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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546155/long-term-nicotine-exposure-dampens-lps-induced-nerve-mediated-airway-hyperreactivity-in-murine-airways
#1
Yuan Xu, Lars-Olaf Cardell
Nicotine is a major component of cigarette smoke. It causes addiction and is used clinically to aid smoke cessation. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of nicotine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and to explore the potential involvement of neuronal mechanisms behind nicotine's effects in murine models in vivo and in vitro. BALB/c mice were exposed to nicotine in vivo via subcutaneous Alzet osmotic minipumps containing nicotine tartate salt solution (24 mg/kg/day) for 28 days...
May 25, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468124/temporal-evolution-of-ultrafine-particles-and-of-alveolar-deposited-surface-area-from-main-indoor-combustion-and-non-combustion-sources-in-a-model-room
#2
Maurizio Manigrasso, Matteo Vitali, Carmela Protano, Pasquale Avino
Aerosol number size distributions, PM mass concentrations, alveolar deposited surface areas (ADSAs) and VOC concentrations were measured in a model room when aerosol was emitted by sources frequently encountered in indoor environments. Both combustion and non-combustion sources were considered. The most intense aerosol emission occurred when combustion sources were active (as high as 4.1×10(7)particlescm(-3) for two meat grilling sessions; the first with exhaust ventilation, the second without). An intense spike generation of nucleation particles occurred when appliances equipped with brush electric motors were operating (as high as 10(6)particlescm(-3) on switching on an electric drill)...
November 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398588/electrical-stimulation-reduces-smokers-craving-by-modulating-the-coupling-between-dorsal-lateral-prefrontal-cortex-and-parahippocampal-gyrus
#3
Li-Zhuang Yang, Bin Shi, Hai Li, Ying Liu, Wei Zhang, Ying Wang, Wanwan Lv, Xuebing Ji, Justin Hudak, Yifeng Zhou, Andreas J Fallgatter, Xiaochu Zhang
Applying electrical stimulation over the prefrontal cortex can help nicotine dependents reduce cigarette craving. However, the underlying mechanism remains ambiguous. The present study investigates this issue with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Thirty-two male chronic smokers received real and sham stimulation over dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex separated by 1 week. The neuroimaging data of the resting state, the smoking cue reactivity task and the emotion task after stimulation were collected. The craving across the cue reactivity task was diminished during real stimulation as compared to sham stimulation...
April 4, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368678/functional-characterization-of-a-novel-3d-model-of-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-trophic-unit
#4
Fabio Bucchieri, Alessandro Pitruzzella, Alberto Fucarino, Antonella Marino Gammazza, Celeste Caruso Bavisotto, Vito Marcianò, Massimo Cajozzo, Giorgio Lo Iacono, Roberto Marchese, Giovanni Zummo, Stephen T Holgate, Donna E Davies
BACKGROUND/AIM: Epithelial-mesenchymal communication plays a key role in tissue homeostasis and abnormal signaling contributes to chronic airways disease such as COPD. Most in vitro models are limited in complexity and poorly represent this epithelial-mesenchymal trophic unit. We postulated that cellular outgrowth from bronchial tissue would enable development of a mucosal structure that recapitulates better in vivo tissue architecture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bronchial tissue was embedded in Matrigel and outgrowth cultures monitored using time-lapse microscopy, electrical resistance, light and electron microscopy...
March 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337465/inflammatory-response-and-barrier-dysfunction-by-different-e-cigarette-flavoring-chemicals-identified-by-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-in-e-liquids-and-e-vapors-on-human-lung-epithelial-cells-and-fibroblasts
#5
Janice Gerloff, Isaac K Sundar, Robert Freter, Emily R Sekera, Alan E Friedman, Risa Robinson, Todd Pagano, Irfan Rahman
Recent studies suggest that electronic cigarette (e-cig) flavors can be harmful to lung tissue by imposing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. The potential inflammatory response by lung epithelial cells and fibroblasts exposed to e-cig flavoring chemicals in addition to other risk-anticipated flavor enhancers inhaled by e-cig users is not known. The goal of this study was to evaluate the release of the proinflammatory cytokine (interleukin-8 [IL-8]) and epithelial barrier function in response to different e-cig flavoring chemicals identified in various e-cig e-liquid flavorings and vapors by chemical characterization using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis...
