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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437785/dia1-dependent-adhesions-are-required-by-epithelial-tissues-to-initiate-invasion
#1
Tim B Fessenden, Yvonne Beckham, Mathew Perez-Neut, Guillermina Ramirez-San Juan, Aparajita H Chourasia, Kay F Macleod, Patrick W Oakes, Margaret L Gardel
Developing tissues change shape and tumors initiate spreading through collective cell motility. Conserved mechanisms by which tissues initiate motility into their surroundings are not known. We investigated cytoskeletal regulators during collective invasion by mouse tumor organoids and epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) acini undergoing branching morphogenesis in collagen. Use of the broad-spectrum formin inhibitor SMIFH2 prevented the formation of migrating cell fronts in both cell types. Focusing on the role of the formin Dia1 in branching morphogenesis, we found that its depletion in MDCK cells does not alter planar cell motility either within the acinus or in two-dimensional scattering assays...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360626/meeting-report-cellular-dynamics-membrane-cytoskeleton-interface
#2
REVIEW
Joshua N Bembenek, Xenia Meshik, Vasilios Tsarouhas
The first ever 'Cellular Dynamics' meeting on the membrane-cytoskeleton interface took place in Southbridge, MA on May 21-24, 2017 and was co-organized by Michael Way, Elizabeth Chen, Margaret Gardel and Jennifer Lippincott-Schwarz. Investigators from around the world studying a broad range of related topics shared their insights into the function and regulation of the cytoskeleton and membrane compartments. This provided great opportunities to learn about key questions in various cellular processes, from the basic organization and operation of the cell to higher-order interactions in adhesion, migration, metastasis, division and immune cell interactions in different model organisms...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284753/interplay-of-structure-elasticity-and-dynamics-in-actin-based-nematic-materials
#3
Rui Zhang, Nitin Kumar, Jennifer L Ross, Margaret L Gardel, Juan J de Pablo
Achieving control and tunability of lyotropic materials has been a long-standing goal of liquid crystal research. Here we show that the elasticity of a liquid crystal system consisting of a dense suspension of semiflexible biopolymers can be manipulated over a relatively wide range of elastic moduli. Specifically, thin films of actin filaments are assembled at an oil-water interface. At sufficiently high concentrations, one observes the formation of a nematic phase riddled with [Formula: see text] topological defects, characteristic of a two-dimensional nematic system...
December 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146412/skeletal-muscle-overexpression-of-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyl-transferase-in-mice-coupled-with-voluntary-exercise-augments-exercise-endurance
#4
Sheila R Costford, Bram Brouwers, Meghan E Hopf, Lauren M Sparks, Mauro Dispagna, Ana P Gomes, Heather H Cornnell, Chris Petucci, Peter Phelan, Hui Xie, Fanchao Yi, Glenn A Walter, Timothy F Osborne, David A Sinclair, Randall L Mynatt, Julio E Ayala, Stephen J Gardell, Steven R Smith
OBJECTIVE: Nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the salvage pathway that produces nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)), an essential co-substrate regulating a myriad of signaling pathways. We produced a mouse that overexpressed NAMPT in skeletal muscle (NamptTg) and hypothesized that NamptTg mice would have increased oxidative capacity, endurance performance, and mitochondrial gene expression, and would be rescued from metabolic abnormalities that developed with high fat diet (HFD) feeding...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114058/filament-rigidity-and-connectivity-tune-the-deformation-modes-of-active-biopolymer-networks
#5
Samantha Stam, Simon L Freedman, Shiladitya Banerjee, Kimberly L Weirich, Aaron R Dinner, Margaret L Gardel
Molecular motors embedded within collections of actin and microtubule filaments underlie the dynamics of cytoskeletal assemblies. Understanding the physics of such motor-filament materials is critical to developing a physical model of the cytoskeleton and designing biomimetic active materials. Here, we demonstrate through experiments and simulations that the rigidity and connectivity of filaments in active biopolymer networks regulates the anisotropy and the length scale of the underlying deformations, yielding materials with variable contractility...
November 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096792/targeted-metabolomic-profiling-of-plasma-and-survival-in-heart-failure-patients
#6
David E Lanfear, Joseph J Gibbs, Jia Li, Ruicong She, Christopher Petucci, Jeffrey A Culver, W H Wilson Tang, Yigal M Pinto, L Keoki Williams, Hani N Sabbah, Stephen J Gardell
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to derive and validate plasma metabolite associations with survival in heart failure (HF) patients. BACKGROUND: Profiling of plasma metabolites to predict the course of HF appears promising, but validation and incremental value of these profiles are less established. METHODS: Patients (n = 1,032) who met Framingham HF criteria with a history of reduced ejection fraction were randomly divided into derivation and validation cohorts (n = 516 each)...
