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Gulchohra Aliyeva, Carrie Amber Sinnott-Clark, Ondřej Audy, Lenka Škrdlíková, Petr Kukučka, Jana Klánová, Crispin Halsall
PBDEs were measured in air and soil across Azerbaijan to establish contemporary concentrations at 13 urban and rural sites. Polyurethane foam passive air samplers (PUF-PAS) were deployed for a period of a month with surface soil samples collected at the same sites. Unlike organochlorine pesticides previously surveyed by our group, PBDE concentrations in both contemporary air and soil were low in comparison to recent European and Asian studies. For example, mean ∑9PBDE concentrations in air and soil were 7...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Kouki Shinoda, Shogo Tsuji, Shiroh Futaki, Miki Imanishi
RNA-binding proteins recognizing unique sequences within large transcriptomes serve as a powerful tool to control RNA metabolism. Pumilio and fem-3 mRNA-binding factor (PUF) proteins are considered as a good candidate for such tools because they are typically composed of eight highly homologous repeat segments and can be designed to recognize arbitrary 8-nucleotide (nt) RNA sequences. However, a specific 8-nt RNA sequence is found at multiple sites in various RNAs in the transcriptome, making it difficult to specifically target a single RNA...
November 6, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Terry F Bidleman, Mats Tysklind
Frontal chromatography theory is applied to describe movement of gaseous semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) through a column of polyurethane foam (PUF). Collected mass fractions (FC) are predicted for sample volume/breakthrough volume ratios (τ = VS/VB) up to 6.0 and PUF bed theoretical plate numbers (N) from 2 to 16. The predictions assume constant air concentrations and temperatures. Extension of the calculations is done to relate the collection efficiency of a 2-PUF train (FC1+2) to the PUF 2/PUF 1 ratio...
October 27, 2017: Chemosphere
Jiayuan Zhao, Yipei Zhang, Jennifer D Sisler, Justine Shaffer, Stephen S Leonard, Anna M Morris, Yong Qian, Dhimiter Bello, Philip Demokritou
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) have fast increased in popularity but the physico-chemical properties and toxicity of the generated emission remain unclear. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are likely present in e-cig emission and can play an important role in e-cig toxicity. However, e-cig ROS generation is poorly documented. Here, we generated e-cig exposures using a recently developed versatile exposure platform and performed systematic ROS characterization on e-cig emissions using complementary acellular and cellular techniques: 1) a novel acellular Trolox-based mass spectrometry method for total ROS and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection, 2) electron spin resonance (ESR) for hydroxyl radical detection in an acellular and cellular systems and 3) in vitro ROS detection in small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) using the dihydroethidium (DHE) assay...
October 29, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Nicholas J Herkert, Scott N Spak, Austen Smith, Jasmin K Schuster, Tom Harner, Andres Martinez, Keri C Hornbuckle
Passive air samplers equipped with polyurethane foam (PUF-PAS) are frequently used to measure persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in ambient air. Here we present and evaluate a method to determine sampling rates (RS), and the effective sampling volume (Veff), for gas-phase chemical compounds captured by a PUF-PAS sampler deployed anywhere in the world. The method uses a mathematical model that requires only publicly available hourly meteorological data, physical-chemical properties of the target compound, and the deployment dates...
November 2, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Mark Forster, Stacy Fiebelkorn, Caner Yurteri, Derek Mariner, Chuan Liu, Christopher Wright, Kevin McAdam, James Murphy, Christopher Proctor
For a tobacco heating product (THP), which heats rather than burns tobacco, the emissions of toxicants in the aerosol were compared with those in cigarette smoke under a machine-puffing regimen of puff volume 55 ml, puff duration 2 s and puff interval 30 s. The list of toxicants included those proposed by Health Canada, the World Health Organization Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation (TobReg), the US Food and Drug Administration and possible thermal breakdown products. In comparison to the University of Kentucky 3R4F reference cigarette the toxicant levels in the THP1...
