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Jennifer L Gardell, David C Parker
The delivery of T-cell help to B cells is antigen-specific, MHC-restricted, and CD40L (CD154) dependent. It has been thought that when a T cell recognizes an antigen-presenting B cell, CD40L expressed on the T-cell surface engages with CD40 on the surface of B cells as long as the cells remain conjugated. To study this, we added fluorescently labeled anti-CD40L antibody during overnight incubation of antigen-presenting B cells with antigen-specific T cells. We discovered that CD40L does not remain on the surface of the T cell, but it is transferred to and endocytosed by B cells receiving T-cell help...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
David Rodríguez-Navarro, José Luis Lázaro-Galilea, Ignacio Bravo-Muñoz, Alfredo Gardel-Vicente, Francisco Domingo-Perez, Georgios Tsirigotis
Here, we propose a mathematical model and a calibration procedure for a PSD (position sensitive device) sensor equipped with an optical system, to enable accurate measurement of the angle of arrival of one or more beams of light emitted by infrared (IR) transmitters located at distances of between 4 and 6 m. To achieve this objective, it was necessary to characterize the intrinsic parameters that model the system and obtain their values. This first approach was based on a pin-hole model, to which system nonlinearities were added, and this was used to model the points obtained with the nA currents provided by the PSD...
2016: Sensors
Francisco Domingo-Perez, Jose Luis Lazaro-Galilea, Ignacio Bravo, Alfredo Gardel, David Rodriguez
This paper focuses on optimal sensor deployment for indoor localization with a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm. Our goal is to obtain an algorithm to deploy sensors taking the number of sensors, accuracy and coverage into account. Contrary to most works in the literature, we consider the presence of obstacles in the region of interest (ROI) that can cause occlusions between the target and some sensors. In addition, we aim to obtain all of the Pareto optimal solutions regarding the number of sensors, coverage and accuracy...
2016: Sensors
David Rodríguez-Navarro, José Luis Lázaro-Galilea, Ignacio Bravo-Muñoz, Alfredo Gardel-Vicente, Georgios Tsirigotis
In order to obtain very precise measurements of the position of agents located at a considerable distance using a sensor system based on position sensitive detectors (PSD), it is necessary to analyze and mitigate the factors that generate substantial errors in the system's response. These sources of error can be divided into electronic and geometric factors. The former stem from the nature and construction of the PSD as well as the performance, tolerances and electronic response of the system, while the latter are related to the sensor's optical system...
2016: Sensors
Matthieu Piel, Margaret Gardel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
Gregory Aubert, Ola J Martin, Julie L Horton, Ling Lai, Rick B Vega, Teresa C Leone, Timothy Koves, Stephen J Gardell, Marcus Krüger, Charles L Hoppel, E Douglas Lewandowski, Peter A Crawford, Deborah M Muoio, Daniel P Kelly
BACKGROUND: Significant evidence indicates that the failing heart is energy starved. During the development of heart failure, the capacity of the heart to utilize fatty acids, the chief fuel, is diminished. Identification of alternate pathways for myocardial fuel oxidation could unveil novel strategies to treat heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Quantitative mitochondrial proteomics was used to identify energy metabolic derangements that occur during the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure in well-defined mouse models...
February 23, 2016: Circulation
Swanne Gontharet, Luis Felipe Artigas, Olivier Mathieu, Jean Levêque, Marie-Jeanne Milloux, Jacinthe Caillaud, Sylvie Philippe, Sandric Lesourd, Antoine Gardel
RATIONALE: In various marine environments, the combination of elemental ratios and stable isotopic compositions is usually used to trace the sources of organic matter (OM) in sediments. However, in intertidal areas, the sediments might be temporarily exposed to air during a more or less prolonged duration and the impact of this exposure on the latter parameter is unknown. METHODS: The spatial variations of atomic Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and Total Nitrogen (TN) ratios, and δ(13)C and δ(15)N values, were measured on surface sediments of French Guiana, at the beginning and the end of five consecutive days of emersion during equinoctial tides, as well as at the beginning of a new emersion phase after returning to a normal tidal cycle...
November 30, 2015: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Erik Benson, Abdulmelik Mohammed, Johan Gardell, Sergej Masich, Eugen Czeizler, Pekka Orponen, Björn Högberg
It was suggested more than thirty years ago that Watson-Crick base pairing might be used for the rational design of nanometre-scale structures from nucleic acids. Since then, and especially since the introduction of the origami technique, DNA nanotechnology has enabled increasingly more complex structures. But although general approaches for creating DNA origami polygonal meshes and design software are available, there are still important constraints arising from DNA geometry and sense/antisense pairing, necessitating some manual adjustment during the design process...
July 23, 2015: Nature
Ida Sofie Kristina Gardell, Kathrine Andresen, Christian Emil Faber, Jens Højberg Wanscher
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to evaluate patients' satisfaction with bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHA). METHODS: This study was retrospective and based on a postal questionnaire. The study sample consisted of patients undergoing surgery at Odense University Hospital in the 1992-2013-period. The questionnaire was a combination of Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life questions from the Hearing Aid Research Lab at the University of Memphis and questions used in a previous Danish study...
July 2015: Danish Medical Journal
Michael Murrell, Patrick W Oakes, Martin Lenz, Margaret L Gardel
Actomyosin-mediated contractility is a highly conserved mechanism for generating mechanical stress in animal cells and underlies muscle contraction, cell migration, cell division and tissue morphogenesis. Whereas actomyosin-mediated contractility in striated muscle is well understood, the regulation of such contractility in non-muscle and smooth muscle cells is less certain. Our increased understanding of the mechanics of actomyosin arrays that lack sarcomeric organization has revealed novel modes of regulation and force transmission...
