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Electrophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813643/multi-connection-pattern-analysis-decoding-the-representational-content-of-neural-communication
#1
Yuanning Li, R Mark Richardson, Avniel Singh Ghuman
The lack of multivariate methods for decoding the representational content of interregional neural communication has left it difficult to know what information is represented in distributed brain circuit interactions. Here we present Multi-Connection Pattern Analysis (MCPA), which works by learning mappings between the activity patterns of the populations as a factor of the information being processed. These maps are used to predict the activity from one neural population based on the activity from the other population...
August 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813575/subclinical-decrease-in-central-inner-retinal-activity-is-associated-with-myopia-development-in-children
#2
Serena Zhe-Chuang Li, Wing-Yan Yu, Kai-Yip Choi, Christie Hang-I Lam, Yamunadevi Lakshmanan, Francisca Siu-Yin Wong, Henry Ho-Lung Chan
Purpose: To investigate the characteristics of retinal electrophysiological activity in relation to early myopia development in children. Methods: Fifty-six children aged 6 to 9 years with emmetropic refractive error (defined as ≥ -0.5 diopter [D] and ≤ +0.5 D) were recruited. Cycloplegic refraction, axial length, and global flash multifocal electroretinogram (MOFO mfERG) at 49% and 96% contrast levels were recorded in all children at their first visit. The refraction and axial length measurements were repeated after 1 year...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813535/modeling-hypothermia-induced-effects-for-the-heterogeneous-ventricular-tissue-from-cellular-level-to-the-impact-on-the-ecg
#3
Roland Kienast, Michael Handler, Markus Stöger, Daniel Baumgarten, Friedrich Hanser, Christian Baumgartner
Hypothermia has a profound impact on the electrophysiological mechanisms of the heart. Experimental investigations provide a better understanding of electrophysiological alterations associated with cooling. However, there is a lack of computer models suitable for simulating the effects of hypothermia in cardio-electrophysiology. In this work, we propose a model that describes the cooling-induced electrophysiological alterations in ventricular tissue in a temperature range from 27°C to 37°C. To model the electrophysiological conditions in a 3D left ventricular tissue block it was essential to consider the following anatomical and physiological parameters in the model: the different cell types (endocardial, M, epicardial), the heterogeneous conductivities in longitudinal, transversal and transmural direction depending on the prevailing temperature, the distinct fiber orientations and the transmural repolarization sequences...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813017/a-wireless-exg-interface-for-patch-type-ecg-holter-and-emg-controlled-robot-hand
#4
Kwangmuk Lee, Yun Young Choi, Dae Jung Kim, Hee Young Chae, Kyeonghwan Park, Young Min Oh, Sung Hun Woo, Jae Joon Kim
This paper presents a wearable electrophysiological interface with enhanced immunity to motion artifacts. Anti-artifact schemes, including a patch-type modular structure and real-time automatic level adjustment, are proposed and verified in two wireless system prototypes of a patch-type electrocardiogram (ECG) module and an electromyogram (EMG)-based robot-hand controller. Their common ExG readout integrated circuit (ROIC), which is reconfigurable for multiple physiological interfaces, is designed and fabricated in a 0...
August 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812882/aberrantly-large-single-channel-conductance-of-polyhistidine-arm-containing-protein-nanopores
#5
Avinash Kumar Thakur, Motahareh Ghahari Larimi, Kristin Gooden, Liviu Movileanu
There have been only a few studies reporting on the impact of polyhistidine affinity tags on the structure, function, and dynamics of proteins. Because of their relatively short size, they are often assumed to have little or no effect on the conformation and activity of a protein. Here, using membrane protein design and single-molecule electrophysiology, we determined that the presence of a hexahistidine arm at the N-terminus of a truncated FhuA-based protein nanopore, leaving the C-terminus untagged, produces an unusual increase in the unitary conductance up to ~8 nS in 1 M KCl...
August 16, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812231/the-neuroprotective-effect-of-conditioned-medium-from-human-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-is-impaired-by-n-acetyl-cysteine-supplementation
#6
Teodoro Palomares, María Cordero, Cristina Bruzos-Cidon, María Torrecilla, Luisa Ugedo, Ana Alonso-Varona
Oxidative stress is a common feature in neurodegenerative diseases associated with neuroinflammation, and therefore, has been proposed as a key target for novel therapies for these diseases. Recently, adipose-derived stem cell (ASC)-based cell therapy has emerged as a novel strategy for neuroprotection. In this study, we evaluate the therapeutic role of ASC-conditioned medium (ASC-CM) against H2O2-induced neurotoxicity in a new in vitro model of ec23/brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-differentiated human SH-SY5Y neuron-like cells (SH-SY5Yd)...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811669/paraventricular-thalamic-control-of-food-intake-and-reward-role-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-signaling
#7
Zhi Yi Ong, Jing-Jing Liu, Zhiping P Pang, Harvey J Grill
Paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) neurons receive hindbrain and hypothalamic inputs, and project to forebrain sites involved in reward and motivation function. The role of PVT in energy balance and reward control is however understudied. Given that PVT neurons express glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors (GLP-1R), which are critical to feeding and body weight control, we tested the hypothesis that PVT GLP-1R signaling contributes to food intake and reward inhibition. To assess the hypothesis, behavioral tests including chow and high-fat diet intake, meal patterns, conditioned place preference for high-fat food, cue-induced reinstatement of sucrose-seeking, and motivation to work for sucrose were employed following intra-PVT delivery of either GLP-1R agonist, exendin-4 (Ex4), or GLP-1R antagonist, exendin-9-39 (Ex9)...
