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Electrophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441822/-clinical-features-and-outcomes-of-radiofrequency-catheter-ablation-of-atrial-flutter-in-children
#1
H Jiang, X M Li, Y Zhang, H J Liu, M T Li, H Y Ge
Objective: To explore the clinical features of atrial flutter (AFL) and evaluate the efficacy of radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) for AFL in children. Method: Data were collected and analyzed on 50 consecutive pediatric AFL patients (male 37/female 13) who underwent electrophysiology study and RFCA from February 2009 to November 2016 in a case observational study. The average age was (6.2±3.5) years and body weight was (23.7±13.5) kg. Heart structure was normal in 26 patients. Twenty-four patients had congenital heart disease (CHD) and among them 22 patients underwent repaired surgery before...
April 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441820/-brief-interpretation-of-the-pediatric-and-congenital-electrophysiology-society-paces-and-the-heart-rhythm-society-hrs-expert-consensus-statement-on-the-use-of-catheter-ablation-in-children-and-patients-with-congenital-heart-disease
#2
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441637/subtle-pathological-changes-in-neocortical-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#3
Juan G Ochoa, Diana Hentgarden, Audrey Paulzak, Melissa Ogden, Richard Pryson, Markus Lamle, Walter G Rusyniak
This was a prospective observational study to correlate the clinical symptoms, electrophysiology, imaging, and surgical pathology of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) without hippocampal sclerosis. We selected consecutive patients with TLE and normal MRI undergoing temporal lobe resection between April and September 2015. Clinical features, imaging, and functional data were reviewed. Intracranial monitoring and language mapping were performed when it was required according to our team recommendation...
April 22, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441114/neural-circuitry-of-reward-prediction-error
#4
Mitsuko Watabe-Uchida, Neir Eshel, Naoshige Uchida
Dopamine neurons facilitate learning by calculating reward prediction error, or the difference between expected and actual reward. Despite two decades of research, it remains unclear how dopamine neurons make this calculation. Here we review studies that tackle this problem from a diverse set of approaches, from anatomy to electrophysiology to computational modeling and behavior. Several patterns emerge from this synthesis: that dopamine neurons themselves calculate reward prediction error, rather than inherit it passively from upstream regions; that they combine multiple separate and redundant inputs, which are themselves interconnected in a dense recurrent network; and that despite the complexity of inputs, the output from dopamine neurons is remarkably homogeneous and robust...
April 24, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440808/automated-and-manual-patch-clamp-data-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-dopaminergic-neurons
#5
Denise Franz, Hervør Lykke Olsen, Oliver Klink, Jan Gimsa
Human induced pluripotent stem cells can be differentiated into dopaminergic neurons (Dopa.4U). Dopa.4U neurons expressed voltage-gated NaV and KV channels and showed neuron-like spontaneous electrical activity. In automated patch clamp measurements with suspended Dopa.4U neurons, delayed rectifier K(+) current (delayed KV) and rapidly inactivating A-type K(+) current (fast KV) were identified. Examination of the fast KV current with inhibitors yielded IC50 values of 0.4 mM (4-aminopyridine) and 0.1 mM (tetraethylammonium)...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440280/targeting-asic3-for-relieving-mice-fibromyalgia-pain-roles-of-electroacupuncture-opioid-and-adenosine
#6
Liang-Ta Yen, Ching-Liang Hsieh, Hsin-Cheng Hsu, Yi-Wen Lin
Many scientists are seeking better therapies for treating fibromyalgia (FM) pain. We used a mouse model of FM to determine if ASIC3 and its relevant signaling pathway participated in FM pain. We demonstrated that FM-induced mechanical hyperalgesia was attenuated by electroacupuncture (EA). The decrease in fatigue-induced lower motor function in FM mice was also reversed by EA. These EA-based effects were abolished by the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone and the adenosine A1 receptor antagonist rolofylline...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440098/early-diagnosis-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-mimic-syndromes-pros-and-cons-of-current-clinical-diagnostic-criteria
#7
Elena Cortés-Vicente, Jesús Pradas, Juan Marín-Lahoz, Noemi De Luna, Jordi Clarimón, Janina Turon-Sans, Ellen Gelpí, Jordi Díaz-Manera, Isabel Illa, Ricard Rojas-Garcia
OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency and clinical characteristics of patients referred to a tertiary neuromuscular clinic as having amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) but who were re-diagnosed as having an ALS mimic syndrome, and to identify the reasons that led to the revision of the diagnosis. METHODS: We reviewed the final diagnosis of all patients prospectively registered in the Sant Pau-MND register from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2015. A detailed clinical evaluation and a clinically-guided electrophysiological study were performed at first evaluation...
