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Electric cigarette

Sandar Tin Tin, Alistair Woodward, Rajneeta Saraf, Sarah Berry, Polly Atatoa Carr, Susan M B Morton, Cameron C Grant
BACKGROUND: The incidence of early childhood acute respiratory infections (ARIs) has been associated with aspects of the indoor environment. In recent years, public awareness about some of these environmental issues has increased, including new laws and subsequent changes in occupant behaviours. This New Zealand study investigated current exposures to specific risk factors in the home during the first five years of life and provided updated evidence on the links between the home environment and childhood ARI hospitalisation...
December 8, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Peter J Taub, Alan Matarasso
The use of tobacco-based products, most notably cigarettes, is related directly to wound healing problems and poorer outcomes in plastic surgery. Current abstracts have highlighted the potential complications from nicotine, specifically following plastic surgery in patients who choose to smoke. Recently, products that use electricity to vaporize liquid nitrogen have been gaining popularity. New rules were recently proposed that would give the federal government authority over electronic cigarettes. However, the health-related issues surrounding e-cigarettes are still largely unknown or misunderstood...
December 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Lauren M Dutra, Rachel Grana, Stanton A Glantz
BACKGROUND: Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is increasing rapidly. Chinese pharmacist Hon Lik is frequently cited as inventing the modern e-cigarette in 2003. However, tobacco companies have developed electronic nicotine delivery systems since at least 1963. METHODS: We searched the University of California San Francisco Truth (formerly Legacy) Tobacco Industry Documents beginning with the terms 'electric cigarette' and 'electronic cigarettes', 'e-cigarette', 'smokeless cigarettes', 'nicotine aerosol', 'tobacco aerosol', and 'vaping' and then expanded the search using snowball sampling...
November 15, 2016: Tobacco Control
Sarah Soussy, Ahmad El-Hellani, Rima Baalbaki, Rola Salman, Alan Shihadeh, Najat A Saliba
SIGNIFICANCE: The wide availability of sweet flavours has been hypothesised as a factor in the popularity of electronic cigarette (ECIG), especially among youth. Saccharides, which are commonly used to impart a sweet flavour to ECIG liquids, thermally degrade to produce toxic compounds, like aldehydes and furans. This study investigates the formation of furanic compounds in aerosols when ECIG liquid solutions of varying sweetener concentrations are vaped under different power and puff duration...
October 25, 2016: Tobacco Control
Ahmad El-Hellani, Rola Salman, Rachel El-Hage, Soha Talih, Nathalie Malek, Rima Baalbaki, Nareg Karaoghlanian, Rima Nakkash, Alan Shihadeh, Najat A Saliba
INTRODUCTION: Available in hundreds of device designs and thousands of flavors, electronic cigarette (ECIG) may have differing toxicant emission characteristics. This study assesses nicotine and carbonyl yields in the most popular brands in the U.S. market. These products included disposable, prefilled cartridge, and tank-based ECIGs. METHODS: Twenty-seven ECIG products of 10 brands were procured and their power outputs were measured. The e-liquids were characterized for pH, nicotine concentration, propylene glycol/vegetable glycerin (PG/VG) ratio, and water content...
October 7, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Junwei Xu, Lu Lu, Jing Lu, Jihui Xia, Hongjin Lu, Lin Yang, Wensheng Xia, Shihai Shen
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that CD200 fusion protein (CD200Fc), a CD200R1 agonist may attenuate inflammatory responses in autoimmune diseases and neuro-degeneration. While, little is known about the function of CD200Fc in cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced mouse Cardiac Microvascular Endothelial Cells (mCMECs). The present study was designed to elucidate the effects of CD200Fc on CSE-induced vascular endothelial barrier (VEB) dysfunction and inflammatory responses, which is a highly clinically relevant model of smoking related cardiovascular diseases...
December 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Xinxin Liu, Wei Zheng, M Preeti Sivasankar
Acrolein is a ubiquitous pollutant abundant in cigarette smoke, mobile exhaust, and industrial waste. There is limited literature on the effects of acrolein on vocal fold tissue, although there are clinical reports of voice changes after pollutant exposures. Vocal folds are responsible for voice production. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the effects of acrolein exposure on viable, excised vocal fold epithelial tissue and to characterize the mechanism underlying acrolein toxicity. Vocal fold epithelia were studied because they form the outermost layer of the vocal folds and are a primary recipient of inhaled pollutants...
2016: PloS One
Anuj Tharakan, Ashleigh A Halderman, Andrew P Lane, Shyam Biswal, Murugappan Ramanathan
BACKGROUND: Environmental factors such as inhaled pollutants like cigarette smoke may play a significant role in diseases of the upper airway including chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Recent studies have shown that cigarette smoke causes impaired airway epithelial cell barrier function likely through environmental oxidative stress related pathways. The purpose of this study is to explore whether enhancing nuclear factor erythroid 2 [NF-E2]-related factor 2 [Nrf2], the body's master antioxidant system, can ameliorate cigarette smoke-induced sinonasal epithelial cell (SNEC) barrier dysfunction...