March 1, 2017: Applied in Vitro Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296532/allergic-diseases-smoking-and-environmental-exposure-among-university-students-in-lebanon
#6
Souheil Hallit, Tarek Bou Assi, Rabih Hallit, Pascale Salameh
INTRODUCTION: Smoking habits among university students in Lebanon are not clearly identified, and studies correlating these habits to asthma and allergic diseases are lacking. The primary objective of this study is to assess asthma and allergic diseases' predictors, particularly cigarette and/or waterpipe smoking and other environmental exposures, among university students. A second objective is to evaluate the potential role of these predictors as correlates of health-related self-assessment...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266899/the-blue-lotus-flower-nymphea-caerulea-resin-used-in-a-new-type-of-electronic-cigarette-the-re-buildable-dripping-atomizer
#7
Justin L Poklis, Haley A Mulder, Matthew S Halquist, Carl E Wolf, Alphonse Poklis, Michelle R Peace
The blue lotus flower (Nymphea caerulea) is an Egyptian water lily containing apomorphine and nuciferine. Apomorphine has been described as a psychoactive alkaloid and is a non-selective dopamine agonist primarily used to treat Parkinson's disease as it stimulates dopamine receptors and improves motor function. Nuciferine is an alkaloid associated with dopamine receptor blockade. Today, blue lotus flower is used as a sleep aid and anxiety reliever. The rebuildable dripping atomizer (RDA) is an electronic cigarette that allows direct application of an e-liquid onto the coil in the atomizer for aerosolization, compared to a typical electronic cigarette where the e-liquid is wicked from a storage vessel to the coil...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194215/accidental-ingestion-of-e-cigarette-liquid-nicotine-in-a-15-month-old-child-an-infant-mortality-case-of-nicotine-intoxication
#8
An Deok Seo, Dong Chan Kim, Hee Joon Yu, Min Jae Kang
Electronic cigarettes are novel tobacco products that are frequently used these days. The cartridge contains liquid nicotine and accidental poisoning, even with a small oral dose, endangers children. We present here a mortality case of a 15-month-old child who ingested liquid nicotine mistaking it for cold medicine. When the emergency medical technicians arrived, she was found to have pulseless electrical activity. Spontaneous circulation was restored after approximately 40 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation...
December 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167512/e-cigarettes-and-dripping-among-high-school-youth
#9
Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin, Meghan Morean, Grace Kong, Krysten W Bold, Deepa R Camenga, Dana A Cavallo, Patricia Simon, Ran Wu
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) electrically heat and vaporize e-liquids to produce inhalable vapors. These devices are being used to inhale vapors produced by dripping e-liquids directly onto heated atomizers. The current study conducts the first evaluation of the prevalence rates and reasons for using e-cigarettes for dripping among high school students. METHODS: In the spring of 2015, students from 8 Connecticut high schools (n = 7045) completed anonymous surveys that examined tobacco use behaviors and perceptions...
March 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149256/extensive-burn-injury-caused-by-fundamental-electronic-cigarette-design-flaw
#10
S Bohr, F Almarzouqi, N Pallua
Currently, electronic cigarette (EC) devices are widely used as an alternative to conventional smoking. The underlying technical principle is an electric coil-based vaporizer unit, which vaporizes various solutions for inhalation purposes with a rechargeable lithium battery unit as power source. We report a case of extensive burn injury resulting from the thermal explosion of a battery unit within an EC device. Though internal thermal instabilities of lithium ion batteries are a known safety issue, the unique feature here is a pronounced amplification of the extent of burn injury due to an additional scalding burn mechanism that resulted from heating of the liquid reservoir adjacent to the battery...
