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Electrophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938737/complex-catsper-dependent-and-independent-ca2-i-signalling-in-human-spermatozoa-induced-by-follicular-fluid
#1
Sean G Brown, Sarah Costello, Mark C Kelly, Mythili Ramalingam, Ellen Drew, Stephen J Publicover, Christopher L R Barratt, Sarah Martins Da Silva
STUDY QUESTION: Does progesterone in human follicular fluid (hFF) activate CatSper and do other components of hFF modulate this effect and/or contribute separately to hFF-induced Ca2+ signaling? SUMMARY ANSWER: hFF potently stimulates CatSper and increases [Ca2+]i, primarily due to high concentrations of progesterone, however, other components of hFF also contribute to [Ca2+]i signaling, including modulation of CatSper channel activity and inhibition of [Ca2+]i oscillations...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937807/use-of-virtual-reality-in-improving-poststroke-neglect-promising-neuropsychological-and-neurophysiological-findings-from-a-case-study
#2
Rosaria De Luca, Viviana Lo Buono, Antonino Leo, Margherita Russo, Bianca Aragona, Simona Leonardi, Antonio Buda, Antonino Naro, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
After experiencing a stroke in the right hemisphere, almost 50% of patients show unilateral spatial neglect (USN). Virtual Reality technologies offer impressive opportunities for both the rehabilitation and assessment of different cognitive deficits, including USN. A 57-year-old woman, affected by subarachnoid hemorrhage presented a severe left hemiparesis with severe cognitive and behavioral alterations, including temporal and spatial disorientation, reduction of attention and memory process, slowing ideation, USN, and depression of mood...
September 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937579/pyrethroids-inhibit-k2p-channels-and-activate-sensory-neurons-basis-of-insecticide-induced-paraesthesias
#3
Aida Castellanos, Alba Andres, Laura Bernal, Gerard Callejo, Nuria Comes, Arcadi Gual, Jonathan P Giblin, Carolina Roza, Xavier Gasull
Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used for pest control, in agriculture or in human public health commonly as a topical treatment for scabies and head lice. Exposure to pyrethroids such as permethrin or tetramethrin (TM) causes sensory alterations such as transient pain, burning, stinging sensations and paraesthesias. Despite the well-known effects of pyrethroids on sodium channels, actions on other channels that control sensory neuron excitability are less studied. Given the role of two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channels in modulating sensory neuron excitability and firing, both in physiological and pathological conditions, we examined the effect of pyrethroids on K2P channels mainly expressed in sensory neurons...
September 19, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937300/infants-processing-of-prosodic-cues-electrophysiological-evidence-for-boundary-perception-beyond-pause-detection
#4
Julia Holzgrefe-Lang, Caroline Wellmann, Barbara Höhle, Isabell Wartenburger
Infants as young as six months are sensitive to prosodic phrase boundaries marked by three acoustic cues: pitch change, final lengthening, and pause. Behavioral studies suggest that a language-specific weighting of these cues develops during the first year of life; recent work on German revealed that eight-month-olds, unlike six-month-olds, are capable of perceiving a prosodic boundary on the basis of pitch change and final lengthening only. The present study uses Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) to investigate the neuro-cognitive development of prosodic cue perception in German-learning infants...
