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Shichao Yue, Junling Wu, Qiang Zhang, Ke Zhang, Michael D Weir, Satoshi Imazato, Yuxing Bai, Hockin H K Xu
OBJECTIVES: Secondary caries at the tooth-restoration margins is a primary reason for restoration failure. Cracks at the margins lead to leakage which can trap bacteria, producing acids to cause caries. To date, there has been no report on developing an adhesive resin that has self-healing, antibacterial and remineralizing capabilities. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop the first self-healing adhesive with antimicrobial and remineralizing capabilities, and (2) investigate the effects of incorporating microcapsules, dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) for the first time...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Dentistry
Martin Sharkey, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa Abdallah, Daniel S Drage, Stuart Harrad, Harald Berresheim
The purpose of this study was to establish the efficacy of portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrumentation as a screening tool for a variety of end of life plastics which may contain excess amounts of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), in compliance with European Union (EU) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) legislative limits (low POP concentration limits - LPCLs). 555 samples of waste plastics were collected from eight waste and recycling sites in Ireland, including waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), textiles, polyurethane foams (PUFs), and expanded polystyrene foams...
May 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Dong Suk Yoon, Dong Seok Cha, Mohammad A Alfhili, Brett D Keiper, Myon-Hee Lee
Notch receptor signaling is a highly conserved cell communication system in most multicellular organisms and plays a critical role at several junctures in animal development. In C. elegans, GLP-1/Notch signaling is essential for both germline stem cell maintenance and germ cell proliferation during gonad development. Here, we show that subunits (POLA-1, DIV-1, PRI-1, and PRI-2) of the DNA polymerase alpha-primase complex are required for germ cell proliferation in response to GLP-1/Notch signaling in different tissues at different developmental stages...
May 18, 2018: FEBS Journal
Avni Bavishi, Emily Boss, Rahul K Shah, Jennifer Lavin
Importance: Endoscopic management of pediatric subglottic stenosis (SGS) is common, however no multi-institutional studies have assessed its perioperative outcomes. The American College of Surgeon's National Surgical Quality Improvement Program - Pediatric (ACS-NSQIP-P) represents a source of such data. Design: Current procedural terminology (CPT) codes were queried for endoscopic or open airway reconstruction in the ACS-NSQIP-P Public Use File (PUF). Demographics and 30-day events were abstracted to compare open to endoscopic techniques and to assess for risk factors for varied outcomes after endoscopic dilation...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Outcomes Management: JCOM
Dai Yuki
The objectives of this clinical study were to demonstrate a reduction in exposure to selected harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs), and to assess product use behavior, in Japanese healthy adult smokers who switched to a novel tobacco vapor product (NTV). 60 smokers were randomly assigned for 5 days to either (a) a group who switched to an NTV (n = 20), (b) a group who continued to smoke their own brand of conventional cigarettes (CC, n = 20) or (c) a smoking abstinence group (SA, n = 20)...
May 5, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Jae-Won Shin, Sang-Hee Jo, Ki-Hyun Kim, Hee-Nam Song, Chang-Hee Kang, Nanthi Bolan, Jongki Hong
This study investigated the emission characteristics of glass particles resulting from smoking electronic cigarettes (ECs). First, the most suitable filter for the collection of glass particles was explored by examining the performance (reliability) of various types of filters. A polycarbonate filter was determined as the optimum choice to collect glass particles in EC aerosol. A cartomizer was filled with EC refill solution composed of an equal volume of propylene glycol (PG) and vegetable glycol (VG). To simulate the potential conditions for glass particle emission, EC vaped aerosols were collected at three distinctive puffing intervals: (1) 0-10 puffs, (2) 101-110 puffs, and (3) 201-210 puffs (flow rate of 1 L min-1 , 2 s per puff, and 10 puffs per sample)...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Research
Karl-Frédéric Vieux, Hugh J Clarke
In many cell types, the length of the poly(A) tail of an mRNA is closely linked to its fate - a long tail is associated with active translation, a short tail with silencing and degradation. During mammalian oocyte development, two contrasting patterns of polyadenylation have been identified. Some mRNAs carry a long poly(A) tail during the growth stage and are actively translated, then become deadenylated and down-regulated during the subsequent stage, termed meiotic maturation. Other mRNAs carry a short tail poly(A) tail and are translationally repressed during growth, and their poly(A) tail lengthens and they become translationally activated during maturation...