September 30, 2016: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131978/simultaneous-tuning-of-electric-field-intensity-and-structural-properties-of-zno-graphene-nanostructures-for-fospr-based-nicotine-sensor
#11
Rana Tabassum, Banshi D Gupta
We report theoretical and experimental realization of a SPR based fiber optic nicotine sensor having coatings of silver and graphene doped ZnO nanostructure onto the unclad core of the optical fiber. The volume fraction (f) of graphene in ZnO was optimized using simulation of electric field intensity. Four types of graphene doped ZnO nanostructures viz. nanocomposites, nanoflowers, nanotubes and nanofibers were prepared using optimized value of f. The morphology, photoluminescence (PL) spectra and UV-vis spectra of these nanostructures were studied...
May 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119499/neighbourhood-exposure-to-point-of-sale-price-promotions-for-cigarettes-is-associated-with-financial-stress-among-smokers-results-from-a-population-based-study
#12
Mohammad Siahpush, Melissa Tibbits, Ghada A Soliman, Brandon Grimm, Raees A Shaikh, Molly McCarthy, Neng Wan, Athena K Ramos, Antonia Correa
AIM: To examine the association between neighbourhood exposure to point-of-sale (POS) cigarette price promotions and financial stress among smokers in a Midwestern metropolitan area in the USA. METHODS: Survey data from 888 smokers provided information on sociodemographic and smoking related variables. Financial stress was measured with the question: 'In the last six months, because of lack of money, was there a time when you were unable to buy food or pay any important bills on time, such as electricity, telephone, credit card, rent or your mortgage? [Yes/No]...
January 24, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931228/internal-living-environment-and-respiratory-disease-in-children-findings-from-the-growing-up-in-new-zealand-longitudinal-child-cohort-study
#13
Sandar Tin Tin, Alistair Woodward, Rajneeta Saraf, Sarah Berry, Polly Atatoa Carr, Susan M B Morton, Cameron C Grant
BACKGROUND: The incidence of early childhood acute respiratory infections (ARIs) has been associated with aspects of the indoor environment. In recent years, public awareness about some of these environmental issues has increased, including new laws and subsequent changes in occupant behaviours. This New Zealand study investigated current exposures to specific risk factors in the home during the first five years of life and provided updated evidence on the links between the home environment and childhood ARI hospitalisation...
December 8, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879608/e-cigarettes-and-potential-implications-for-plastic-surgery
#14
Peter J Taub, Alan Matarasso
The use of tobacco-based products, most notably cigarettes, is related directly to wound healing problems and poorer outcomes in plastic surgery. Current abstracts have highlighted the potential complications from nicotine, specifically following plastic surgery in patients who choose to smoke. Recently, products that use electricity to vaporize liquid nitrogen have been gaining popularity. New rules were recently proposed that would give the federal government authority over electronic cigarettes. However, the health-related issues surrounding e-cigarettes are still largely unknown or misunderstood...
December 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852893/philip-morris-research-on-precursors-to-the-modern-e-cigarette-since-1990
#15
Lauren M Dutra, Rachel Grana, Stanton A Glantz
BACKGROUND: Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is increasing rapidly. Chinese pharmacist Hon Lik is frequently cited as inventing the modern e-cigarette in 2003. However, tobacco companies have developed electronic nicotine delivery systems since at least 1963. METHODS: We searched the University of California San Francisco Truth (formerly Legacy) Tobacco Industry Documents beginning with the terms 'electric cigarette' and 'electronic cigarettes', 'e-cigarette', 'smokeless cigarettes', 'nicotine aerosol', 'tobacco aerosol', and 'vaping' and then expanded the search using snowball sampling...
