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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050434/microbial-loads-and-antibiotic-resistance-patterns-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-different-types-of-raw-poultry-based-meat-preparations
#1
Laura Buzón-Durán, Rosa Capita, Carlos Alonso-Calleja
The hygiene status of raw chicken-meat preparations from retail outlets in North-Western Spain was investigated. Microbial counts (aerobic plate counts (APCs), psychrotrophs, Enterobacteriaceae, fecal coliforms, enterococci, pseudomonads, fluorescent pseudomonads, yeasts and molds, and Staphylococcus aureus) were determined for minced meat, hamburgers, nuggets, white sausages, red sausages, escalope, and roll-ups. S. aureus isolates were tested for susceptibility to twenty antimicrobials of veterinary and human clinical significance (disc diffusion method, CLSI)...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050428/effect-of-an-organic-acids-based-feed-additive-and-enrofloxacin-on-the-prevalence-of-antibiotic-resistant-e-coli-in-cecum-of-broilers
#2
Nataliya Roth, Sigrid Mayrhofer, Martin Gierus, Christine Weingut, Christiane Schwarz, Barbara Doupovec, Roger Berrios, Konrad J Domig
Increasing antibiotic resistance is a major public health concern. Fluoroquinolones are used to treat and prevent poultry diseases worldwide. Fluoroquinolone resistance rates are high in their countries of use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an acids-based feed additive, as well as fluoroquinolone antibiotics, on the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli. A total of 480 broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to 3 treatments: a control group receiving a basal diet; a group receiving a feed additive (FA) based on formic acid, acetic acid and propionic acid; and an antibiotic enrofloxacin (AB) group given the same diet, but supplemented with enrofloxacin in water...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049966/performance-comparison-of-secondary-and-tertiary-treatment-systems-for-treating-antibiotic-resistance
#3
Manisha Lamba, Shaikh Ziauddin Ahammad
Rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance (AR) in developing countries is posing a greater health risk and increasing the global disease burden. AR proliferation mediated by treated/untreated discharges from sewage treatment plants (STPs) is a prime public health concern. Efficient sewage treatment is among our key defenses against the dissemination of infectious diseases. The present study aims to estimate the efficiency of aerobic [activated sludge process (ASP) and modified trickling filter (MTF)] and anaerobic reactors (anaerobic flow-through reactor) along with the three disinfection techniques (UV, ozone and chlorination) in reducing ARB and ARGs present in the domestic sewage...
October 12, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049953/biomimetic-fabrication-of-antibacterial-calcium-phosphates-mediated-by-polydopamine
#4
Lucia Forte, Paola Torricelli, Francesca Bonvicini, Elisa Boanini, Giovanna Angela Gentilomi, Gigliola Lusvardi, Elena Della Bella, Milena Fini, Edoardo Vecchio Nepita, Adriana Bigi
In this work we developed new antibacterial composite materials using polydopamine (PDA) to trigger the deposition of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) onto calcium phosphates, namely octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and α-tricalcium phosphate (αTCP). Functionalization of OCP and αTCP with a self-polymerized polydopamine layer was obtained by soaking the calcium phosphates in dopamine solution. The PDA surface of functionalized calcium phosphates (OCPd and αTCPd) promoted the deposition of AgNPs by reducing silver ions when soaked in a silver nitrate solution...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049952/learn-from-microbial-intelligence-for-avermectins-overproduction
#5
REVIEW
Qiang Gao, Gao-Yi Tan, Xuekui Xia, Lixin Zhang
Microbial strains are amazingly clever by homeostasis of their own survival and optimization for the overproduction of a desired phenotype, for example drugable secondary metabolites through coordination of key genes overexpression and media optimizations. Besides their pesticide activities, avermectins (AVMs) are identified as potent antibiotic agents for a wide range of drug-resistant pathogens by a high-throughput synergy screening strategy. To rewire the genetic circuitry controlling low yields, we summarized the work on balancing the biological chassis with functional parts, and optimized their dynamical process, as well as predicted favorable effective overproduction of AVMs by 5Ms strategy...
