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Junwei Xu, Lu Lu, Jing Lu, Jihui Xia, Hongjin Lu, Lin Yang, Wensheng Xia, Shihai Shen
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that CD200 fusion protein (CD200Fc), a CD200R1 agonist may attenuate inflammatory responses in autoimmune diseases and neuro-degeneration. While, little is known about the function of CD200Fc in cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced mouse Cardiac Microvascular Endothelial Cells (mCMECs). The present study was designed to elucidate the effects of CD200Fc on CSE-induced vascular endothelial barrier (VEB) dysfunction and inflammatory responses, which is a highly clinically relevant model of smoking related cardiovascular diseases...
October 3, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Xinxin Liu, Wei Zheng, M Preeti Sivasankar
Acrolein is a ubiquitous pollutant abundant in cigarette smoke, mobile exhaust, and industrial waste. There is limited literature on the effects of acrolein on vocal fold tissue, although there are clinical reports of voice changes after pollutant exposures. Vocal folds are responsible for voice production. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the effects of acrolein exposure on viable, excised vocal fold epithelial tissue and to characterize the mechanism underlying acrolein toxicity. Vocal fold epithelia were studied because they form the outermost layer of the vocal folds and are a primary recipient of inhaled pollutants...
2016: PloS One
Anuj Tharakan, Ashleigh A Halderman, Andrew P Lane, Shyam Biswal, Murugappan Ramanathan
BACKGROUND: Environmental factors such as inhaled pollutants like cigarette smoke may play a significant role in diseases of the upper airway including chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Recent studies have shown that cigarette smoke causes impaired airway epithelial cell barrier function likely through environmental oxidative stress related pathways. The purpose of this study is to explore whether enhancing nuclear factor erythroid 2 [NF-E2]-related factor 2 [Nrf2], the body's master antioxidant system, can ameliorate cigarette smoke-induced sinonasal epithelial cell (SNEC) barrier dysfunction...
August 31, 2016: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Pavlo Zubko, Jacek C Wojdeł, Marios Hadjimichael, Stéphanie Fernandez-Pena, Anaïs Sené, Igor Luk'yanchuk, Jean-Marc Triscone, Jorge Íñiguez
The stability of spontaneous electrical polarization in ferroelectrics is fundamental to many of their current applications, which range from the simple electric cigarette lighter to non-volatile random access memories. Research on nanoscale ferroelectrics reveals that their behaviour is profoundly different from that in bulk ferroelectrics, which could lead to new phenomena with potential for future devices. As ferroelectrics become thinner, maintaining a stable polarization becomes increasingly challenging...
June 23, 2016: Nature
René Mauricio Barría, Mario Calvo, Paulina Pino
INTRODUCTION: Air pollution by particulate matter (PM) is a major public health problem. In Chile, the study has focused on outdoor air and PM10, rather than indoor air and PM2.5. Because newborns and infants spend most of their time at home, it is necessary to evaluate the exposure to indoor air pollution in this susceptible population. OBJECTIVE: To determine concentration of PM2.5 in the homes of newborns and identify the emission sources of the pollutants. PATIENTS AND METHOD: The PM2...
May 27, 2016: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Maria Nicolà D'Errico, Piero Lovreglio, Ignazio Drago, Pietro Apostoli, Leonardo Soleo
The effects of occupational exposure to low concentrations of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) on the urinary excretion of corticosteroid hormones were evaluated, taking into account the influence of cigarette smoking. The study included 26 males working as electrical maintenance staff in a steel factory, previously exposed to a mixture of PCBs (exposed workers), and 30 male workers with no occupational exposure to PCBs (controls). Serum PCBs (33 congeners), urinary 17-hydroxycorticosteroids, 17-ketosteroids (KS) and pregnanes, and their respective glucuronidated and sulfonated compounds, were determined for each subject...
April 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Hongbo Wang, Xiang Li, Junwei Guo, Bin Peng, Huapeng Cui, Kejian Liu, Sheng Wang, Yaqiong Qin, Peijian Sun, Le Zhao, Fuwei Xie, Huimin Liu
To accurately estimate the risk of inhaling cigarette smoke containing toxic chemicals, it is important that the distribution of these chemicals is accurately measured in cigarette smoke aerosol particles of various sizes. In this study, a single-channel smoking machine was directly coupled to an electrical low-pressure impactor. The particles of mainstream cigarette smoke were collected using 12 polyester films, and the particulate matter (PM) was characterized. Nicotine, tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs, including NNN, NAT, NAB, and NNK), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, including benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), benzo(a)anthracene, and chrysene), and heavy metals (including Cr, As, Cd, and Pb) present in the particles of different sizes were analyzed by GC, HPLC-MS/MS, GC/MS, or ICP-MS, respectively...
