains over the optimal surgical approach between laparoscopic pyloromyotomy (LP) and open pyloromyotomy (OP). LP has gained acceptance for management of HPS in an era of expanding minimal access surgical approaches to pediatric conditions. Several studies suggest advantages of LP over OP; however, selection bias and small sample sizes remain a concern...
January 16, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324642/antibacterial-and-antioxidant-capacities-and-attenuation-of-lipid-accumulation-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes-by-low-molecular-weight-fucoidans-prepared-from-compressional-puffing-pretreated-sargassum-crassifolium
#2
Chun-Yung Huang, Chia-Hung Kuo, Chia-Hsin Lee
In this study, we extracted fucoidan from compressional-puffing-pretreated Sargassum crassifolium by hot water. The crude extract of fucoidan (SC) was degraded by various degradation reagents and four low-molecular-weight (LMW) fucoidans, namely SCO (degradation by hydrogen peroxide), SCA (degradation by ascorbic acid), SCOA (degradation by hydrogen peroxide + ascorbic acid), and SCH (degradation by hydrogen chloride) were obtained. The degradation reagents studied could effectively degrade fucoidan into LMW fucoidans, as revealed by intrinsic viscosity, agarose gel electrophoresis, and molecular weight analyses...
January 11, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306962/initial-ratings-of-different-types-of-e-cigarettes-and-relationships-between-product-appeal-and-nicotine-delivery
#3
Peter Hajek, Dunja Przulj, Anna Phillips-Waller, Rebecca Anderson, Hayden McRobbie
AIMS: Little is known about features of e-cigarettes (EC) that facilitate or hinder the switch from smoking to vaping. We tested eight brands of EC to determine how nicotine delivery and other product characteristics influence user's initial reactions. METHODS: Fifteen vapers tested each product after overnight abstinence from both smoking and vaping. At each session, participant's vaped ad lib for 5 min. Blood samples were taken at baseline and at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 30 min after starting vaping...
January 6, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286349/compressional-puffing-pretreatment-enhances-neuroprotective-effects-of-fucoidans-from-the-brown-seaweed-sargassum-hemiphyllum-on-6-hydroxydopamine-induced-apoptosis-in-sh-sy5y-cells
#4
Chun-Yung Huang, Chia-Hung Kuo, Po-Wei Chen
In this study, a compressional-puffing process (CPP) was used to pretreat Sargassum hemiphyllum (SH) and then fucoidan was extracted from SH by hot water. Three fucoidan extracts, namely SH1 (puffing at 0 kg/cm²); SH2 (puffing at 1.7 kg/cm²); and SH3 (puffing at 10.0 kg/cm²) were obtained, and their compositions and biological activities were evaluated. The results indicate that CPP increased the extraction yield, total sugar content, and molar ratios of sulfate/fucose of fucoidan and decreased molecular weight and impurities of fucoidan...
December 29, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284755/lamost-telescope-reveals-that-neptunian-cousins-of-hot-jupiters-are-mostly-single-offspring-of-stars-that-are-rich-in-heavy-elements
#5
Subo Dong, Ji-Wei Xie, Ji-Lin Zhou, Zheng Zheng, Ali Luo
We discover a population of short-period, Neptune-size planets sharing key similarities with hot Jupiters: both populations are preferentially hosted by metal-rich stars, and both are preferentially found in Kepler systems with single-transiting planets. We use accurate Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) Data Release 4 (DR4) stellar parameters for main-sequence stars to study the distributions of short-period [Formula: see text] Kepler planets as a function of host star metallicity...
December 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283084/mirabegron-as-adjuvant-treatment-for-patients-with-interstitial-cystitis-bladder-pain-syndrome
#6
Michael Di Lena, Victoria Tolls, Kerri-Lynn Kelly, J Curtis Nickel
INTRODUCTION: Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) patients represent a heterogeneous group with pain and urinary storage symptoms and varying responses to current treatment options. The novel beta-3 agonist, mirabegron, has been shown to improve storage symptoms of patients with bladder overactivity; however, its effect on symptoms in the IC/BPS population has yet to be studied. METHODS: Patients diagnosed at a single IC centre with IC/BPS undergoing standard therapy were treated with additional daily mirabegron 25 mg and seen in followup post-treatment...
December 22, 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248706/gas-particle-partitioning-and-particle-size-distribution-of-pcdd-fs-and-pcbs-in-urban-ambient-air
#7
B Barbas, A de la Torre, P Sanz, I Navarro, B Artíñano, M A Martínez
Urban ambient air samples, including gas-phase (PUF), total suspended particulates (TSP), PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 airborne particle fractions were collected to evaluate gas-particle partitioning and size particle distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Clausius-Clapeyron equation, regressions of logKp vs logPL and logKOA, and human respiratory risk assessment were used to evaluate local or long-distance transport sources, gas-particle partitioning sorption mechanisms, and implications for health...
