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Ditta Zobor, Gergely Zobor, Stephanie Hipp, Britta Baumann, Nicole Weisschuh, Saskia Biskup, Ieva Sliesoraityte, Eberhart Zrenner, Susanne Kohl
Purpose: Mutations in the retinitis pigmentosa-1-like-1 (RP1L1) gene are the major cause of autosomal dominant occult macular dystrophy (OCMD), while recessive mutations have been linked to autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP). We present the clinical phenotype of a large German OCMD cohort, as well as four RP patients. Methods: A total of 42 OCMD patients (27 families) and 4 arRP patients (3 families) with genetically confirmed mutations in RP1L1 were included...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Catherine A Cukras, Laryssa A Huryn, Brett P Jeffrey, Amy Turriff, Paul A Sieving
Purpose: To examine the symmetry of structural and functional parameters between eyes in patients with X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS), as well as changes in visual acuity and electrophysiology over time. Methods: This is a single-center observational study of 120 males with XLRS who were evaluated at the National Eye Institute. Examinations included best-corrected visual acuity for all participants, as well as ERG recording and optical coherence tomography (OCT) on a subset of participants...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Alise Kalteniece, Maryam Ferdousi, Shazli Azmi, Andrew Marshall, Handrean Soran, Rayaz A Malik
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between corneal keratocyte density (KD) and corneal nerve damage in patients with and without diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Methods: Eighty-six patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes and 21 age-matched control subjects underwent assessment of the neuropathy disability score, quantitative sensory testing, electrophysiology, and corneal confocal microscopy and were divided into those without (DN-) (n = 22) and with (DN+) (n = 64) diabetic neuropathy...
July 2, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Adnan I Qureshi, Nishath Naseem, Muhammad A Saleem, Shawn S Wallery, Faisal Raja
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Yakup Ergül, Ahmet İrdem, Osman Esen, Alper Güzeltaş
A 15-year-old female patient presented at the clinic with heart failure (HF). A 12-lead electrocardiogram showed a heart rate of 170 bpm; negative P waves in leads DII, DIII, aVF; and long RP tachycardia (LRPT). Echocardiography demonstrated a shortening fraction (SF) of 20%. An electrophysiology study during tachycardia revealed an atrial-His time of 52 milliseconds and a His-atrial interval of 295 milliseconds. During ventricular entrainment, the postpacing interval-tachycardia cycle length was measured at 225 milliseconds...
July 2018: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
Aureliu Lavric, Amanda Clapp, Antonia East, Heike Elchlepp, Stephen Monsell
A key index of top-down control in task switching-preparation for a switch-is underexplored in language switching. The well-documented EEG "signature" of preparation for a task switch-a protracted positive-polarity modulation over the posterior scalp-has thus far not been reported in language switching, and the interpretation of previously reported effects of preparation on language switching performance is complicated by confounding factors. In an experiment using event-related potentials (ERPs) and an optimized picture-naming paradigm that addressed these confounds the language was specified by an auditory cue on every trial and changed unpredictably...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Yanteng Zhao, Qiang Zhang, Lei Zhao, Li Gan, Li Yi, Yanan Zhao, Jingling Xue, Lihua Luo, Qiaoyue Du, Rongxin Geng, Zhihong Sun, Nadia Benkirane-Jessel, Pu Chen, Yinping Li, Yun Chen
Multichannel nerve guide conduits (MCNGCs) have been widely studied and exhibited outstanding nerve repair function. However, the effect of the geometric structure of MCNGCs on the nerve repair function was still not clear. Herein, we postulated that MCNGCs with different inner surface area-to-volume ratios (ISA/V) of the channels inside the nerve guide conduits (NGCs) would show different nerve repair functions. Therefore, in current work, we constructed a series of hydroxyethyl cellulose/soy protein sponge-based nerve conduit (HSSN) with low, medium, and high ISA/V from hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC)/soy protein isolate (SPI) composite sponges, which were abbreviated as HSSN-L, HSSN-M and HSSN-H, respectively...
November 30, 2017: ACS Omega
Gamze Altun, Suleyman Kaplan, Omur Gulsum Deniz, Suleyman Emre Kocacan, Sinan Canan, Devra Davis, Cafer Marangoz
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of pulsed digital electromagnetic radiation emitted by mobile phones on the central nervous system of the adult Wistar albino rats. The study evaluated structural and functional impacts of four treatment arms: electromagnetic field (EMF) exposed; EMF exposed + melatonin treated group (EMF + Mel); EMF exposed + omega-3 (ω3) treated group (EMF + ω3); and control group (Cont). The 12-weeks-old rats were exposed to 900 MHz EMF for 60 min/day (4:00-5:00 p...