October 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049368/low-overlap-between-carbapenem-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-genotypes-isolated-from-hospitalized-patients-and-wastewater-treatment-plants
#6
Andrej Golle, Sandra Janezic, Maja Rupnik
The variability of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains (CRPA) isolated from urine and respiratory samples in a large microbiological laboratory, serving several health care settings, and from effluents of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) from the same region was assessed by PFGE typing and by resistance to 10 antibiotics. During the 12-month period altogether 213 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates were cultured and distributed into 65 pulsotypes and ten resistance profiles. For representatives of all 65 pulsotypes 49 different MLSTs were determined...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049213/clinical-characteristics-and-prognostic-risk-factors-of-healthcare-associated-pneumonia-in-a-korean-tertiary-teaching-hospital
#7
June H Ahn, Kwan H Lee, Jin H Chung, Kyeong-Cheol Shin, Choong K Lee, Hyun Jung Kim, Eun Young Choi
The 2016 American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America (ATS/IDSA) guidelines removed the concept of healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP). We examined whether the 2016 ATS/IDSA guidelines are applicable in Korea.We conducted a retrospective, observational study of pneumonia patients who were hospitalized at a tertiary teaching hospital from March 2012 to February 2014. Identified pathogens that were not susceptible to β-lactams, macrolides, and fluoroquinolones were defined as community-acquired pneumonia drug-resistant pathogens (CAP-DRPs)...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049010/biofilm-related-diseases-and-omics-global-transcriptional-profiling-of-enterococcus-faecium-reveals-different-gene-expression-patterns-in-the-biofilm-and-planktonic-cells
#8
Shu Yong Lim, Cindy Shuan Ju Teh, Kwai Lin Thong
Enterococcus faecium is an opportunistic pathogen with a remarkable ability to acquire resistance toward multiple antibiotics, including those of last-resort drugs such as vancomycin and daptomycin. The occurrence of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium is on the rise and there is a need to understand the virulence of this organism. One of the factors that contributes to the virulence is the ability to form biofilms. Since bacteria in biofilm state are more resistant to antibiotics and host immune response, understanding the molecular mechanism of biofilm development is important to control biofilm-related diseases...
October 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048513/sepsis-national-hospital-inpatient-quality-measure-sep-1-multistakeholder-work-group-recommendations-for-appropriate-antibiotics-for-the-treatment-of-sepsis
#9
Edward J Septimus, Craig M Coopersmith, Jessica Whittle, Caleb P Hale, Neil O Fishman, Thomas J Kim
The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services adopted the Early Management Bundle, Severe Sepsis/Septic Shock (SEP-1) performance measure to the Hospital Inpatient Quality Reporting Program in July 2015 to help address the high mortality and high cost associated with sepsis. The SEP-1 performance measure requires, among other critical interventions, timely administration of antibiotics to patients with sepsis or septic shock. The multistakeholder workgroup recognizes the need for SEP-1 but strongly believes that multiple antibiotics listed in the antibiotic tables for SEP-1 are not appropriate and the use of these antibiotics, as called for in the SEP-1 measure, is not in alignment with prudent antimicrobial stewardship...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048488/clinical-and-molecular-features-of-mdr-livestock-associated-mrsa-st9-with-staphylococcal-cassette-chromosome-mecxii-in-humans
#10
Chih-Jung Chen, Tsai-Ling Yang Lauderdale, Chin-Te Lu, Yu-Yu Chuang, Chien-Chang Yang, Ting-Shu Wu, Chun-Yi Lee, Min-Chi Lu, Wen-Chien Ko, Yhu-Chering Huang
Objectives: Clonal complex (CC) 9 is a prevalent livestock-associated (LA) MRSA clone in Asia whose pathogenicity in humans remains unknown. Methods: In 2012, we identified a patient with CC9-MRSA infection linked to livestock. After screening 3328 clinical MRSA isolates from a national database, eight isolates (0.24%) collected between 1998 and 2012 were further confirmed to be of CC9. The detailed molecular features of the nine human CC9 strains and phylogenetic relatedness to animal CC9 strains were characterized with WGS...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048359/chitosan-ascorbate-nanoparticles-for-the-vaginal-delivery-of-antibiotic-drugs-in-atrophic-vaginitis
#11
Silvia Rossi, Barbara Vigani, Antonella Puccio, Maria Cristina Bonferoni, Giuseppina Sandri, Franca Ferrari
The aim of the present work was the development of chitosan ascorbate nanoparticles (CSA NPs) loaded into a fast-dissolving matrix for the delivery of antibiotic drugs in the treatment of atrophic vaginitis. CSA NPs loaded with amoxicillin trihydrate (AX) were obtained by ionotropic gelation in the presence of pentasodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). Different CSA:TPP and CSA:AX weight ratios were considered and their influence on the particle size, polydispersion index and production yield were investigated. CSA NPs were characterized for mucoadhesive, wound healing and antimicrobial properties...