December 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247421/clinical-factors-and-postoperative-impact-of-bile-leak-after-liver-resection
#8
Allison N Martin, Sowmya Narayanan, Florence E Turrentine, Todd W Bauer, Reid B Adams, George J Stukenborg, Victor M Zaydfudim
BACKGROUND: Despite technical advances, bile leak remains a significant complication after hepatectomy. The current study uses a targeted multi-institutional dataset to characterize perioperative factors that are associated with bile leakage after hepatectomy to better understand the impact of bile leak on morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Adult patients in the 2014-2015 ACS NSQIP targeted hepatectomy dataset were linked to the ACS NSQIP PUF dataset. Bivariable and multivariable regression analyses were used to assess the associations between clinical factors and post-hepatectomy bile leak...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235347/nano-electromechanical-switch-based-on-a-physical-unclonable-function-for-highly-robust-and-stable-performance-in-harsh-environments
#9
Kyu-Man Hwang, Jun-Young Park, Hagyoul Bae, Seung-Wook Lee, Choong-Ki Kim, Myungsoo Seo, Hwon Im, Do-Hyun Kim, Seong-Yeon Kim, Geon-Beom Lee, Yang-Kyu Choi
A physical unclonable function (PUF) device using a nano-electromechanical (NEM) switch was demonstrated. The most important feature of the NEM-switch-based PUF is its use of stiction. Stiction is one of the chronic problems associated with micro- and nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) devices; however, here, it was utilized to intentionally implement a PUF for hardware-based security. The stiction is caused by capillary and van der Waals forces, producing strong adhesion, which can be utilized to design a highly robust and stable PUF...
December 13, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232700/sygl-1-and-lst-1-link-niche-signaling-to-puf-rna-repression-for-stem-cell-maintenance-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#10
Heaji Shin, Kimberly A Haupt, Aaron M Kershner, Peggy Kroll-Conner, Marvin Wickens, Judith Kimble
Central questions in regenerative biology include how stem cells are maintained and how they transition from self-renewal to differentiation. Germline stem cells (GSCs) in Caenorhabditis elegans provide a tractable in vivo model to address these questions. In this system, Notch signaling and PUF RNA binding proteins, FBF-1 and FBF-2 (collectively FBF), maintain a pool of GSCs in a naïve state. An open question has been how Notch signaling modulates FBF activity to promote stem cell self-renewal. Here we report that two Notch targets, SYGL-1 and LST-1, link niche signaling to FBF...
December 12, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183975/high-resolution-mapping-of-cis-regulatory-variation-in-budding-yeast
#11
Ryosuke Kita, Sandeep Venkataram, Yiqi Zhou, Hunter B Fraser
Genetic variants affecting gene-expression levels are a major source of phenotypic variation. The approximate locations of these variants can be mapped as expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs); however, a major limitation of eQTLs is their low resolution, which precludes investigation of the causal variants and their molecular mechanisms. Here we report RNA-seq and full genome sequences for 85 diverse isolates of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae-including wild, domesticated, and human clinical strains-which allowed us to perform eQTL mapping with 50-fold higher resolution than previously possible...
November 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181764/exploring-the-degradation-of-gallotannins-catalyzed-by-tannase-produced-by-aspergillus-niger-gh1-for-ellagic-acid-production-in-submerged-and-solid-state-fermentation
#12
Mónica L Chávez-González, Sylvain Guyot, Raul Rodríguez-Herrera, Arely Prado-Barragán, Cristóbal N Aguilar
Due to great interest on producing bioactive compounds for functional foods and biopharmaceuticals, it is important to explore the microbial degradation of potential sources of target biomolecules. Gallotannins are polyphenols present in nature, an example of them is tannic acid which is susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis. This hydrolysis is performed by tannase or tannin acyl hydrolase, releasing in this way, biomolecules with high-added value. In the present study, chemical profiles obtained after fungal degradation of tannic acid under two bioprocesses (submerged fermentation (SmF) and solid state fermentation (SSF)) were determined...
November 27, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175399/leaching-of-tcipp-from-furniture-foam-is-rapid-and-substantial
#13
William A Stubbings, Stuart Harrad
A series of laboratory experiments were conducted, in which waste furniture polyurethane foam samples containing tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) were contacted with a range of leaching fluids, formulated to simulate the composition of landfill leachate. Leaching was examined under a number of different scenarios, such as: dissolved humic matter concentration, pH, and temperature, as well as the effect of agitation, and waste:leaching fluid contact duration. In addition to single batch (no replenishment of leaching fluid), serial batch (draining of leachate and replenishment with fresh leaching fluid at various time intervals) experiments were conducted...