November 15, 2016: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798321/detection-of-5-hydroxymethylfurfural-and-furfural-in-the-aerosol-of-electronic-cigarettes
#16
Sarah Soussy, Ahmad El-Hellani, Rima Baalbaki, Rola Salman, Alan Shihadeh, Najat A Saliba
SIGNIFICANCE: The wide availability of sweet flavours has been hypothesised as a factor in the popularity of electronic cigarette (ECIG), especially among youth. Saccharides, which are commonly used to impart a sweet flavour to ECIG liquids, thermally degrade to produce toxic compounds, like aldehydes and furans. This study investigates the formation of furanic compounds in aerosols when ECIG liquid solutions of varying sweetener concentrations are vaped under different power and puff duration...
November 2016: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798087/nicotine-and-carbonyl-emissions-from-popular-electronic-cigarette-products-correlation-to-liquid-composition-and-design-characteristics
#17
Ahmad El-Hellani, Rola Salman, Rachel El-Hage, Soha Talih, Nathalie Malek, Rima Baalbaki, Nareg Karaoghlanian, Rima Nakkash, Alan Shihadeh, Najat A Saliba
INTRODUCTION: Available in hundreds of device designs and thousands of flavors, electronic cigarette (ECIG) may have differing toxicant emission characteristics. This study assesses nicotine and carbonyl yields in the most popular brands in the U.S. market. These products included disposable, prefilled cartridge, and tank-based ECIGs. METHODS: Twenty-seven ECIG products of 10 brands were procured and their power outputs were measured. The e-liquids were characterized for pH, nicotine concentration, propylene glycol/vegetable glycerin (PG/VG) ratio, and water content...
October 7, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710895/cd200fc-attenuates-inflammatory-responses-and-maintains-barrier-function-by-suppressing-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-cigarette-smoke-extract-induced-endothelial-cells
#18
Junwei Xu, Lu Lu, Jing Lu, Jihui Xia, Hongjin Lu, Lin Yang, Wensheng Xia, Shihai Shen
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that CD200 fusion protein (CD200Fc), a CD200R1 agonist may attenuate inflammatory responses in autoimmune diseases and neuro-degeneration. While, little is known about the function of CD200Fc in cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced mouse Cardiac Microvascular Endothelial Cells (mCMECs). The present study was designed to elucidate the effects of CD200Fc on CSE-induced vascular endothelial barrier (VEB) dysfunction and inflammatory responses, which is a highly clinically relevant model of smoking related cardiovascular diseases...
December 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643990/acute-acrolein-exposure-induces-impairment-of-vocal-fold-epithelial-barrier-function
#19
Xinxin Liu, Wei Zheng, M Preeti Sivasankar
Acrolein is a ubiquitous pollutant abundant in cigarette smoke, mobile exhaust, and industrial waste. There is limited literature on the effects of acrolein on vocal fold tissue, although there are clinical reports of voice changes after pollutant exposures. Vocal folds are responsible for voice production. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the effects of acrolein exposure on viable, excised vocal fold epithelial tissue and to characterize the mechanism underlying acrolein toxicity. Vocal fold epithelia were studied because they form the outermost layer of the vocal folds and are a primary recipient of inhaled pollutants...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580429/reversal-of-cigarette-smoke-extract-induced-sinonasal-epithelial-cell-barrier-dysfunction-through-nrf2-activation
#20
Anuj Tharakan, Ashleigh A Halderman, Andrew P Lane, Shyam Biswal, Murugappan Ramanathan
BACKGROUND: Environmental factors such as inhaled pollutants like cigarette smoke may play a significant role in diseases of the upper airway including chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Recent studies have shown that cigarette smoke causes impaired airway epithelial cell barrier function likely through environmental oxidative stress related pathways. The purpose of this study is to explore whether enhancing nuclear factor erythroid 2 [NF-E2]-related factor 2 [Nrf2], the body's master antioxidant system, can ameliorate cigarette smoke-induced sinonasal epithelial cell (SNEC) barrier dysfunction...
November 2016: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
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