October 19, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048164/development-of-a-modular-synthetic-route-to-pleuromutilin-12-epi-mutilins-and-related-structures
#12
Mingshuo Zeng, Stephen K Murphy, Seth B Herzon
We describe the development of an enantioselective synthetic route to (+)-pleuromutilin (1), (+)-12-epi-mutilin, and related derivatives. A key hydrindanone was prepared in three steps and 48% overall yield from cyclohex-2-en-1-one. 1,4-Hydrocyanation provided a nitrile (53%, or 85% based on recovered starting material) that was converted to the eneimide 57 in 80% yield by the 1,2-addition of methyllithium to the nitrile function, cyclization, and in situ acylation with di-tert-butyldicarbonate. The eneimide 57 was employed in a two-fold neopentylic coupling reaction with an organolithium reagent derived from the alkyl iodides (R)- or (S)-30, which contain the C11-C13 atoms of the target, to provide diastereomeric diketones in 60% or 48% yield (for coupling with (R)- or (S)-30, respectively)...
October 19, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047329/genome-sequencing-of-39-akkermansia-muciniphila-isolates-reveals-its-population-structure-genomic-and-functional-diverisity-and-global-distribution-in-mammalian-gut-microbiotas
#13
Xianfeng Guo, Shenghui Li, Jiachun Zhang, Feifan Wu, Xiangchun Li, Dan Wu, Min Zhang, Zihao Ou, Zhuye Jie, Qiulong Yan, Peng Li, Jiangfeng Yi, Yongzheng Peng
BACKGROUND: Akkermansia muciniphila is one of the most dominant bacteria that resides on the mucus layer of intestinal tract and plays key role in human health, however, little is known about its genomic content. RESULTS: Herein, we for the first time characterized the genomic architecture of A. muciniphila based on whole-genome sequencing, assembling, and annotating of 39 isolates derived from human and mouse feces. We revealed a flexible open pangenome of A. muciniphila currently consisting of 5644 unique proteins...
October 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046782/assessment-of-the-potential-for-resistance-to-antimicrobial-violet-blue-light-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#14
Rachael M Tomb, Michelle Maclean, John E Coia, Scott J MacGregor, John G Anderson
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial violet-blue light in the region of 405 nm is emerging as an alternative technology for hospital decontamination and clinical treatment. The mechanism of action is the excitation of endogenous porphyrins within exposed microorganisms, resulting in ROS generation, oxidative damage and cell death. Although resistance to 405 nm light is not thought likely, little evidence has been published to support this. This study was designed to establish if there is potential for tolerance development, using the nosocomial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus as the model organism...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046693/antibacterial-activity-of-essential-oil-from-lavender-lavandula-angustifolia-against-pet-turtle-borne-pathogenic-bacteria
#15
Sabrina Hossain, Honghoi Heo, B C J De Silva, S H M P Wimalasena, H N K S Pathirana, Gang-Joon Heo
Pet turtles are well-known to harbor an array of bacterial pathogens which can cause zoonotic infections in humans as well as opportunistic infections in the turtles itself. Essential oils are the natural plant extracts which have been traditionally used for disease treatment. In the present study, the essential oil of lavender (EOL) was examined for its antibacterial activity against thirty-eight strains of turtle-borne pathogenic bacteria belonging to seven species; Aeromonas hydrophila, A. caviae, A. dhakensis, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella enterica and Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
September 2017: Laboratory Animal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046540/compensatory-mutations-improve-general-permissiveness-to-antibiotic-resistance-plasmids
#16
Wesley Loftie-Eaton, Kelsie Bashford, Hannah Quinn, Kieran Dong, Jack Millstein, Samuel Hunter, Maureen K Thomason, Houra Merrikh, Jose M Ponciano, Eva M Top
Horizontal gene transfer mediated by broad-host-range plasmids is an important mechanism of antibiotic resistance spread. While not all bacteria maintain plasmids equally well, plasmid persistence can improve over time, yet no general evolutionary mechanisms have emerged. Our goal was to identify these mechanisms and to assess if adaptation to one plasmid affects the permissiveness to others. We experimentally evolved Pseudomonas sp. H2 containing multidrug resistance plasmid RP4, determined plasmid persistence and cost using a joint experimental-modelling approach, resequenced evolved clones, and reconstructed key mutations...