November 15, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116528/a-contemporary-assessment-of-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-pbde-in-the-ambient-air-and-soil-of-azerbaijan
#14
Gulchohra Aliyeva, Carrie Amber Sinnott-Clark, Ondřej Audy, Lenka Škrdlíková, Petr Kukučka, Jana Klánová, Crispin Halsall
PBDEs were measured in air and soil across Azerbaijan to establish contemporary concentrations at 13 urban and rural sites. Polyurethane foam passive air samplers (PUF-PAS) were deployed for a period of a month with surface soil samples collected at the same sites. Unlike organochlorine pesticides previously surveyed by our group, PBDE concentrations in both contemporary air and soil were low in comparison to recent European and Asian studies. For example, mean ∑9PBDE concentrations in air and soil were 7...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110405/nested-puf-proteins-extending-target-rna-elements-for-gene-regulation
#15
Kouki Shinoda, Shogo Tsuji, Shiroh Futaki, Miki Imanishi
RNA-binding proteins recognizing unique sequences within large transcriptomes serve as a powerful tool to control RNA metabolism. Pumilio and fem-3 mRNA-binding factor (PUF) proteins are considered as a good candidate for such tools because they are typically composed of eight highly homologous repeat segments and can be designed to recognize arbitrary 8-nucleotide (nt) RNA sequences. However, a specific 8-nt RNA sequence is found at multiple sites in various RNAs in the transcriptome, making it difficult to specifically target a single RNA...
November 6, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107878/breakthrough-during-air-sampling-with-polyurethane-foam-what-do-puf-2-puf-1-ratios-mean
#16
Terry F Bidleman, Mats Tysklind
Frontal chromatography theory is applied to describe movement of gaseous semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) through a column of polyurethane foam (PUF). Collected mass fractions (FC) are predicted for sample volume/breakthrough volume ratios (τ = VS/VB) up to 6.0 and PUF bed theoretical plate numbers (N) from 2 to 16. The predictions assume constant air concentrations and temperatures. Extension of the calculations is done to relate the collection efficiency of a 2-PUF train (FC1+2) to the PUF 2/PUF 1 ratio...
October 27, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102637/assessment-of-reactive-oxygen-species-generated-by-electronic-cigarettes-using-acellular-and-cellular-approaches
#17
Jiayuan Zhao, Yipei Zhang, Jennifer D Sisler, Justine Shaffer, Stephen S Leonard, Anna M Morris, Yong Qian, Dhimiter Bello, Philip Demokritou
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) have fast increased in popularity but the physico-chemical properties and toxicity of the generated emission remain unclear. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are likely present in e-cig emission and can play an important role in e-cig toxicity. However, e-cig ROS generation is poorly documented. Here, we generated e-cig exposures using a recently developed versatile exposure platform and performed systematic ROS characterization on e-cig emissions using complementary acellular and cellular techniques: 1) a novel acellular Trolox-based mass spectrometry method for total ROS and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection, 2) electron spin resonance (ESR) for hydroxyl radical detection in an acellular and cellular systems and 3) in vitro ROS detection in small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) using the dihydroethidium (DHE) assay...
October 29, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094747/calibration-and-evaluation-of-puf-pas-sampling-rates-across-the-global-atmospheric-passive-sampling-gaps-network
#18
Nicholas J Herkert, Scott N Spak, Austen Smith, Jasmin K Schuster, Tom Harner, Andres Martinez, Keri C Hornbuckle
Passive air samplers equipped with polyurethane foam (PUF-PAS) are frequently used to measure persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in ambient air. Here we present and evaluate a method to determine sampling rates (RS), and the effective sampling volume (Veff), for gas-phase chemical compounds captured by a PUF-PAS sampler deployed anywhere in the world. The method uses a mathematical model that requires only publicly available hourly meteorological data, physical-chemical properties of the target compound, and the deployment dates...
November 2, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080848/assessment-of-novel-tobacco-heating-product-thp1-0-part-3-comprehensive-chemical-characterisation-of-harmful-and-potentially-harmful-aerosol-emissions
#19
Mark Forster, Stacy Fiebelkorn, Caner Yurteri, Derek Mariner, Chuan Liu, Christopher Wright, Kevin McAdam, James Murphy, Christopher Proctor
For a tobacco heating product (THP), which heats rather than burns tobacco, the emissions of toxicants in the aerosol were compared with those in cigarette smoke under a machine-puffing regimen of puff volume 55 ml, puff duration 2 s and puff interval 30 s. The list of toxicants included those proposed by Health Canada, the World Health Organization Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation (TobReg), the US Food and Drug Administration and possible thermal breakdown products. In comparison to the University of Kentucky 3R4F reference cigarette the toxicant levels in the THP1...
October 25, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065196/compensatory-puffing-with-lower-nicotine-concentration-e-liquids-increases-carbonyl-exposure-in-e-cigarette-aerosols
#20
Leon Kosmider, Catherine F Kimber, Jolanta Kurek, Olivia Corcoran, Lynne E Dawkins
Introduction: Article 20 of the European Tobacco Products Directive (EU-TPD) specifies that e-liquids should not contain nicotine in excess of 20 mg/mL, thus many vapers may be compelled to switch to lower concentrations and in so doing, may engage in more intensive puffing. This study aimed to establish whether more intensive puffing produces higher levels of carbonyl compounds in e-cigarette aerosols. Methods: Using the HPLC-UV diode array method, four carbonyl compounds (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, and acrolein) were measured in liquids and aerosols from nicotine solutions of 24 and 6 mg/mL...
July 22, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
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