October 25, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Leon Kosmider, Catherine F Kimber, Jolanta Kurek, Olivia Corcoran, Lynne E Dawkins
Introduction: Article 20 of the European Tobacco Products Directive (EU-TPD) specifies that e-liquids should not contain nicotine in excess of 20 mg/mL, thus many vapers may be compelled to switch to lower concentrations and in so doing, may engage in more intensive puffing. This study aimed to establish whether more intensive puffing produces higher levels of carbonyl compounds in e-cigarette aerosols. Methods: Using the HPLC-UV diode array method, four carbonyl compounds (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, and acrolein) were measured in liquids and aerosols from nicotine solutions of 24 and 6 mg/mL...
July 22, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Shihui Yin, Chisung Bae, Sang Joon Kim, Jae-Sun Seo
As a plethora of wearable devices are being introduced, significant concerns exist on the privacy and security of personal data stored on these devices. Expanding on recent works of using electrocardiogram (ECG) as a modality for biometric authentication, in this work, we investigate the possibility of using personal ECG signals as the individually unique source for physical unclonable function (PUF), which eventually can be used as the key for encryption and decryption engines. We present new signal processing and machine learning algorithms that learn and extract maximally different ECG features for different individuals and minimally different ECG features for the same individual over time...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Youn Ok Lee, James M Nonnemaker, Brian Bradfield, Edward C Hensel, Risa J Robinson
Introduction: Understanding exposures and potential health effects of ecigarettes is complex. Users' puffing behavior, or topography, affects function of ecigarette devices (e.g., coil temperature) and composition of their emissions. Users with different topographies are likely exposed to different amounts of any harmful or potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs). In this study, we compare ecigarette topographies of established cigarette smokers and non-established cigarette smokers...
October 4, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Konstantinos Farsalinos, Konstantinos Poulas, Vasillis Voudris
Introduction: The study purpose was to evaluate changes in puffing topography of experienced electronic cigarette users (vapers) when changing power settings in electronic cigarette battery device. Methods: Experienced adult vapers (n = 21) were recruited. Participants used their own liquids and an atomizer and battery provided by the researchers. Two 30-minute sessions were performed, with the device power set at 6 W and 10 W, in a randomized, cross-over, participant-blinded design...
October 3, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Yangjian Feng, Binliang Tang, Ming Chen, Li Yang
Pharmacological administration is commonly used when conducting whole-cell patch-clamp recording in brain slices. One of the best methods of drug application during electrophysiological recording is the puff technique, which can be used to study the effect of pharmacological reagents on neuronal activities in brain slices. The greatest advantage of puff application is that the drug concentration around the recording site increases rapidly, thus preventing desensitization of membrane receptors. Successful use of puff application involves careful attention to the following elements: the concentration of the drug, the parameters of the puff micropipette, the distance between the tip of a puff micropipette and the neuron recorded, and the duration and pressure driving the puff (pounds per square inch, psi)...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Linda McQuade, Mya Rao, Roger Miller, Winnie Zhou, Rinku Deol, Brian Sato
In this study, we analyzed the patterns of socioeconomic and demographic factors along with health services provider availability for the current Zika outbreak in Miami-Dade County, South Florida. We used Center for Consumer Information & Insurance Oversight (CCIIO) Machine-Readable Public Use Files (MR-PUFs) to examine provider availability in combination with socioeconomic and demographic factors that could potentially lead to healthcare disparities between any underserved population of the Wynwood neighborhood and the broader population of Miami-Dade County...
October 18, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Hongyu Bao, Na Wang, Chongyuan Wang, Yiyang Jiang, Jiuyang Liu, Li Xu, Jihui Wu, Yunyu Shi
PUF (Pumilio/fem-3 mRNA binding factor) proteins, a conserved family of RNA-binding proteins, recognize specific single-strand RNA targets in a specific modular way. Although plants have a greater number of PUF protein members than do animal and fungal systems, they have been the subject of fewer structural and functional investigations. The aim of this study was to elucidate the involvement of APUM23, a nucleolar PUF protein in the plant Arabidopsis, in pre-rRNA processing. APUM23 is distinct from classical PUF family proteins, which are located in the cytoplasm and bind to 3'UTRs of mRNA to modulate mRNA expression and localization...