September 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936176/chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-differentially-impacts-different-states-of-inspiratory-activity-at-the-level-of-the-preb%C3%A3-tzinger-complex
#5
Alfredo J Garcia, Tatiana Dashevskiy, Maggie A Khuu, Jan-Marino Ramirez
The preBötzinger complex (preBötC) is a medullary brainstem network crucially involved in the generation of different inspiratory rhythms. In the isolated brainstem slice, the preBötC reconfigures to produce different rhythms that we refer to as "fictive eupnea" under baseline conditions (i.e., carbogen), and "fictive gasping" in hypoxia. We recently demonstrated that fictive eupnea is irregular following exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). However, it is unknown how CIH impacts fictive gasping...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935968/electrophysiological-studies-in-thyroid-associated-orbitopathy-a-systematic-review
#6
Tiara W U Iao, Shi Song Rong, An Ni Ling, Mårten E Brelén, Alvin Lerrmann Young, Kelvin K L Chong
Dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON) is the commonest cause of blindness in thyroid associated orbitopathy (TAO). While diagnosis remains clinical, objective tests for eyes with early or equivocal findings are lacking. Various electrophysiological studies (EPS) have been reported, yet the types and parameters useful for DON remain inconclusive. We performed a systematic literature search in MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane databases via the OVID platform up to August 20, 2017. 437 records were identified for screening and 16 original studies (1327 eyes, 787 patients) were eligible for review...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935799/interacting-amino-acid-replacements-allow-poison-frogs-to-evolve-epibatidine-resistance
#7
Rebecca D Tarvin, Cecilia M Borghese, Wiebke Sachs, Juan C Santos, Ying Lu, Lauren A O'Connell, David C Cannatella, R Adron Harris, Harold H Zakon
Animals that wield toxins face self-intoxication. Poison frogs have a diverse arsenal of defensive alkaloids that target the nervous system. Among them is epibatidine, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist that is lethal at microgram doses. Epibatidine shares a highly conserved binding site with acetylcholine, making it difficult to evolve resistance yet maintain nAChR function. Electrophysiological assays of human and frog nAChR revealed that one amino acid replacement, which evolved three times in poison frogs, decreased epibatidine sensitivity but at a cost of acetylcholine sensitivity...
September 22, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935766/serotonin-2b-receptors-in-mesoaccumbens-dopamine-pathway-regulate-cocaine-responses
#8
Stéphane Doly, Emily Quentin, Raphaël Eddine, Stefania Tolu, Sebastian P Fernandez, Jesus Bertran-Gonzalez, Emmanuel Valjent, Arnauld Belmer, Xavier Viñals, Jacques Callebert, Philippe Faure, Frank J Meye, Denis Hervé, Patricia Robledo, Manuel Mameli, Jean-Marie Launay, Rafael Maldonado, Luc Maroteaux
Addiction is a maladaptive pattern of behavior following repeated use of reinforcing drugs in predisposed individuals, and leading to lifelong changes. A common substrate of these changes lies in alterations of neurons releasing dopamine in the ventral and dorsal territories of the striatum. The serotonin 5-HT2B receptor has been involved in various behaviors including impulsivity, response to antidepressants and to psychostimulants pointing toward putative interactions with the dopamine system. Despite these findings, it remains unknown whether 5-HT2B receptors directly modulate dopaminergic activity and the possible mechanisms involved...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935133/functional-validation-of-heteromeric-kainate-receptor-models
#9
Teresa Paramo, Patricia M G E Brown, Maria Musgaard, Derek Bowie, Philip C Biggin
Kainate receptors require the presence of external ions for gating. Most work thus far has been performed on homomeric GluK2 but, in vivo, kainate receptors are likely heterotetramers. Agonists bind to the ligand-binding domain (LBD) which is arranged as a dimer of dimers as exemplified in homomeric structures, but no high-resolution structure currently exists of heteromeric kainate receptors. In a full-length heterotetramer, the LBDs could potentially be arranged either as a GluK2 homomer alongside a GluK5 homomer or as two GluK2/K5 heterodimers...
September 19, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934587/aging-in-the-cardiovascular-system-lessons-from-hutchinson-gilford-progeria-syndrome
#10
Magda R Hamczyk, Lara Del Campo, Vicente Andrés
Aging, the main risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), is becoming progressively more prevalent in our societies. A better understanding of how aging promotes CVD is therefore urgently needed to develop new strategies to reduce disease burden. Atherosclerosis and heart failure contribute significantly to age-associated CVD-related morbimortality. CVD and aging are both accelerated in patients suffering from Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), a rare genetic disorder caused by the prelamin A mutant progerin...