2016: Inhalation Toxicology
Bertrand Dautzenberg, Daniel Garelik
e-cigarettes remain controversial mainly because the lack of scientific evidence of short term and long term effects on tolerance and efficacy of a switch from tobacco to e-cigarette. Nevertheless the quality of e-cigarette and e-liquid is now improved. The main ingredients, propylene glycol, vegetal glycerine and nicotine are pharma grade quality in most e-liquid. Aroma and alcohol are of food grade. The high quality of ingredient has decreased the presence of impurities in e-liquids. The emission of e-cigarette does not content solids particles, carbon monoxide...
December 24, 2015: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Alison Breland, Eric Soule, Alexa Lopez, Carolina Ramôa, Ahmad El-Hellani, Thomas Eissenberg
Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) use electricity to power a heating element that aerosolizes a liquid containing solvents, flavorants, and the dependence-producing drug nicotine for user inhalation. ECIGs have evolved rapidly in the past 8 years, and the changes in product design and liquid constituents affect the resulting toxicant yield in the aerosol and delivery to the user. This rapid evolution has been accompanied by dramatic increases in ECIG use prevalence in many countries among adults and, especially, adolescents in the United States...
January 15, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
I H Heijink, M R Jonker, M de Vries, A J M van Oosterhout, E Telenga, N H T Ten Hacken, D S Postma, M van den Berge
BACKGROUND: COPD patients have a higher risk of pneumonia when treated with fluticasone propionate (FP) than with placebo, and a lower risk with budesonide (BUD). We hypothesized that BUD and FP differentially affect the mucosal barrier in response to viral infection and/or cigarette smoke. METHODS: We assessed protective effects of equivalent concentrations of BUD and FP on cytokine production and barrier function (electrical resistance) in human bronchial epithelial 16HBE cells and primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs) upon exposure to viral mimetic poly-(I:C) and/or cigarette smoke extract (CSE) or epidermal growth factor (EGF)...
2016: Respiratory Research
Yipeng Ding, Junxu Xu, Jinjian Yao, Yu Chen, Ping He, Yanhong Ouyang, Huan Niu, Zhongjie Tian, Pei Sun
OBJECTIVE: To study the risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Li population in Hainan province, People's Republic of China. METHODS: Li people above 40 years of age from Hainan were chosen by stratified random cluster sampling between 2012 and 2014. All participants were interviewed with a home-visiting questionnaire, and spirometry was performed on all eligible participants. Patients with airflow limitation (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]/forced vital capacity [FVC] <0...
2015: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Betty C Chen, Steven B Bright, Amit Raj Trivedi, Matthew Valento
CONTEXT: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is growing within the United States, resulting in both intentional and unintentional exposures to concentrated liquid nicotine or "e-liquid." Nicotine has been culpable for severe poisoning and deaths in the past. However, sources of nicotine have traditionally been from cigarettes, cigars, or pesticides. Fatalities due to liquid nicotine are rare, and fatalities following ingestion of e-liquid are even scarcer. CASE: We present a case of a 24-year-old woman who intentionally ingested up to 3000 mg of liquid nicotine intended for e-cigarette use...
November 2015: Clinical Toxicology
W Virgil Brown, Harold E Bays, Ralph La Forge, Geeta Sikand
The first efforts to uncover the causes of cardiovascular disease focused on the behavioral, now called lifestyle habits of populations. Diet, exercise, and smoking were recognized as important issues with strong relationships in community-based observational studies such as the Seven Countries study, the Framingham Heart Study, and the Western Electric Study in Chicago. The first meaningful intervention in the United States was the dietary recommendations made by the American Heart Association in 1963 and the Surgeon General's Report on Smoking and Health in 1964...
