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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121531/decreased-pain-tolerance-before-surgery-and-increased-postoperative-narcotic-requirements-in-abstinent-tobacco-smokers
#1
Ling Shen, Kai Wei, Qianbo Chen, Haibo Qiu, Yong Tao, Qiang Yao, Jinchao Song, Chengjian Li, Liang Zhao, Yantao Liu, Zhijie Lu
INTRODUCTION: The clinical influence of smoking cessation on pain tolerance before surgery and postoperative pain perception is not fully understood. This clinical study investigated the effect of smoking cessation on pain threshold during the perioperative period in patients undergoing hepatic resection. METHODS: We enrolled 148 male patients (68 non-smokers and 80 abstinent smokers) who underwent hepatic resection and received postoperative patient-controlled intravenous analgesia...
October 28, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934967/building-a-resistance-to-ignition-testing-device-for-sunglasses-and-analysing-data-a-continuing-study-for-sunglasses-standards
#2
Renan Magri, Mauro Masili, Fernanda Oliveira Duarte, Liliane Ventura
BACKGROUND: Sunglasses popularity skyrocketed since its advent. The ongoing trend led to the creation of standards to protect consumers from injuries and secondary hazards due to spectacles use. In Brazil, the corresponding standard is NBR ISO 12312-1:2015 and since there is no mandatory testing, evaluating sunglasses performance provides an insight into compliance with the standard. In a continuing revision of sunglasses standards requirements, resistance to ignition is one of the concerns, since sunglasses should be protected from burning into flames at a pre-determined temperature, which may protect user of getting their sunglasses into flames if some, cigarette sparks reaches the spectacles, as an example...
September 21, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854057/impact-of-commercial-cigarette-smoke-condensate-on-brain-tissue-co-cultured-with-astrocytes-and-blood-brain-barrier-endothelial-cells
#3
Seon-Bong Lee, Ju-Hyeong Kim, Myung-Haing Cho, Eun-Sang Choe, Kwang-Sik Kim, Soon-Mi Shim
The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of two commercial cigarette smoke condensates (CCSC) on oxidative stress and cell cytotoxicity in human brain (T98G) or astrocytes (U-373 MG) in the presence of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC). Cell viability of mono-culture of T98G or U-373 MG was markedly decreased in a concentration-dependent manner, and T98G was more susceptible than U-373 MG to CCSC exposure. Cytotoxicity was less prominent when T98G was co-cultured with HBMEC than when T98G was co-cultured with U-373 MG...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843084/assessing-electronic-cigarette-effects-and-regulatory-impact-challenges-with-user-self-reported-device-power
#4
Alyssa K Rudy, Adam M Leventhal, Nicholas I Goldenson, Thomas Eissenberg
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) aerosolize liquids for user inhalation that usually contain nicotine. ECIG nicotine emission is determined, in part, by user behavior, liquid nicotine concentration, and electrical power. Whether users are able to report accurately nicotine concentration and device electrical power has not been evaluated. This study's purpose was to examine if ECIG users could provide data relevant to understanding ECIG nicotine emission, particularly liquid nicotine concentration (mg/ml) as well as battery voltage (V) and heater resistance (ohms, Ω) - needed to calculate power (watts, W)...
October 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795508/occupation-and-risk-of-developing-rheumatoid-arthritis-results-from-a-population-based-case-control-study
#5
Anna Ilar, Lars Alfredsson, Pernilla Wiebert, Lars Klareskog, Camilla Bengtsson
OBJECTIVE: Environmental factors are of importance for the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but much remains unknown concerning the contributions from distinct occupational hazards. We explored the association between occupation and the risk of anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) + RA or ACPA- RA. METHODS: We analyzed 3,522 cases and 5,580 controls from the Swedish population-based EIRA case-control study. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on work history and lifestyle factors...