July 19, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811195/epileptic-interictal-discharges-are-more-frequent-during-nrem-slow-wave-downstates
#8
Péter Przemyslaw Ujma, Péter Halász, Anna Kelemen, Dániel Fabó, Loránd Erőss
Epileptiform activity in various but not all epilepsy and recording types and cerebral areas is more frequent in NREM sleep, and especially during sleep periods with high-amplitude EEG slow waves. Slow waves synchronize high-frequency oscillations: physiological activity from the theta through the gamma band usually appears during scalp-positive upstates while epileptiform activity occurs at transitory phases and the scalp-negative downstate. It has been proposed that interictal discharges (IIDs) are facilitated by the high degree of neuronal firing synchrony during slow wave transitory and downstates...
August 12, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811174/subchronic-exposure-to-sublethal-dose-of-imidacloprid-changes-electrophysiological-properties-and-expression-pattern-of-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-subtypes-in-insect-neurosecretory-cells
#9
Yassine Benzidane, Delphine Goven, Aly Ahmed Abd-Ella, Caroline Deshayes, Bruno Lapied, Valérie Raymond
Neonicotinoids are the most important class of insecticides used in agriculture over the last decade. They act as selective agonists of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The emergence of insect resistance to these insecticides is one of the major problems, which limit the use of neonicotinoids. The aim of our study is to better understand physiological changes appearing after subchronic exposure to sublethal doses of insecticide using complementary approaches that include toxicology, electrophysiology, molecular biology and calcium imaging...
August 12, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810912/inhibition-of-trpm7-suppresses-cell-proliferation-of-colon-adenocarcinoma-in-vitro-and-induces-hypomagnesemia-in-vivo-without-affecting-azoxymethane-induced-early-colon-cancer-in-mice
#10
Junhao Huang, Hideki Furuya, Malika Faouzi, Zheng Zhang, Mahealani Monteilh-Zoller, F Kelly Galbraith Kawabata, David Horgen, Toshihiko Kawamori, Reinhold Penner, Andrea Fleig
BACKGROUND: Magnesium (Mg(2+)) is an essential cation implicated in carcinogenesis, solid tumor progression and metastatic potential. The Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin Member 7 (TRPM7) is a divalent ion channel involved in cellular and systemic Mg(2+) homeostasis. Abnormal expression of TRPM7 is found in numerous cancers, including colon, implicating TRPM7 in this process. METHODS: To establish a possible link between systemic magnesium (Mg(2+)) status, the Mg(2+) conducting channel TRPM7 in colon epithelial cells, and colon carcinogenesis, in vitro whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology, qPCR, and pharmacological tools were used probing human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 as well as normal primary mouse colon epithelial cells...
August 15, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809960/metrics-for-comparing-neuronal-tree-shapes-based-on-persistent-homology
#11
Yanjie Li, Dingkang Wang, Giorgio A Ascoli, Partha Mitra, Yusu Wang
As more and more neuroanatomical data are made available through efforts such as NeuroMorpho.Org and FlyCircuit.org, the need to develop computational tools to facilitate automatic knowledge discovery from such large datasets becomes more urgent. One fundamental question is how best to compare neuron structures, for instance to organize and classify large collection of neurons. We aim to develop a flexible yet powerful framework to support comparison and classification of large collection of neuron structures efficiently...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809399/evidence-for-newly-generated-interneurons-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-of-adult-mice
#12
D J Jhaveri, A Tedoldi, S Hunt, R Sullivan, N R Watts, J M Power, P F Bartlett, P Sah
New neurons are continually generated from the resident populations of precursor cells in selective niches of the adult mammalian brain such as the hippocampal dentate gyrus and the olfactory bulb. However, whether such cells are present in the adult amygdala, and their neurogenic capacity, is not known. Using the neurosphere assay, we demonstrate that a small number of precursor cells, the majority of which express Achaete-scute complex homolog 1 (Ascl1), are present in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) of the adult mouse...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808817/electrophysiological-modulation-in-an-effort-to-complete-illusory-figures-configuration-illusory-contour-and-closure-effects
#13
Tommaso Poscoliero, Massimo Girelli
Figure recognition process: From the coarse configuration standing from the background to the closure of a meaningful shape, was investigated by ERP technique. ERP components at different latencies from stimulus onset allowed to tap into the figure recognition process at discrete time-points when different cognitive operations take place. In this study, we present two experiments where the support-ratio (SR) of illusory figures was manipulated to vary continuously the recognition of geometrical figures. In the first experiment three shapes were used to vary the SR and the P1 component (80-130 ms) was modulated by the configuration-effect explained, in part for the first time, with the unbalanced physical stimulation between upper and lower visual field...