May 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jonathan N Hogarh, Nobuyasu Seike, Yuso Kobara, Derick Carboo, Julius N Fobil, Shigeki Masunaga
With recent evidence that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are emerging in environmental media in some developing countries that otherwise have sparing production and usage history, it has become important to identify such contemporary source factors of PCBs and the risks this may pose, in line with the global consensus on POP management and elimination. The present study investigated contaminations from atmospheric PCBs in Ghana, deciphered source factors, and accessed risk of exposure to dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs)...
April 29, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Michał R Janik, Rami R Mustafa, Tomasz G Rogula, Adel Alhaj Saleh, Mujjahid Abbas, Leena Khaitan
BACKGROUND: The HospitAl stay, Readmission, and Mortality rates (HARM) score is a quality indicator that is easily determined from routine administrative data. However, the HARM score has not yet been applied to patients undergoing bariatric surgery. OBJECTIVE: The aims of the present study were to adjust the HARM score to the bariatric population and to validate the ability of the modified HARM score to serve as an inexpensive tool to measure the quality of bariatric surgery...
April 27, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Reema Goel, Zachary T Bitzer, Samantha M Reilly, Jonathan Foulds, Joshua Muscat, Ryan J Elias, John P Richie
Cigarette smoke is a major exogenous source of free radicals, and the resulting oxidative stress is one of the major causes of smoking-caused diseases. Yet, many of the factors that impact free radical delivery from cigarettes remain unclear. In this study, we machine-smoked cigarettes and measured the levels of gas- and particulate-phase radicals by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy using standardized smoking regimens (International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and Canadian Intense (CI)), puffing parameters and tobacco blends...
April 27, 2018: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Angelo Gazzano, Asahi Ogi, Beatrice Torracca, Chiara Mariti, Lucia Casini
Aim of this study was to evaluate the plasma ratio between l-tryptophan (TRP) and five large neutral amino acids (isoleucine + leucine + phenylalanine + tyrosine + valine) (5LNAAs) after a single meal with high carbohydrates level. Five female Labrador Retrievers were involved. Each dog was fed three different meals: M1 (a mix of puffed rice, minced meat and olive oil), M2 (puffed rice and olive oil) and M3 (commercial dry food usually consumed) once in the morning per day for 30 days. Blood was collected right before the first meal (t0) and after 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 24 h...
April 25, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Yi Wu, Jianfei Zhao, Chenchen Xu, Ning Ma, Ting He, Jinshan Zhao, Xi Ma, Phil A Thacker
Over the last 27 years (1990-2017), based on the revolutionary progresses of basic nutrition research, novel methods and techniques have been developed which bring a profound technological revolution to pig production from free-range system to intensive farming all over the world. Basic theoretical innovations and feed production studies have provided vital advancements in pig nutrition by developing formula feed, utilizing balanced diets, determining feed energy value, dividing pig physiological stages, enhancing gut health, and improving feed processing technique...
April 24, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Yong Bing Chong, He Zhang, Chee Yoon Yue, Jinglei Yang
In this study, double layer polyurethane/polyurea-formaldehyde (PU/PUF) shell microcapsules containing clove oil with antibacterial properties were successfully synthesized via in situ and interfacial polymerization reactions in an oil-in-water emulsion. The morphology, core-shell structure and composition of the microcapsules were investigated systematically. Additionally, the release behaviors of microcapsules synthesized under different reaction parameters were studied. It was found that the release rate of clove oil can be controlled by tuning the amount of PU reactants and the length of PUF deposition time...
April 23, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Joseph O Okeme, Congqiao Yang, Atousa Abdollahi, Suman Dhal, Shelley A Harris, Liisa M Jantunen, Dina Tsirlin, Miriam L Diamond
Passive air samplers (PAS) were evaluated for measuring indoor concentrations of phthalates, novel brominated flame retardants (N-BFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and organophosphate esters (OPEs). Sampling rates were obtained from a 50-day calibration study for two newly introduced PAS, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) or silicone rubber PAS (one with and one without a coating of styrene divinyl benzene co-polymer, XAD) and the commonly used polyurethane foam (PUF) PAS. Average sampling rates normalized to PAS surface area were 1...