August 10, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706340/transport-phenomena-governing-nicotine-emissions-from-electronic-cigarettes-model-formulation-and-experimental-investigation
#6
Soha Talih, Zainab Balhas, Rola Salman, Rachel El-Hage, Nareg Karaoghlanian, Ahmad El-Hellani, Mohamad Baassiri, Ezzat Jaroudi, Thomas Eissenberg, Najat Saliba, Alan Shihadeh
Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) electrically heat and aerosolize a liquid containing propylene glycol (PG), vegetable glycerin (VG), flavorants, water, and nicotine. ECIG effects and proposed methods to regulate them are controversial. One regulatory focal point involves nicotine emissions. We describe a mathematical model that predicts ECIG nicotine emissions. The model computes the vaporization rate of individual species by numerically solving the unsteady species and energy conservation equations. To validate model predictions, yields of nicotine, total particulate matter, PG, and VG were measured while manipulating puff topography, electrical power, and liquid composition across 100 conditions...
2017: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654804/fatal-and-non-fatal-burn-injuries-with-electrical-weapons-and-explosive-fumes
#7
Mark W Kroll, Mollie B Ritter, Howard E Williams
INTRODUCTION: While generally reducing morbidity and mortality, electrical weapons have risks associated with their usage, including eye injuries and falls. With the presence of explosive fumes or fuels there also exists the possibility of burn injury. METHODS: We searched for cases of fatal and non-fatal major burns with TASER(®) electrical weapon usage where there was a possibility that the weapon ignited the explosion. RESULTS: We confirmed 6 cases of fatal burn injury and 4 cases of major non-fatal burns out of 3...
August 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546155/long-term-nicotine-exposure-dampens-lps-induced-nerve-mediated-airway-hyperreactivity-in-murine-airways
#8
Yuan Xu, Lars-Olaf Cardell
Nicotine is a major component of cigarette smoke. It causes addiction and is used clinically to aid smoke cessation. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of nicotine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and to explore the potential involvement of neuronal mechanisms behind nicotine's effects in murine models in vivo and in vitro. BALB/c mice were exposed to nicotine in vivo via subcutaneous Alzet osmotic minipumps containing nicotine tartate salt solution (24 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 28 days...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468124/temporal-evolution-of-ultrafine-particles-and-of-alveolar-deposited-surface-area-from-main-indoor-combustion-and-non-combustion-sources-in-a-model-room
#9
Maurizio Manigrasso, Matteo Vitali, Carmela Protano, Pasquale Avino
Aerosol number size distributions, PM mass concentrations, alveolar deposited surface areas (ADSAs) and VOC concentrations were measured in a model room when aerosol was emitted by sources frequently encountered in indoor environments. Both combustion and non-combustion sources were considered. The most intense aerosol emission occurred when combustion sources were active (as high as 4.1×10(7)particlescm(-3) for two meat grilling sessions; the first with exhaust ventilation, the second without). An intense spike generation of nucleation particles occurred when appliances equipped with brush electric motors were operating (as high as 10(6)particlescm(-3) on switching on an electric drill)...
November 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398588/electrical-stimulation-reduces-smokers-craving-by-modulating-the-coupling-between-dorsal-lateral-prefrontal-cortex-and-parahippocampal-gyrus
#10
Li-Zhuang Yang, Bin Shi, Hai Li, Wei Zhang, Ying Liu, Hongzhi Wang, Yanfei Zhou, Ying Wang, Wanwan Lv, Xuebing Ji, Justin Hudak, Yifeng Zhou, Andreas J Fallgatter, Xiaochu Zhang
Applying electrical stimulation over the prefrontal cortex can help nicotine dependents reduce cigarette craving. However, the underlying mechanism remains ambiguous. This study investigates this issue with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Thirty-two male chronic smokers received real and sham stimulation over dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) separated by 1 week. The neuroimaging data of the resting state, the smoking cue-reactivity task and the emotion task after stimulation were collected...