September 20, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934410/approach-to-cardio-oncologic-patients-with-special-focus-on-patients-with-cardiac-implantable-electronic-devices-planned-for-radiotherapy-results-of-the-european-heart-rhythm-association-survey
#11
Radoslaw Lenarczyk, Tatjana S Potpara, Kristina H Haugaa, Jean-Claude Deharo, Antonio Hernandez-Madrid, Maria Del Carmen Exposito Pineda, Marek Kiliszek, Nikolaos Dagres
The aim of this European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) survey was to evaluate clinical practice regarding cardio-oncologic patients, with special focus on patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) planned for anticancer radiotherapy (RT), among members of the EHRA electrophysiology research network. Of the 36 responding centres, 89% managed patients who were diagnosed or treated oncologically, and this diagnosis affected 1-5% of cardiovascular patients in majority of centres (57%). The main side effects of anticancer therapy in patients treated by cardiologists were thromboembolic complications and left ventricular dysfunction (both reported as 'frequent' by 43% of the centres)...
September 1, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934355/study-of-myelin-structure-changes-during-the-nerve-fibers-demyelination
#12
Natalia N Rodionova, Elvin S Allakhverdiev, Georgy V Maksimov
Raman, NMR and EPR spectroscopy and electrophysiology methods were used to investigate the excitability and the packaging of myelin lipid layers and its viscosity during nerve exposure to pronase E. It was established that during exposure of nerve to pronase E the action potential (AP) conduction velocity and the Schwann cell (SC) (or myelin) water ordering increases, but the nerve myelin refractive index and internode incisions numbers decrease. This effect included two periods-short- and long-time period, probably, because the first one depends on SC protein changes and the second one-on the nerve fiber internode demyelination...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933792/a-common-haplotype-containing-functional-cacna1h-variants-is-frequently-coinherited-with-increased-tpsab1-copy-number
#13
Jonathan J Lyons, Stephanie C Stotz, Jack Chovanec, Yihui Liu, Katie L Lewis, Celeste Nelson, Thomas DiMaggio, Nina Jones, Kelly D Stone, Heejong Sung, Leslie G Biesecker, Michael A Colicos, Joshua D Milner
PurposeCaV3.2 signaling contributes to nociception, pruritus, gastrointestinal motility, anxiety, and blood pressure homeostasis. This calcium channel, encoded by CACNA1H, overlaps the human tryptase locus, wherein increased TPSAB1 copy number causes hereditary α-tryptasemia. Germ-line CACNA1H variants may contribute to the variable expressivity observed with this genetic trait.MethodsTryptase-encoding sequences at TPSAB1 and TPSB2, and TPSG1 and CACNA1H variants were genotyped in 46 families with hereditary α-tryptasemia syndrome...
September 21, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933150/an-ultra-flexible-transparent-oxide-metal-oxide-stack-electrode-with-low-sheet-resistance-for-electrophysiological-measurements
#14
Yasutoshi Jimbo, Naoji Matsuhisa, Wonryung Lee, Peter Zalar, Hiroaki Jinno, Tomoyuki Yokota, Masaki Sekino, Takao Someya
Flexible, transparent electrodes are a crucial component for future implantable and wearable systems. For practical applications, conductivity and flexibility should be further improved to prevent signal attenuation, heat generation, and disconnection. Herein, we fabricate an ultra-flexible transparent electrode with low sheet resistance (8.6 Ω/sq) using an indium-tin-oxide/Au/indium-tin-oxide multilayer on a 1 µm-thick parylene substrate. The electrodes were foldable, and when compared to pristine ITO displayed greater mechanical robustness...
September 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932698/quantitative-magnetic-resonance-mr-neurography-for-evaluation-of-peripheral-nerves-and-plexus-injuries
#15
REVIEW
Teodoro Martín Noguerol, Rafael Barousse, Mariano Socolovsky, Antonio Luna
Traumatic conditions of peripheral nerves and plexus have been classically evaluated by morphological imaging techniques and electrophysiological tests. New magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies based on 3D fat-suppressed techniques are providing high accuracy for peripheral nerve injury evaluation from a qualitative point of view. However, these techniques do not provide quantitative information. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are functional MRI techniques that are able to evaluate and quantify the movement of water molecules within different biological structures...