July 2015: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Shikha Prasad, Ravi K Sajja, Jee Hyun Park, Pooja Naik, Mohammad Abul Kaisar, Luca Cucullo
BACKGROUND: Diabetes and tobacco smoking are significant public health concerns which have been shown to independently impact the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Since smoking is a risk factor for diabetes and shares some of the common pathological pathways leading to metabolic abnormalities, it is hypothesized that their combination would produce additive or synergistic BBB dysfunction. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess this hypothesis and evaluate the magnitude of these effects in vitro using hCMEC/D3 cells; a well-established human BBB endothelial cell line...
2015: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
Caroline O Cobb, Peter S Hendricks, Thomas Eissenberg
Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) use an electric heater to aerosolize a liquid that usually contains propylene glycol, vegetable glycerin, flavorants, and the dependence-producing drug nicotine. ECIG-induced nicotine dependence has become an important concern, as some ECIGs deliver very little nicotine while some may exceed the nicotine delivery profile of a tobacco cigarette. This variability is relevant to tobacco cigarette smokers who try to switch to ECIGs. Products with very low nicotine delivery may not substitute for tobacco cigarettes, so that ECIG use is accompanied by little reduced risk of cigarette-caused disease...
2015: BMC Medicine
Kelly S Schweitzer, Steven X Chen, Sarah Law, Mary Van Demark, Christophe Poirier, Matthew J Justice, Walter C Hubbard, Elena S Kim, Xianyin Lai, Mu Wang, William D Kranz, Clinton J Carroll, Bruce D Ray, Robert Bittman, John Goodpaster, Irina Petrache
The increased use of inhaled nicotine via e-cigarettes has unknown risks to lung health. Having previously shown that cigarette smoke (CS) extract disrupts the lung microvasculature barrier function by endothelial cell activation and cytoskeletal rearrangement, we investigated the contribution of nicotine in CS or e-cigarettes (e-Cig) to lung endothelial injury. Primary lung microvascular endothelial cells were exposed to nicotine, e-Cig solution, or condensed e-Cig vapor (1-20 mM nicotine) or to nicotine-free CS extract or e-Cig solutions...
July 15, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Raquel Chatkin, José Miguel Chatkin, Lucas Spanemberg, Daniela Casagrande, Mario Wagner, Cláudio Mottin
INTRODUCTION: While the association between cigarette smoking and abdominal fat has been well studied in normal and overweight patients, data regarding the influence of tobacco use in patients with morbid obesity remain scarce. The aim of this study is to evaluate body fat distribution in morbidly obese smokers. METHODS: We employed a cross-sectional study and grouped severely obese patients (body mass index [BMI] >40 kg/m2 or >35 kg/m2 with comorbidities) according to their smoking habits (smokers or non-smokers)...
2015: PloS One
Ruhui Zhang, Haijin Zhao, Hangming Dong, Fei Zou, Shaoxi Cai
Cigarette smoke extracts (CSE) alter calpain-1 expression via ERK signaling pathway in bronchial epithelial cells. 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) inhibits cigarette smoke-induced epithelial barrier disruption. This study was aimed to explore whether the 1,25D3 counteracted the CSE effects in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE). In particular, transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and permeability, expression and distribution of E-cadherin and β-catenin, calpain-1 expression, and ERK phosphorylation were assessed in the CSE-stimulated 16HBE cells...
June 2015: Cellular Immunology
Soha Talih, Zainab Balhas, Rola Salman, Nareg Karaoghlanian, Alan Shihadeh
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) electrically heat and vaporize a liquid solution to produce an inhalable nicotine-containing aerosol. Normally the electrical heater is fed the liquid via an automatic wick system. Some ECIG users, however, elect to directly drip liquid onto an exposed heater coil, reportedly for greater vapor production and throat hit. Use of such "direct drip atomizers" (DDAs) may involve greater exposure to non-nicotine toxicants due to the potentially higher temperatures reached by the coil...
April 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Xuefei Cao, Haixia Lin, Levan Muskhelishvili, John Latendresse, Patricia Richter, Robert H Heflich
BACKGROUND: The cadmium (Cd) present in air pollutants and cigarette smoke has the potential of causing multiple adverse health outcomes involving damage to pulmonary and cardiovascular tissue. Injury to pulmonary epithelium may include alterations in tight junction (TJ) integrity, resulting in impaired epithelial barrier function and enhanced penetration of chemicals and biomolecules. Herein, we investigated mechanisms involved in the disruption of TJ integrity by Cd exposure using an in vitro human air-liquid-interface (ALI) airway tissue model derived from normal primary human bronchial epithelial cells...
2015: Respiratory Research
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