August 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368678/functional-characterization-of-a-novel-3d-model-of-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-trophic-unit
#11
Fabio Bucchieri, Alessandro Pitruzzella, Alberto Fucarino, Antonella Marino Gammazza, Celeste Caruso Bavisotto, Vito Marcianò, Massimo Cajozzo, Giorgio Lo Iacono, Roberto Marchese, Giovanni Zummo, Stephen T Holgate, Donna E Davies
BACKGROUND/AIM: Epithelial-mesenchymal communication plays a key role in tissue homeostasis and abnormal signaling contributes to chronic airways disease such as COPD. Most in vitro models are limited in complexity and poorly represent this epithelial-mesenchymal trophic unit. We postulated that cellular outgrowth from bronchial tissue would enable development of a mucosal structure that recapitulates better in vivo tissue architecture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bronchial tissue was embedded in Matrigel and outgrowth cultures monitored using time-lapse microscopy, electrical resistance, light and electron microscopy...
March 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337465/inflammatory-response-and-barrier-dysfunction-by-different-e-cigarette-flavoring-chemicals-identified-by-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-in-e-liquids-and-e-vapors-on-human-lung-epithelial-cells-and-fibroblasts
#12
Janice Gerloff, Isaac K Sundar, Robert Freter, Emily R Sekera, Alan E Friedman, Risa Robinson, Todd Pagano, Irfan Rahman
Recent studies suggest that electronic cigarette (e-cig) flavors can be harmful to lung tissue by imposing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. The potential inflammatory response by lung epithelial cells and fibroblasts exposed to e-cig flavoring chemicals in addition to other risk-anticipated flavor enhancers inhaled by e-cig users is not known. The goal of this study was to evaluate the release of the proinflammatory cytokine (interleukin-8 [IL-8]) and epithelial barrier function in response to different e-cig flavoring chemicals identified in various e-cig e-liquid flavorings and vapors by chemical characterization using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis...
March 1, 2017: Applied in Vitro Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296532/allergic-diseases-smoking-and-environmental-exposure-among-university-students-in-lebanon
#13
Souheil Hallit, Tarek Bou Assi, Rabih Hallit, Pascale Salameh
INTRODUCTION: Smoking habits among university students in Lebanon are not clearly identified, and studies correlating these habits to asthma and allergic diseases are lacking. The primary objective of this study is to assess asthma and allergic diseases' predictors, particularly cigarette and/or waterpipe smoking and other environmental exposures, among university students. A second objective is to evaluate the potential role of these predictors as correlates of health-related self-assessment...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266899/the-blue-lotus-flower-nymphea-caerulea-resin-used-in-a-new-type-of-electronic-cigarette-the-re-buildable-dripping-atomizer
#14
Justin L Poklis, Haley A Mulder, Matthew S Halquist, Carl E Wolf, Alphonse Poklis, Michelle R Peace
The blue lotus flower (Nymphea caerulea) is an Egyptian water lily containing apomorphine and nuciferine. Apomorphine has been described as a psychoactive alkaloid and is a non-selective dopamine agonist primarily used to treat Parkinson's disease as it stimulates dopamine receptors and improves motor function. Nuciferine is an alkaloid associated with dopamine receptor blockade. Today, blue lotus flower is used as a sleep aid and anxiety reliever. The rebuildable dripping atomizer (RDA) is an electronic cigarette that allows direct application of an e-liquid onto the coil in the atomizer for aerosolization, compared to a typical electronic cigarette where the e-liquid is wicked from a storage vessel to the coil...
July 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194215/accidental-ingestion-of-e-cigarette-liquid-nicotine-in-a-15-month-old-child-an-infant-mortality-case-of-nicotine-intoxication
#15
An Deok Seo, Dong Chan Kim, Hee Joon Yu, Min Jae Kang
Electronic cigarettes are novel tobacco products that are frequently used these days. The cartridge contains liquid nicotine and accidental poisoning, even with a small oral dose, endangers children. We present here a mortality case of a 15-month-old child who ingested liquid nicotine mistaking it for cold medicine. When the emergency medical technicians arrived, she was found to have pulseless electrical activity. Spontaneous circulation was restored after approximately 40 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation...