November 2017: JACC. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023539/despite-disorganized-synapse-structure-th2-cells-maintain-directional-delivery-of-cd40l-to-antigen-presenting-b-cells
#7
Jennifer L Gardell, David C Parker
Upon recognition of peptide displayed on MHC molecules, Th1 and Th2 cells form distinct immunological synapse structures. Th1 cells have a bull's eye synapse structure with TCR/ MHC-peptide interactions occurring central to a ring of adhesion molecules, while Th2 cells have a multifocal synapse with small clusters of TCR/MHC interactions throughout the area of T cell/antigen-presenting cell interaction. In this study, we investigated whether this structural difference in the immunological synapse affects delivery of T cell help...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957443/a-glycosylated-recombinant-subunit-candidate-vaccine-consisting-of-ehrlichia-ruminantium-major-antigenic-protein1-induces-specific-humoral-and-th1-type-cell-responses-in-sheep
#8
Bonto Faburay, Jodi McGill, Frans Jongejan
Heartwater, or cowdriosis, is a tick-borne disease of domestic and wild ruminants that is endemic in the Caribbean and sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is caused by an intracellular pathogen, Ehrlichia ruminantium and may be fatal within days of the onset of clinical signs with mortality rates of up to 90% in susceptible hosts. Due to the presence of competent tick vectors in North America, there is substantial risk of introduction of heartwater with potentially devastating consequences to the domestic livestock industry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914820/indoor-positioning-system-based-on-a-psd-detector-precise-positioning-of-agents-in-motion-using-aoa-techniques
#9
David Rodríguez-Navarro, José Luis Lázaro-Galilea, Álvaro De-La-Llana-Calvo, Ignacio Bravo-Muñoz, Alfredo Gardel-Vicente, Georgios Tsirigotis, Juan Iglesias-Miguel
Here, we present an indoor positioning system (IPS) for detecting mobile agents based on a single Position Sensitive Device sensor (PSD) sited in the environment and InfraRed Emitter Diode (IRED) located on mobile agents. The main goal of the work is to develop an alternative IPS to other sensing technologies, cheaper, easier to install and with a low computational load to obtain a high rate of measurements per second. The proposed IPS has the capacity to accurately determine 3D position from the angle of arrival (AoA) of the signal received at the PSD sensor...
September 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878157/modeling-the-effect-of-optical-signal-multipath
#10
Álvaro De-La-Llana-Calvo, José Luis Lázaro-Galilea, Alfredo Gardel-Vicente, David Rodríguez-Navarro, Ignacio Bravo-Muñoz, Georgios Tsirigotis, Juan Iglesias-Miguel
Here, we propose a model to determine the effect of multipath in indoor environments when the shape and characteristics of the environment are known. The main paper goal is to model the multipath signal formation to solve, as much as possible, the negative effects in light communications, as well as the indoor positioning errors due to this phenomenon when using optical signals. The methodology followed was: analyze the multipath phenomenon, establish a theoretical approach and propose different models to characterize the behavior of the channel, emitter and receiver...
September 6, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878144/event-based-sensing-and-control-for-remote-robot-guidance-an-experimental-case
#11
Carlos Santos, Miguel Martínez-Rey, Felipe Espinosa, Alfredo Gardel, Enrique Santiso
This paper describes the theoretical and practical foundations for remote control of a mobile robot for nonlinear trajectory tracking using an external localisation sensor. It constitutes a classical networked control system, whereby event-based techniques for both control and state estimation contribute to efficient use of communications and reduce sensor activity. Measurement requests are dictated by an event-based state estimator by setting an upper bound to the estimation error covariance matrix. The rest of the time, state prediction is carried out with the Unscented transformation...
September 6, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777304/trusted-and-secure-wireless-sensor-network-designs-and-deployments
#12
EDITORIAL
Ignacio Bravo, Esther Palomar, Alfredo Gardel, José Luis Lázaro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 4, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737291/nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor-reducing-strategies-in-hiv-treatment-assessing-the-evidence
#13
REVIEW
C Orkin, J M Llibre, S Gallien, A Antinori, Gmn Behrens, A Carr
Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, comprising a backbone of two nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) plus another ARV, is the recognized standard of care (SOC), which has helped extend life expectancy in people living with HIV. In a quest to reduce lifelong drug exposure and minimize or avoid the toxicity of NRTIs, "NRTI-reducing" regimens have been investigated. This descriptive review assessing the results of NRTI-reducing strategies from the largest randomized trials focuses on virological efficacy, resistance, regimen safety (in terms of bone mineral density, renal function, lipids and central nervous system function) and simplicity...