April 25, 2017: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439241/nifedipine-inhibition-of-high-voltage-activated-calcium-channel-currents-in-cerebral-artery-myocytes-is-influenced-by-extracellular-divalent-cations
#8
Fei Wang, Masayo Koide, George C Wellman
Voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) play an essential role in regulating cerebral artery diameter and it is widely appreciated that the L-type VDCC, CaV1.2, encoded by the CACNA1C gene, is a principal Ca(2+) entry pathway in vascular myocytes. However, electrophysiological studies using 10 mM extracellular barium ([Ba(2+)]o) as a charge carrier have shown that ~20% of VDCC currents in cerebral artery myocytes are insensitive to 1,4-dihydropyridine (1,4-DHP) L-type VDDC inhibitors such as nifedipine. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that the concentration of extracellular divalent cations can influence nifedipine inhibition of VDCC currents...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439232/mapping-the-speech-code-cortical-responses-linking-the-perception-and-production-of-vowels
#9
William L Schuerman, Antje S Meyer, James M McQueen
The acoustic realization of speech is constrained by the physical mechanisms by which it is produced. Yet for speech perception, the degree to which listeners utilize experience derived from speech production has long been debated. In the present study, we examined how sensorimotor adaptation during production may affect perception, and how this relationship may be reflected in early vs. late electrophysiological responses. Participants first performed a baseline speech production task, followed by a vowel categorization task during which EEG responses were recorded...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438968/neural-mechanisms-of-cognitive-dissonance-revised-an-eeg-study
#10
Marco Colosio, Anna Shestakova, Vadim V Nikulin, Evgeny Blagovechtchenski, Vasily Klucharev
Cognitive dissonance theory suggests that our preferences are modulated by the mere act of choosing. A choice between two similarly valued alternatives creates psychological tension (cognitive dissonance) that is reduced by a post-decisional reevaluation of the alternatives. We measured EEG of human subjects during rest and free-choice paradigm. Our study demonstrates that choices associated with stronger cognitive dissonance trigger a larger negative fronto-central evoked response similar to error-related negativity (ERN), which has in turn been implicated in general performance monitoring...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438764/neurogenic-hypertension-and-the-secret-of-respiration
#11
Benedito H Machado, Daniel B Zoccal, Davi J A Moraes
In spite of recent advances on the knowledgement of the neural control of cardiovascular function, the cause of sympathetic overactivity in neurogenic hypertension remains unknown. Studies from our laboratory point out that rats submitted to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), an experimental model of neurogenic hypertension, present changes in the central respiratory network that impact the pattern of sympathetic discharge and the levels of arterial pressure. In addition to the fine coordination of respiratory muscle contraction and relaxation, essential for O2 and CO2 pulmonary exchanges, neurons of the respiratory network are precisely connected to the neurons controlling the sympathetic activity in the brainstem...
April 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438749/respiratory-difficulty-with-palatal-laryngeal-and-respiratory-muscle-tremor-in-adult-onset-alexander-s-disease
#12
John McAuley, Rowena Taylor, Anita Simonds, Sanjiv Chawda
Sleep apnoea and respiratory difficulties are reported in adult-onset Alexander's disease (AOAD), an autosomal-dominant leukodystrophy that presents mainly with progressive ataxia. We demonstrate for the first time that the respiratory symptoms can result from association of palatal tremor with a similar tremor of laryngeal and respiratory muscles that interrupts normal inspiration and expiration.A 60-year-old woman presented with progressive ataxia, palatal tremor and breathlessness. MRI revealed medullary atrophy, bilateral T2 hyperintensities in the dentate nuclei and hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD)...
April 23, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438667/watching-the-brain-recalibrate-neural-correlates-of-renormalization-during-face-adaptation
#13
Nadine Kloth, Gillian Rhodes, Stefan R Schweinberger
The face perception system flexibly adjusts its neural responses to current face exposure, inducing aftereffects in the perception of subsequent faces. For instance, adaptation to expanded faces makes undistorted faces appear compressed, and adaptation to compressed faces makes undistorted faces appear expanded. Such distortion aftereffects have been proposed to result from renormalization, in which the visual system constantly updates a prototype according to the adaptors' characteristics and evaluates subsequent faces relative to that...
April 21, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438610/hyperglycemia-increases-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-via-mapk1-and-mapk3-signaling-to-etv1-and-kit-leading-to-rapid-gastric-emptying
#14
Yujiro Hayashi, Yoshitaka Toyomasu, Siva Arumugam Saravanaperumal, Michael R Bardsley, John A Smestad, Andrea Lorincz, Seth T Eisenman, Gianluca Cipriani, Molly H Nelson Holte, Fatimah J Al Khazal, Sabriya A Syed, Gabriella B Gajdos, Kyoung Moo Choi, Gary J Stoltz, Katie E Miller, Michael L Kendrick, Brian P Rubin, Simon J Gibbons, Adil E Bharucha, David R Linden, Louis James Maher, Gianrico Farrugia, Tamas Ordog
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Depletion of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) is common in diabetic gastroparesis. However, in approximately 20% of patients with diabetes, gastric emptying (GE) is accelerated. GE is also faster in obese individuals, and is associated with increased blood levels of glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes. To understand the fate of ICCs in hyperinsulinemic, hyperglycemic states characterized by rapid GE, we studied mice with mutation of the leptin receptor (Lepr(db/db)), which in our colony had accelerated GE...