December 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167512/e-cigarettes-and-dripping-among-high-school-youth
#16
Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin, Meghan Morean, Grace Kong, Krysten W Bold, Deepa R Camenga, Dana A Cavallo, Patricia Simon, Ran Wu
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) electrically heat and vaporize e-liquids to produce inhalable vapors. These devices are being used to inhale vapors produced by dripping e-liquids directly onto heated atomizers. The current study conducts the first evaluation of the prevalence rates and reasons for using e-cigarettes for dripping among high school students. METHODS: In the spring of 2015, students from 8 Connecticut high schools (n = 7045) completed anonymous surveys that examined tobacco use behaviors and perceptions...
March 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149256/extensive-burn-injury-caused-by-fundamental-electronic-cigarette-design-flaw
#17
S Bohr, F Almarzouqi, N Pallua
Currently, electronic cigarette (EC) devices are widely used as an alternative to conventional smoking. The underlying technical principle is an electric coil-based vaporizer unit, which vaporizes various solutions for inhalation purposes with a rechargeable lithium battery unit as power source. We report a case of extensive burn injury resulting from the thermal explosion of a battery unit within an EC device. Though internal thermal instabilities of lithium ion batteries are a known safety issue, the unique feature here is a pronounced amplification of the extent of burn injury due to an additional scalding burn mechanism that resulted from heating of the liquid reservoir adjacent to the battery...
September 30, 2016: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131978/simultaneous-tuning-of-electric-field-intensity-and-structural-properties-of-zno-graphene-nanostructures-for-fospr-based-nicotine-sensor
#18
Rana Tabassum, Banshi D Gupta
We report theoretical and experimental realization of a SPR based fiber optic nicotine sensor having coatings of silver and graphene doped ZnO nanostructure onto the unclad core of the optical fiber. The volume fraction (f) of graphene in ZnO was optimized using simulation of electric field intensity. Four types of graphene doped ZnO nanostructures viz. nanocomposites, nanoflowers, nanotubes and nanofibers were prepared using optimized value of f. The morphology, photoluminescence (PL) spectra and UV-vis spectra of these nanostructures were studied...
May 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119499/neighbourhood-exposure-to-point-of-sale-price-promotions-for-cigarettes-is-associated-with-financial-stress-among-smokers-results-from-a-population-based-study
#19
Mohammad Siahpush, Melissa Tibbits, Ghada A Soliman, Brandon Grimm, Raees A Shaikh, Molly McCarthy, Neng Wan, Athena K Ramos, Antonia Correa
AIM: To examine the association between neighbourhood exposure to point-of-sale (POS) cigarette price promotions and financial stress among smokers in a Midwestern metropolitan area in the USA. METHODS: Survey data from 888 smokers provided information on sociodemographic and smoking related variables. Financial stress was measured with the question: 'In the last six months, because of lack of money, was there a time when you were unable to buy food or pay any important bills on time, such as electricity, telephone, credit card, rent or your mortgage? (Yes/No)...
November 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931228/internal-living-environment-and-respiratory-disease-in-children-findings-from-the-growing-up-in-new-zealand-longitudinal-child-cohort-study
#20
Sandar Tin Tin, Alistair Woodward, Rajneeta Saraf, Sarah Berry, Polly Atatoa Carr, Susan M B Morton, Cameron C Grant
BACKGROUND: The incidence of early childhood acute respiratory infections (ARIs) has been associated with aspects of the indoor environment. In recent years, public awareness about some of these environmental issues has increased, including new laws and subsequent changes in occupant behaviours. This New Zealand study investigated current exposures to specific risk factors in the home during the first five years of life and provided updated evidence on the links between the home environment and childhood ARI hospitalisation...
December 8, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
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