November 16, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Bo Strandberg, Anneli Julander, Mattias Sjöström, Marie Lewné, Hatice Koca Akdeva, Carolina Bigert
Routine monitoring of workplace exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is performed mainly via active sampling. However, active samplers have several drawbacks and, in some cases, may even be unusable. Polyurethane foam (PUF) as personal passive air samplers constitute good alternatives for PAH monitoring in occupational air (8 h). However, PUFs must be further tested to reliably yield detectable levels of PAHs in short exposure times (1-3 h) and under extreme occupational conditions. Therefore, we compared the personal exposure monitoring performance of a passive PUF sampler with that of an active air sampler and determined the corresponding uptake rates (Rs)...
September 26, 2017: Chemosphere
L Bramwell, S Harrad, M Abou-Elwafa Abdallah, C Rauert, M Rose, A Fernandes, T Pless-Mulloli
Human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was investigated in a cohort of 20 UK adults along with their anthropometric covariates and relevant properties such as room surveys, lifestyle, diet and activity details. Selected PBDE congeners were measured in matched samples of indoor dust (n = 41), vehicles (n = 8), duplicate diet (n = 24), serum (n = 24) and breast milk (n = 6). Combined exposure estimates via dust and diet revealed total PBDE intakes of 104 to 1,440 pg kg(-1) bw d(-1) for ΣBDEs3-7 and 1,170 to 17,000 pg kg(-1) bw d(-1) for BDE-209...
December 2017: Chemosphere
Yehya Elsayed, Sarah Dalibalta, Maissam El Kouche
Dokha is known to be one of the most rapidly spreading alternative tobacco products (ATPs) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. It is smoked using a pipe known as Midwakh. There is no scientific research published on the chemical composition of dokha and only very little was done to investigate its impact on human health. Three different types of dokha were included in this study. The trace metals content in the dokha samples were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy-scanning electron microscope...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Julio R Valdes, François Guillard, Itai Einav
Strain-rate softening has been associated with a wide variety of material instabilities, from the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect in metal alloys to stick-slip motion in crust faults. Dynamic instability patterns have been recently discovered in brittle porous media: diffused, oscillatory, and erratic compaction. Using model simulations inspired by experiments with puffed rice, we question the link between these dynamic patterns and strain-rate sensitivity in such media. An important feature of our model is that it can recover strain-rate softening as an emergent phenomenon, without imposing it a priori at its microstructural scale...
September 15, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Wooki Kim, Sang-Youn Kim, Dae-Ok Kim, Byung-Yong Kim, Moo-Yeol Baik
Puffing of coffee beans, which induces heat- and pressure-derived physicochemical changes, was applied as an alternative to roasting. Roasted or puffed coffee beans with equivalent lightness values were compared. The moisture content was higher while the crude fat and protein compositions were lower in puffed beans than in roasted beans. The pH was lower and the acid content was higher in puffed beans than in roasted beans. The roasted beans exhibited greater specific volumes, while the puffed beans displayed greater extraction yields...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Andreas S Lappas, Anna S Tzortzi, Efstathia M Konstantinidi, Stephanie I Teloniatis, Chara K Tzavara, Sofia A Gennimata, Nikolaos G Koulouris, Panagiotis K Behrakis
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the duration of immediate respiratory effects of e-cigarette smoking (ECS) and tested the hypothesis that ECS has more prominent effects in asthmatics compared with healthy smokers (HS). METHODS: Fifty-four smokers, 27 healthy (HS group) and 27 with intermittent asthma (mild asthma (MA) group) underwent a control session (no liquid, no resistor coil inside e-cigarette cartridge) and an experimental session of ECS using standardized puffing settings...
September 24, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Bartosz Koszowski, Zachary R Rosenberry, Daniel Yi, Sean Stewart, Wallace B Pickworth
OBJECTIVE: Although most cigarillos and little cigars smokers also smoke cigarettes (dual use), there are few studies comparing toxicant exposure and smoking behavior in cigars and cigarettes. METHODS: Two groups of dual users smoked their usual brand of cigarette and either a Winchester unflavored little cigar (N = 21) or a Black & Mild cigarillo (N = 23). Acute exposure of nicotine and exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) and puffing topography parameters were collected...
April 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
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