April 21, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438532/kinetic-properties-and-adrenergic-control-of-trek-2-like-channels-in-rat-medial-prefrontal-cortex-mpfc-pyramidal-neurons
#15
W Ładno, M Gawlak, P Szulczyk, E Nurowska
TREK-2-like channels were identified on the basis of electrophysiological and pharmacological tests performed on freshly isolated and enzymatically/mechanically dispersed pyramidal neurons of the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Single-channel currents were recorded in cell-attached configuration and the impact of adrenergic receptors (α1, α2, β) stimulation on spontaneously appearing TREK-2-like channel activity was tested. The obtained results indicate that noradrenaline decreases the mean open probability of TREK-2-like channel currents by activation of β1 but not of α1- and α2-adrenergic receptors...
April 21, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438465/isaacs-syndrome-with-caspr2-antibody-a-series-of-three-cases
#16
Jie Song, Sisi Jing, Chao Quan, Jun Lu, Xiangyang Qiao, Kai Qiao, Jiahong Lu, Jianying Xi, Chongbo Zhao
Isaacs syndrome is a form of peripheral nerve hyperexcitability, characterized by spontaneous muscle twitching and stiffness. Some patients are reported to be positive for CASPR2 antibody that may be one of the pathogenic autoantibodies in Isaacs syndrome. We reported a series of three patients with Isaacs syndrome, including their clinical features, electrophysiologic findings, laboratory parameters and therapeutic responses. All the three patients were positive for CASPR2 antibodies examined on transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells by indirect immunofluorescence method...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438413/functional-redundancy-between-canonical-endocannabinoid-signaling-systems-in-the-modulation-of-anxiety
#17
Gaurav Bedse, Nolan D Hartley, Emily Neale, Andrew D Gaulden, Toni A Patrick, Philip J Kingsley, Md Jashim Uddin, Niels Plath, Lawrence J Marnett, Sachin Patel
BACKGROUND: Increasing the available repertoire of effective treatments for mood and anxiety disorders represents a critical unmet need. Pharmacological augmentation of endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) signaling has been suggested to represent a novel approach to the treatment of anxiety disorders; however, the functional interactions between two canonical eCB pathways mediated via anandamide (N-arachidonylethanolamine [AEA]) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the regulation of anxiety are not well understood...
March 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436981/identification-of-spinal-circuits-involved-in-touch-evoked-dynamic-mechanical-pain
#18
Longzhen Cheng, Bo Duan, Tianwen Huang, Yan Zhang, Yangyang Chen, Olivier Britz, Lidia Garcia-Campmany, Xiangyu Ren, Linh Vong, Bradford B Lowell, Martyn Goulding, Yun Wang, Qiufu Ma
Mechanical hypersensitivity is a debilitating symptom for millions of chronic pain patients. It exists in distinct forms, including brush-evoked dynamic and filament-evoked punctate hypersensitivities. We reduced dynamic mechanical hypersensitivity induced by nerve injury or inflammation in mice by ablating a group of adult spinal neurons defined by developmental co-expression of VGLUT3 and Lbx1 (VT3(Lbx1) neurons): the mice lost brush-evoked nocifensive responses and conditional place aversion. Electrophysiological recordings show that VT3(Lbx1) neurons form morphine-resistant polysynaptic pathways relaying inputs from low-threshold Aβ mechanoreceptors to lamina I output neurons...
April 24, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436840/a-parametric-computational-model-of-the-action-potential-of-pacemaker-cells
#19
Weiwei Ai, Nitish Patel, Partha Roop, Avinash Malik, Sidharta Andalam, Eugene Yip, Nathan Allen, Mark Trew
OBJECTIVE: A flexible, efficient and verifiable pacemaker cell model is essential to the design of real-time virtual hearts that can be used for closed-loop validation of cardiac devices. A new parametric model of pacemaker action potential is developed to address this need. METHODS: The action potential phases are modeled using hybrid automaton (HA) with one piecewise-linear continuous variable. The model can capture ratedependent dynamics, such as action potential duration (APD) restitution, conduction velocity (CV) restitution, and overdrive suppression by incorporating non-linear update functions...
April 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436586/transesophageal-and-invasive-electrophysiologic-evaluation-in-children-with-wolff-parkinson-white-pattern
#20
Serhat Koca, Feyza Aysenur Pac, Ahmet Vedat Kavurt, Serkan Cay, Ajda Mihcioglu, Dursun Aras, Serkan Topaloglu
BACKGROUND: Risk stratification for Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) pattern either by non-invasive or invasive tests is important to determine whether an ablation is necessary or not. The aim was to compare non-invasive tests and invasive studies in a pediatric WPW population. METHODS: A total of 71 WPW patients [median age 14 years (IQR 11 - 16 years); 43 male] underwent Holter monitoring, exercise stress test (EST), and transesophageal electrophysiological study (TEEPS)...
April 24, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
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