September 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046437/modulation-of-global-transcriptional-regulatory-networks-as-a-strategy-for-increasing-kanamycin-resistance-of-the-translational-elongation-factor-g-mutants-in-escherichia-coli
#17
Aalap Mogre, Reshma T V, Aswin Sai Narain Seshasayee
Evolve and resequence experiments have provided us a tool to understand bacterial adaptation to antibiotics. In our previous work, we had used short term evolution to isolate mutants resistant to the ribosome targeting antibiotic kanamycin, and reported that Escherichia coli develops low cost resistance to kanamycin via  different point mutations in the translation Elongation Factor-G (EF-G). Furthermore, we had shown that the resistance of EF-G mutants could be increased by second site mutations in the genes rpoD / cpxA / topA / cyaA Mutations in three of these genes had been discovered in earlier screens for aminoglycoside resistance...
October 18, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046259/assessing-the-impact-of-quality-improvement-measures-on-catheter-related-blood-stream-infections-and-catheter-salvage-experience-from-a-national-intestinal-failure-unit
#18
A Bond, A Teubner, M Taylor, C Cawley, A Abraham, M Dibb, P R Chadwick, M Soop, G Carlson, S Lal
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Prevention of catheter related blood stream infections (CRBSI) and salvage of infected central venous catheters (CVC) are vital to maintaining long term venous access in patients needing home parenteral nutrition (HPN). It remains unclear as to whether patients are best trained for catheter care at home or in hospital or whether CRBSIs are lower if the patient self-cares for the CVC. Furthermore, there is minimal data on the longer term outcome following salvage of infected catheter and limited consensus on agreed protocols for catheter salvage...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045957/-clinical-characteristics-of-neonatal-fungal-sepsis-in-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#19
X Zhang, X F Ru, Y Wang, X Li, T Sang, Q Feng
OBJECTIVE: To study the characteristics of neonatal fungal sepsis and the difference between bacterial sepsis and fungal sepsis. To improve the understanding of neonatal fungal sepsis. METHODS: Clinical data of neonatal fungal sepsis in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) were collected from 2011 to 2016 in Peking University first Hospital. The clinical characteristics were analyzed retrospectively. The difference between neonatal fungal sepsis and bacterial sepsis was also analyzed...
October 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045862/the-two-state-prehensile-tail-of-the-antibacterial-toxin-colicin-n
#20
Christopher L Johnson, Alexandra S Solovyova, Olli Hecht, Colin Macdonald, Helen Waller, J Günter Grossmann, Geoffrey R Moore, Jeremy H Lakey
Intrinsically disordered regions within proteins are critical elements in many biomolecular interactions and signaling pathways. Antibacterial toxins of the colicin family, which could provide new antibiotic functions against resistant bacteria, contain disordered N-terminal translocation domains (T-domains) that are essential for receptor binding and the penetration of the Escherichia coli outer membrane. Here we investigate the conformational behavior of the T-domain of colicin N (ColN-T) to understand why such domains are widespread in toxins that target Gram-negative bacteria...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
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