August 2015: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
Miguel Martínez-Rey, Felipe Espinosa, Alfredo Gardel, Carlos Santos
For the problem of pose estimation of an autonomous vehicle using networked external sensors, the processing capacity and battery consumption of these sensors, as well as the communication channel load should be optimized. Here, we report an event-based state estimator (EBSE) consisting of an unscented Kalman filter that uses a triggering mechanism based on the estimation error covariance matrix to request measurements from the external sensors. This EBSE generates the events of the estimator module on-board the vehicle and, thus, allows the sensors to remain in stand-by mode until an event is generated...
2015: Sensors
Erin M Craig, Jonathan Stricker, Margaret Gardel, Alex Mogilner
Cell motility relies on the continuous reorganization of a dynamic actin-myosin-adhesion network at the leading edge of the cell, in order to generate protrusion at the leading edge and traction between the cell and its external environment. We analyze experimentally measured spatial distributions of actin flow, traction force, myosin density, and adhesion density in control and pharmacologically perturbed epithelial cells in order to develop a mechanical model of the actin-adhesion-myosin self-organization at the leading edge...
May 2015: Physical Biology
Andrew J Rivnak, David M Rissin, Cheuk W Kan, Linan Song, Matthew W Fishburn, Tomasz Piech, Todd G Campbell, Derek R DuPont, Melissa Gardel, Sean Sullivan, Brian A Pink, Carlos G Cabrera, David R Fournier, David C Duffy
We report a system and assay for performing fully-automated measurement of 6 proteins simultaneously with single molecule sensitivity. The system combines handling of samples, reagents, and consumables, with a module for imaging single molecule arrays (Simoa) to enable immunoassays that have high sensitivity (~fg/mL), are multiplexed, and are fully-automated. A 6-plex cytokine Simoa assay for IL-6, TNF-α, GM-CSF, IL-10, IL-1β, and IL-1α was developed on the system. The assays had limits of detection in the range 0...
September 2015: Journal of Immunological Methods
Enrique M De La Cruz, Margaret L Gardel
Cell physiological processes require the regulation and coordination of both mechanical and dynamical properties of the actin cytoskeleton. Here we review recent advances in understanding the mechanical properties and stability of actin filaments and how these properties are manifested at larger (network) length scales. We discuss how forces can influence local biochemical interactions, resulting in the formation of mechanically sensitive dynamic steady states. Understanding the regulation of such force-activated chemistries and dynamic steady states reflects an important challenge for future work that will provide valuable insights as to how the actin cytoskeleton engenders mechanoresponsiveness of living cells...
July 10, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jason M Newell, Debra Nelson-Gardell, Gordon MacNeil
This paper presents a chronologically-organized review of various concepts and constructs in the literature describing professional burnout, compassion fatigue, secondary traumatic stress reactions, as well as other related terms and constructs that have been used to describe these experiences among clinical practitioners and other social service professionals. A timeline will provide a graphic illustration of the historical relationships between the concepts under examination. This paper begins with a review of practitioner-related stress that primarily results from interaction with clients, followed by an examination of professional burnout, which is thought to result largely from environmentally-related issues...
July 2016: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Josep María Gatell Artigas, José Ramón Arribas López, Pablo Lázaro Y de Mercado, Antonio Javier Blasco Bravo
INTRODUCTION: The National AIDS Plan and the Spanish AIDS study group (GESIDA) proposes "preferred regimens" (PR) of antiretroviral treatment (ART) as initial therapy in HIV-infected patients. In 2013, the recommended regimens were all triple therapy regimens. The Gardel Study assessed the efficacy of a dual therapy (DT) combination of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) plus lamivudine (3TC). Our objective is to evaluate the GESIDA PR and the DT regimen LPV/r+3TC cost/efficacy ratios. METHODS: Decision tree models were built...
August 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Jérôme R D Soiné, Christoph A Brand, Jonathan Stricker, Patrick W Oakes, Margaret L Gardel, Ulrich S Schwarz
Adherent cells use forces at the cell-substrate interface to sense and respond to the physical properties of their environment. These cell forces can be measured with traction force microscopy which inverts the equations of elasticity theory to calculate them from the deformations of soft polymer substrates. We introduce a new type of traction force microscopy that in contrast to traditional methods uses additional image data for cytoskeleton and adhesion structures and a biophysical model to improve the robustness of the inverse procedure and abolishes the need for regularization...
March 2015: PLoS Computational Biology
Alison M Gardell, Danielle M Dillon, Lauren C Smayda, Frank A von Hippel, William A Cresko, John H Postlethwait, C Loren Buck
Previously we showed that exposure of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to the endocrine disruptor perchlorate results in pronounced structural changes in thyroid and gonad, while surprisingly, whole-body thyroid hormone concentrations remain unaffected. To test for hormone titer variations on a finer scale, we evaluated the interactive effects of time (diel and reproductive season) and perchlorate exposure on whole-body contents of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) in captive stickleback...
August 1, 2015: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Margaret L Gardel
A major goal in cell biology is to bridge the gap in our understanding of how molecular mechanisms contribute to cell and organismal physiology. Approaches well established in the physical sciences could be instrumental in achieving this goal. A better integration of the physical sciences with cell biology will therefore be an important step in our quest to decipher how cells work together to construct a living organism.
January 19, 2015: Journal of Cell Biology
Koldo Aguirrebengoa
Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased patient survival, which is currently similar to that of the general population in western countries. However, ART is unable to completely restore normal health, given the persistence of chronic immune activation. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has become a chronic disease and 50% of patients will soon be older than 50 years. Currently, there is a debate on the possibility of accelerated aging in the HIV-infected population. An overlap has been observed between chronic inflammation, age-related comorbidities, lifestyle, and the long-term toxicity of ART...
November 2014: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
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