August 14, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808347/taini-maximizing-research-output-whilst-improving-animals-welfare-in-neurophysiology-experiments
#14
Zhou Jiang, John R Huxter, Stuart A Bowyer, Anthony J Blockeel, James Butler, Syed A Imtiaz, Keith A Wafford, Keith G Phillips, Mark D Tricklebank, Hugh M Marston, Esther Rodriguez-Villegas
Understanding brain function at the cell and circuit level requires representation of neuronal activity through multiple recording sites and at high sampling rates. Traditional tethered recording systems restrict movement and limit the environments suitable for testing, while existing wireless technology is still too heavy for extended recording in mice. Here we tested TaiNi, a novel ultra-lightweight (<2 g) low power wireless system allowing 72-hours of recording from 16 channels sampled at ~19.5 KHz (9...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808323/stress-hormone-rapidly-tunes-synaptic-nmda-receptor-through-membrane-dynamics-and-mineralocorticoid-signalling
#15
Lenka Mikasova, Hui Xiong, Amber Kerkhofs, Delphine Bouchet, Harm J Krugers, Laurent Groc
Stress hormones, such as corticosteroids, modulate the transmission of hippocampal glutamatergic synapses and NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent synaptic plasticity, favouring salient behavioural responses to the environment. The corticosterone-induced synaptic adaptations partly rely on changes in NMDAR signalling, although the cellular pathway underlying this effect remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate, using single molecule imaging and electrophysiological approaches in hippocampal neurons, that corticosterone specifically controls GluN2B-NMDAR surface dynamics and synaptic content through mineralocorticoid signalling...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808233/the-influence-of-affective-state-on-exogenous-attention-to-emotional-distractors-behavioral-and-electrophysiological-correlates
#16
Alejandra Carboni, Dominique Kessel, Almudena Capilla, Luis Carretié
The interplay between exogenous attention to emotional distractors and the baseline affective state has not been well established yet. The present study aimed to explore this issue through behavioral measures and event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants (N = 30) completed a digit categorization task depicted over negative, positive or neutral distractor background pictures, while they experienced negative, positive and neutral affective states elicited by movie scenes. Behavioral results showed higher error rates and longer reaction times for negative distractors than for neutral and positive ones, irrespective of the current emotional state...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808023/prefrontal-cortex-modulates-posterior-alpha-oscillations-during-top-down-guided-visual-perception
#17
Randolph F Helfrich, Melody Huang, Guy Wilson, Robert T Knight
Conscious visual perception is proposed to arise from the selective synchronization of functionally specialized but widely distributed cortical areas. It has been suggested that different frequency bands index distinct canonical computations. Here, we probed visual perception on a fine-grained temporal scale to study the oscillatory dynamics supporting prefrontal-dependent sensory processing. We tested whether a predictive context that was embedded in a rapid visual stream modulated the perception of a subsequent near-threshold target...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808010/voltage-gated-calcium-flux-mediates-escherichia-coli-mechanosensation
#18
Giancarlo N Bruni, R Andrew Weekley, Benjamin J T Dodd, Joel M Kralj
Electrically excitable cells harness voltage-coupled calcium influx to transmit intracellular signals, typically studied in neurons and cardiomyocytes. Despite intense study in higher organisms, investigations of voltage and calcium signaling in bacteria have lagged due to their small size and a lack of sensitive tools. Only recently were bacteria shown to modulate their membrane potential on the timescale of seconds, and little is known about the downstream effects from this modulation. In this paper, we report on the effects of electrophysiology in individual bacteria...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807860/hidden-markov-modeling-of-frequency-following-responses-to-mandarin-lexical-tones
#19
Fernando Llanos, Zilong Xie, Bharath Chandrasekaran
BACKGROUND: The frequency-following response (FFR) is a scalp-recorded electrophysiological potential reflecting phase-locked activity from neural ensembles in the auditory system. The FFR is often used to assess the robustness of subcortical pitch processing. Due to low signal-to-noise ratio at the single-trial level, FFRs are typically averaged across thousands of stimulus repetitions. Prior work using this approach has shown that subcortical encoding of linguistically-relevant pitch patterns is modulated by long-term language experience...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807846/the-reliability-of-commonly-used-electrophysiology-measures
#20
K E Brown, K R Lohse, I M S Mayer, G Strigaro, M Desikan, E P Casula, S Meunier, T Popa, J-C Lamy, O Odish, B R Leavitt, A Durr, R A C Roos, S J Tabrizi, J C Rothwell, L A Boyd, M Orth
BACKGROUND: Electrophysiological measures can help understand brain function both in healthy individuals and in the context of a disease. Given the amount of information that can be extracted from these measures and their frequent use, it is essential to know more about their inherent reliability. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: To understand the reliability of electrophysiology measures in healthy individuals. We hypothesized that measures of threshold and latency would be the most reliable and least susceptible to methodological differences between study sites...
July 31, 2017: Brain Stimulation
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