August 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932183/plant-polyphenols-and-exendin-4-prevent-hyperactivity-and-tnf-%C3%AE-release-in-lps-treated-in-vitro-neuron-astrocyte-microglial-networks
#16
Francesca Gullo, Michela Ceriani, Alessia D'Aloia, Enzo Wanke, Andrew Constanti, Barbara Costa, Marzia Lecchi
Increasing evidence supports a decisive role for neuroinflammation in the neurodegenerative process of several central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Microglia are essential mediators of neuroinflammation and can regulate a broad spectrum of cellular responses by releasing reactive oxygen intermediates, nitric oxide, proteases, excitatory amino acids, and cytokines. We have recently shown that also in ex-vivo cortical networks of neurons, astrocytes and microglia, an increased level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was detected a few hours after exposure to the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931930/bistability-and-up-down-state-alternations-in-inhibition-dominated-randomly-connected-networks-of-lif-neurons
#17
Elisa M Tartaglia, Nicolas Brunel
Electrophysiological recordings in cortex in vivo have revealed a rich variety of dynamical regimes ranging from irregular asynchronous states to a diversity of synchronized states, depending on species, anesthesia, and external stimulation. The average population firing rate in these states is typically low. We study analytically and numerically a network of sparsely connected excitatory and inhibitory integrate-and-fire neurons in the inhibition-dominated, low firing rate regime. For sufficiently high values of the external input, the network exhibits an asynchronous low firing frequency state (L)...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931876/evidence-that-ca3-is-underling-the-comorbidity-between-pain-and-depression-and-the-co-curation-by-wu-tou-decoction-in-neuropathic-pain
#18
Chunyan Zhu, Qionghong Xu, Chao Wang, Zhiyun Mao, Na Lin
In neuropathic pain (NP), the atrophy of hippocampus contributes to the comorbidity between pain, depression and the cognitive deficits. However, the exact mechanism underling the comorbidity, the effective control of the degenerations in hippocampus and the remission of the accompanied depressive symptoms are still lacking. Wu-Tou decoction (WTD) has been prescribed for inflammatory pain for thousands of years. In this study, we manifested the effects of WTD on the pain, depression and anxiety co-curative symptoms of NP...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931751/essential-role-of-kir5-1-channels-in-renal-salt-handling-and-blood-pressure-control
#19
Oleg Palygin, Vladislav Levchenko, Daria V Ilatovskaya, Tengis S Pavlov, Oleh M Pochynyuk, Howard J Jacob, Aron M Geurts, Matthew R Hodges, Alexander Staruschenko
Supplementing diets with high potassium helps reduce hypertension in humans. Inwardly rectifying K+ channels Kir4.1 (Kcnj10) and Kir5.1 (Kcnj16) are highly expressed in the basolateral membrane of distal renal tubules and contribute to Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion through the direct control of transepithelial voltage. To define the importance of Kir5.1 in blood pressure control under conditions of salt-induced hypertension, we generated a Kcnj16 knockout in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats (SSKcnj16-/-). SSKcnj16-/- rats exhibited hypokalemia and reduced blood pressure, and when fed a high-salt diet (4% NaCl), experienced 100% mortality within a few days triggered by salt wasting and severe hypokalemia...
September 21, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931663/targeting-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-as-a-therapeutic-strategy-for-antitussive-therapy
#20
Michael A Wortley, John J Adcock, Eric D Dubuis, Sarah A Maher, Sara J Bonvini, Isabelle Delescluse, Ross Kinloch, Gordon McMurray, Christelle Perros-Huguet, Marianthi Papakosta, Mark A Birrell, Maria G Belvisi
Cough is the most common reason to visit a primary care physician, yet it remains an unmet medical need. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is an enzyme that breaks down endocannabinoids, and inhibition of FAAH produces analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Cannabinoids inhibit vagal sensory nerve activation and the cough reflex, so it was hypothesised that FAAH inhibition would produce antitussive activity via elevation of endocannabinoids.Primary vagal ganglia neurons, tissue bioassay, in vivo electrophysiology and a conscious guinea pig cough model were utilised to investigate a role for fatty acid amides in modulating sensory nerve activation in vagal afferents...
September 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
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