July 24, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680400/a-novel-small-molecule-gdnf-receptor-ret-agonist-bt13-promotes-neurite-growth-from-sensory-neurons-in-vitro-and-attenuates-experimental-neuropathy-in-the-rat
#14
Yulia A Sidorova, Maxim M Bespalov, Agnes W Wong, Oleg Kambur, Viljami Jokinen, Tuomas O Lilius, Ilida Suleymanova, Gunnar Karelson, Pekka V Rauhala, Mati Karelson, Peregrine B Osborne, Janet R Keast, Eija A Kalso, Mart Saarma
Neuropathic pain caused by nerve damage is a common and severe class of chronic pain. Disease-modifying clinical therapies are needed as current treatments typically provide only symptomatic relief; show varying clinical efficacy; and most have significant adverse effects. One approach is targeting either neurotrophic factors or their receptors that normalize sensory neuron function and stimulate regeneration after nerve damage. Two candidate targets are glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and artemin (ARTN), as these GDNF family ligands (GFLs) show efficacy in animal models of neuropathic pain (Boucher et al...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604737/optogenetic-control-of-rhoa-reveals-zyxin-mediated-elasticity-of-stress-fibres
#15
Patrick W Oakes, Elizabeth Wagner, Christoph A Brand, Dimitri Probst, Marco Linke, Ulrich S Schwarz, Michael Glotzer, Margaret L Gardel
Cytoskeletal mechanics regulates cell morphodynamics and many physiological processes. While contractility is known to be largely RhoA-dependent, the process by which localized biochemical signals are translated into cell-level responses is poorly understood. Here we combine optogenetic control of RhoA, live-cell imaging and traction force microscopy to investigate the dynamics of actomyosin-based force generation. Local activation of RhoA not only stimulates local recruitment of actin and myosin but also increased traction forces that rapidly propagate across the cell via stress fibres and drive increased actin flow...
June 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544879/when-is-enough-enough
#16
Cristian Suarez, Patrick M McCall, Margaret L Gardel, David R Kovar
Computational simulations of polymerizing actin filaments indicate that competition for a limiting pool of building blocks is not sufficient to control their length.
May 24, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406436/modeling-infrared-signal-reflections-to-characterize-indoor-multipath-propagation
#17
Álvaro De-La-Llana-Calvo, José Luis Lázaro-Galilea, Alfredo Gardel-Vicente, David Rodríguez-Navarro, Ignacio Bravo-Muñoz, Georgios Tsirigotis, Juan Iglesias-Miguel
In this paper, we propose a model to characterize Infrared (IR) signal reflections on any kind of surface material, together with a simplified procedure to compute the model parameters. The model works within the framework of Local Positioning Systems (LPS) based on IR signals (IR-LPS) to evaluate the behavior of transmitted signal Multipaths (MP), which are the main cause of error in IR-LPS, and makes several contributions to mitigation methods. Current methods are based on physics, optics, geometry and empirical methods, but these do not meet our requirements because of the need to apply several different restrictions and employ complex tools...
April 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359530/analysis-of-the-optimal-sampling-rate-for-state-estimation-in-sensor-networks-with-delays
#18
Miguel Martínez-Rey, Felipe Espinosa, Alfredo Gardel
When addressing the problem of state estimation in sensor networks, the effects of communications on estimator performance are often neglected. High accuracy requires a high sampling rate, but this leads to higher channel load and longer delays, which in turn worsens estimation performance. This paper studies the problem of determining the optimal sampling rate for state estimation in sensor networks from a theoretical perspective that takes into account traffic generation, a model of network behaviour and the effect of delays...
March 27, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348591/microbiological-sealing-analysis-of-a-tapered-connection-and-external-hexagon-system
#19
Gardel Nepomuceno Costa, Elizabeth Ferreira Martinez, Aluísio Martins de Oliveira Ruellas, Daiane Cristina Peruzzo, Júlio Cesar Joly, Marcelo Henrique Napimoga
Considering the variety of implant connection systems available in the market and the contrasting literature regarding tapered connection systems in terms of bacterial leakage, the aim of this in vitro study was to compare the effectiveness of the bacterial seal at the implant/abutment interface between an external hexagon and a tapered connection system. Twelve sets of indexed tapered connection components and twelve sets of external hexagon connection components were used for microbiological analysis. In addition, for each model, an implant with its respective prosthetic abutment was used as a negative control and another as a positive control of microbial contamination...
2017: International Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256617/cholesterol-depletion-impairs-contractile-machinery-in-neonatal-rat-cardiomyocytes
#20
Barbara Hissa, Patrick W Oakes, Bruno Pontes, Guillermina Ramírez-San Juan, Margaret L Gardel
Cholesterol regulates numerous cellular processes. Depleting its synthesis in skeletal myofibers induces vacuolization and contraction impairment. However, little is known about how cholesterol reduction affects cardiomyocyte behavior. Here, we deplete cholesterol by incubating neonatal cardiomyocytes with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin. Traction force microscopy shows that lowering cholesterol increases the rate of cell contraction and generates defects in cell relaxation. Cholesterol depletion also increases membrane tension, Ca(2+) spikes frequency and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
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