April 9, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Nicholas J Herkert, Keri C Hornbuckle
Accurate and precise interpretation of concentrations from polyurethane passive samplers (PUF-PAS) is important as more studies show elevated concentrations of PCBs and other semivolatile air toxics in indoor air of schools and homes. If sufficiently reliable, these samplers may be used to identify local sources and human health risks. Here we report indoor air sampling rates (Rs) for polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) predicted for a frequently used double-dome and a half-dome PUF-PAS design. Both our experimentally calibrated (1...
April 3, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Holly M Dixon, Richard P Scott, Darrell Holmes, Lehyla Calero, Laurel D Kincl, Katrina M Waters, David E Camann, Antonia M Calafat, Julie B Herbstman, Kim A Anderson
Currently there is a lack of inexpensive, easy-to-use technology to evaluate human exposure to environmental chemicals, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This is the first study in which silicone wristbands were deployed alongside two traditional personal PAH exposure assessment methods: active air monitoring with samplers (i.e., polyurethane foam (PUF) and filter) housed in backpacks, and biological sampling with urine. We demonstrate that wristbands worn for 48 h in a non-occupational setting recover semivolatile PAHs, and we compare levels of PAHs in wristbands to PAHs in PUFs-filters and to hydroxy-PAH (OH-PAH) biomarkers in urine...
April 2, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Tammy H Wharton, Krystle J Nomie, Robin P Wharton
Drosophila Pumilio (Pum) is a founding member of the conserved Puf domain class of RNA-binding translational regulators. Pum binds with high specificity, contacting eight nucleotides, one with each of the repeats in its RNA-binding domain. In general, Pum is thought to block translation in collaboration with Nanos (Nos), which exhibits no binding specificity in isolation but is recruited jointly to regulatory sequences containing a Pum binding site in the 3'-UTRs of target mRNAs. Unlike Pum, which is ubiquitous in the early embryo, Nos is tightly restricted to the posterior, ensuring that repression of its best-characterized target, maternal hunchback (hb) mRNA, takes place exclusively in the posterior...
2018: PloS One
Suresh Poudel, Richard J Giannone, Mirko Basen, Intawat Nookaew, Farris L Poole, Robert M Kelly, Michael W W Adams, Robert L Hettich
Background: Caldicellulosiruptor bescii is a thermophilic cellulolytic bacterium that efficiently deconstructs lignocellulosic biomass into sugars, which subsequently can be fermented into alcohols, such as ethanol, and other products. Deconstruction of complex substrates by C. bescii involves a myriad of highly abundant, substrate-specific extracellular solute binding proteins (ESBPs) and carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) containing carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs). Mass spectrometry-based proteomics was employed to investigate how these substrate recognition proteins and enzymes vary as a function of lignocellulosic substrates...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Jonathan Kantor
BACKGROUND: The relative volume of skin and soft tissue excision and reconstructive procedures performed in the outpatient office versus facility (ambulatory surgical center or hospital) differs by specialty, and has major implications for quality of care, outcomes, development of guidelines, resident education, health care economics, and patient perception. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relative volume of surgical procedures performed in each setting (office vs ambulatory surgery center [ASC]/hospital) by dermatologists and nondermatologists...
March 23, 2018: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
Banu Cetin, Sema Yurdakul, Elif Gungormus, Fatma Ozturk, Sait C Sofuoglu
Cancer has become the primary reason of deaths in Dilovasi probably due to its location with unique topography under the influence of heavy industrialization and traffic. In this study, possible sources and carcinogenic health risks of PAHs and PCBs were investigated in Dilovasi region by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) and the USEPA approach, respectively. PAHs and PCBs were measured monthly for a whole year at 23 sampling sites using PUF disk passive samplers. Average ambient air concentrations were found as 285±431ng/m3 and 4152±6072pg/m3 , for Σ15 PAH and Σ41 PCB, respectively...
March 21, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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