October 2017: Journal of microscopy and ultrastructure
Emin Timer, Saeid Charsouei, Nerses Bebek, Betül Baykan, Bilge Bilgiç, Pulat Akın Sabancı, Yavuz Aras, Nail İzgi, Candan Gürses
We present a rare case of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) treated successfully with early surgical intervention. Our case is a 9-year-old boy whose seizures, characterized by short episodes of loss of consciousness, appeared at the age of 7, and he showed progressive cognitive decline in the following years. NCSE was diagnosed, and his MRI revealed FCD in the left frontal region which was the same side as his EEG abnormality. Following lesionectomy, his NCSE disappeared and cognitive functions improved...
2018: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
Seok Lee, Hyun-Bum Kim, Eun-Sang Hwang, Eun-Seok Kim, Sung-Soo Kim, Tae-Dong Jeon, Min-Cheol Song, Ji-Seung Lee, Min-Chan Chung, Sungho Maeng, Ji-Ho Park
Depression causes mental and physical changes which affect quality of life. It is estimated to become the second most prevalent disease, but despite its commonness, the pathophysiology of depression remains unclear and medicine is not sufficiently protective. p-Coumaric acid (p-CA) is a dietary phenolic acid which has been proven to have antifungal, anti-HIV, anti-melanogenic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Considering these effects, we investigated whether p-CA can prevent depressive symptoms by reducing inflammatory cytokines in animals injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
June 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Charlotte Vercammen, Tine Goossens, Jaime Undurraga, Jan Wouters, Astrid van Wieringen
A person's ability to process temporal fine structure information is indispensable for speech understanding. As speech understanding typically deteriorates throughout adult life, this study aimed to disentangle age and hearing impairment (HI)-related changes in binaural temporal processing. This was achieved by examining neural and behavioral processing of interaural phase differences (IPDs). Neural IPD processing was studied electrophysiologically through steady-state activity in the electroencephalogram evoked by periodic changes in IPDs over time, embedded in the temporal fine structure of acoustic stimulation...
January 2018: Trends in Hearing
Yu-Hui Lo, Philip Tseng
People prefer to lie using altered truthful events from memory, perhaps because doing so can increase their credibility while reducing cognitive and working memory (WM) load. One possible way to counter such deceptive behavior is to track WM usage, since fabricating coherent lies or managing between truth and lies is likely to involve heavy WM load. In this study, participants memorized a list of words in the study session and used these old words to provide deceptive answers when cued later, in the testing session...
July 18, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Wenying Xian, Xin Hui, Qinghai Tian, Hongmei Wang, Alessandra Moretti, Karl-Ludwig Laugwitz, Veit Flockerzi, Sandra Ruppenthal, Peter Lipp
A gain-of-function mutation in the Ca2+ -activated transient receptor potential melastatin member 4 (TRPM4A432T ) is linked to life-threatening cardiac conduction disturbance, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. For deeper insights, we used photolysis of caged Ca2+ , quantitative Ca2+ , and electrophysiological measurements. TRPM4A432T 's 2-fold larger membrane current was associated with 50% decreased plasma membrane expression. Kinetic analysis unveiled 4-fold slower deactivation that was responsible for the augmented membrane current progressively rising during repetitive human cardiac action potentials...
July 17, 2018: Cell Reports
Nicholas Maling, Scott F Lempka, Zack Blumenfeld, H M Bronte-Stewart, Cameron C McIntyre
Clinical deep brain stimulation (DBS) technology is evolving to enable chronic recording of local field potentials (LFPs) that represent electrophysiological biomarkers of the underlying disease state. However, little is known about the biophysical basis of LFPs, or how the patient's unique brain anatomy and electrode placement impact the recordings. Therefore, we developed a patient-specific computational framework to analyze LFP recordings within a clinical DBS context. We selected a subject with Parkinson's disease implanted with a Medtronic Activa PC+S DBS system and reconstructed their subthalamic nucleus (STN) and DBS electrode location using medical imaging data...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Mariana Séfora Bezerra Sousa, Iasmym Melissa Soares de Holanda, Heloísa Mirelle Costa Monteiro, Ângela Amâncio-Dos-Santos
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of Murici extract on the brain excitability-dependent phenomenon known as cortical spreading depression (CSD) and on brain oxidative stress. METHODS: Adult and aged Wistar rats were supplemented with murici extract (150 mg/kg/day or 300 mg/kg/day) by gavage for fifteen days. Afterwards, the animals were submitted to a CSD electrophysiological recording and to brain oxidative stress evaluation. RESULTS: Our results showed that aging decreased CSD propagation velocity, catalase activity and glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) in the brain cortex of the rats, and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity...
June 2018: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
Wei Xu, Stuart N Baker
Primates (including humans) have a highly developed corticospinal tract, and specialised motor cortical areas which differ in key ways from rodents. Much work on motor cortex has therefore used macaque monkeys as a good animal model for human motor control. However, there is a paucity of data describing the fundamental functional architecture of primate primary motor cortex, which is best addressed with in vitro approaches. In this study we examined the cellular properties and the micro-circuitry of the adult macaque primary motor cortex by carrying out in-vitro intracellular recordings...
July 18, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Xiang Zhang, Chushan Zheng, Peiwei Wang, Dongye Wang, Boshui Huang, Guozhao Li, Huijun Hu, Zehong Yang, Xiaohui Duan, Shaoxin Zheng, Pinming Liu, Jingfeng Wang, Jun Shen
OBJECTIVES: Cardiac lead perforation is a rare but potentially life-threatening event. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performances of chest radiography, transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and electrocardiography (ECG)-gated contrast-enhanced cardiac CT in the assessment of cardiac lead perforation. METHODS: This retrospective study was approved by the ethics review board of Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital at Sun Yat-Sen University (Guangzhou, China), and the need to obtain informed consent was waived...
July 17, 2018: European Radiology
Anna M Belle, Heather A Enright, Ana Paula Sales, Kristen Kulp, Joanne Osburn, Edward A Kuhn, Nicholas O Fischer, Elizabeth K Wheeler
Quantitatively benchmarking similarities and differences between the in vivo central nervous system and in vitro neuronal cultures can qualify discrepancies in functional responses and establish the utility of in vitro platforms. In this work, extracellular electrophysiology responses of cortical neurons in awake, freely-moving animals were compared to in vitro cultures of dissociated cortical neurons. After exposure to two well-characterized drugs, atropine and ketamine, a number of key points were observed: (1) significant differences in spontaneous firing activity for in vivo and in vitro systems, (2) similar response trends in single-unit spiking activity after exposure to atropine, and (3) greater sensitivity to the effects of ketamine in vitro...
July 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yali Wang, Elaine Yang, Marta M Wells, Vasyl Bondarenko, Kellie Woll, Vincenzo Carnevale, Daniele Granata, Michael L Klein, Roderic G Eckenhoff, William P Dailey, Manuel Covarrubias, Pei Tang, Yan Xu
Voltage-gated sodium (NaV ) channels are important targets of general anesthetics, including the intravenous anesthetic propofol. Electrophysiology studies on the prokaryotic NaV channel NaChBac have demonstrated that propofol promotes channel activation and accelerates activation-coupled inactivation, but the molecular mechanisms of these effects are unclear. Here, guided by computational docking and molecular dynamics simulations, we predict several propofol-binding sites in NaChBac. We then strategically place small fluorinated probes at these putative binding sites and experimentally quantify the interaction strengths with a fluorinated propofol analogue, 4-fluoropropofol...
July 17, 2018: Journal of General Physiology
Elaine Yang, Daniele Granata, Roderic G Eckenhoff, Vincenzo Carnevale, Manuel Covarrubias
Propofol is widely used in the clinic for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. As with most general anesthetics, however, our understanding of its mechanism of action remains incomplete. Local and general anesthetics largely inhibit voltage-gated Na+ channels (Navs) by inducing an apparent stabilization of the inactivated state, associated in some instances with pore block. To determine the biophysical and molecular basis of propofol action in Navs, we investigated NaChBac and NavMs, two prokaryotic Navs with distinct voltage dependencies and gating kinetics, by whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology in the absence and presence of propofol at clinically relevant concentrations (2-10 µM)...
July 17, 2018: Journal of General Physiology
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