November 2016: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Pavlo Zubko, Jacek C Wojdeł, Marios Hadjimichael, Stéphanie Fernandez-Pena, Anaïs Sené, Igor Luk'yanchuk, Jean-Marc Triscone, Jorge Íñiguez
The stability of spontaneous electrical polarization in ferroelectrics is fundamental to many of their current applications, which range from the simple electric cigarette lighter to non-volatile random access memories. Research on nanoscale ferroelectrics reveals that their behaviour is profoundly different from that in bulk ferroelectrics, which could lead to new phenomena with potential for future devices. As ferroelectrics become thinner, maintaining a stable polarization becomes increasingly challenging...
23, 2016: Nature
René Mauricio Barría, Mario Calvo, Paulina Pino
INTRODUCTION: Air pollution by particulate matter (PM) is a major public health problem. In Chile, the study has focused on outdoor air and PM10, rather than indoor air and PM2.5. Because newborns and infants spend most of their time at home, it is necessary to evaluate the exposure to indoor air pollution in this susceptible population. OBJECTIVE: To determine concentration of PM2.5 in the homes of newborns and identify the emission sources of the pollutants. PATIENTS AND METHOD: The PM2...
September 2016: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Maria Nicolà D'Errico, Piero Lovreglio, Ignazio Drago, Pietro Apostoli, Leonardo Soleo
The effects of occupational exposure to low concentrations of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) on the urinary excretion of corticosteroid hormones were evaluated, taking into account the influence of cigarette smoking. The study included 26 males working as electrical maintenance staff in a steel factory, previously exposed to a mixture of PCBs (exposed workers), and 30 male workers with no occupational exposure to PCBs (controls). Serum PCBs (33 congeners), urinary 17-hydroxycorticosteroids, 17-ketosteroids (KS) and pregnanes, and their respective glucuronidated and sulfonated compounds, were determined for each subject...
March 25, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Hongbo Wang, Xiang Li, Junwei Guo, Bin Peng, Huapeng Cui, Kejian Liu, Sheng Wang, Yaqiong Qin, Peijian Sun, Le Zhao, Fuwei Xie, Huimin Liu
To accurately estimate the risk of inhaling cigarette smoke containing toxic chemicals, it is important that the distribution of these chemicals is accurately measured in cigarette smoke aerosol particles of various sizes. In this study, a single-channel smoking machine was directly coupled to an electrical low-pressure impactor. The particles of mainstream cigarette smoke were collected using 12 polyester films, and the particulate matter (PM) was characterized. Nicotine, tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs, including NNN, NAT, NAB, and NNK), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, including benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), benzo(a)anthracene, and chrysene), and heavy metals (including Cr, As, Cd, and Pb) present in the particles of different sizes were analyzed by GC, HPLC-MS/MS, GC/MS, or ICP-MS, respectively...
2016: Inhalation Toxicology
Bertrand Dautzenberg, Daniel Garelik
e-cigarettes remain controversial mainly because the lack of scientific evidence of short term and long term effects on tolerance and efficacy of a switch from tobacco to e-cigarette. Nevertheless the quality of e-cigarette and e-liquid is now improved. The main ingredients, propylene glycol, vegetal glycerine and nicotine are pharma grade quality in most e-liquid. Aroma and alcohol are of food grade. The high quality of ingredient has decreased the presence of impurities in e-liquids. The emission of e-cigarette does not content solids particles, carbon monoxide...
December 24, 2015: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Alison Breland, Eric Soule, Alexa Lopez, Carolina Ramôa, Ahmad El-Hellani, Thomas Eissenberg
Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) use electricity to power a heating element that aerosolizes a liquid containing solvents, flavorants, and the dependence-producing drug nicotine for user inhalation. ECIGs have evolved rapidly in the past 8 years, and the changes in product design and liquid constituents affect the resulting toxicant yield in the aerosol and delivery to the user. This rapid evolution has been accompanied by dramatic increases in ECIG use prevalence in many countries among adults and, especially, adolescents in the United States...
January 15, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
I H Heijink, M R Jonker, M de Vries, A J M van Oosterhout, E Telenga, N H T Ten Hacken, D S Postma, M van den Berge
BACKGROUND: COPD patients have a higher risk of pneumonia when treated with fluticasone propionate (FP) than with placebo, and a lower risk with budesonide (BUD). We hypothesized that BUD and FP differentially affect the mucosal barrier in response to viral infection and/or cigarette smoke. METHODS: We assessed protective effects of equivalent concentrations of BUD and FP on cytokine production and barrier function (electrical resistance) in human bronchial epithelial 16HBE cells and primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs) upon exposure to viral mimetic poly-(I:C) and/or cigarette smoke extract (CSE) or epidermal growth factor (EGF)...
January 6, 2016: Respiratory Research
Yipeng Ding, Junxu Xu, Jinjian Yao, Yu Chen, Ping He, Yanhong Ouyang, Huan Niu, Zhongjie Tian, Pei Sun
OBJECTIVE: To study the risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Li population in Hainan province, People's Republic of China. METHODS: Li people above 40 years of age from Hainan were chosen by stratified random cluster sampling between 2012 and 2014. All participants were interviewed with a home-visiting questionnaire, and spirometry was performed on all eligible participants. Patients with airflow limitation (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]/forced vital capacity [FVC] <0...
2015: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Betty C Chen, Steven B Bright, Amit Raj Trivedi, Matthew Valento
CONTEXT: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is growing within the United States, resulting in both intentional and unintentional exposures to concentrated liquid nicotine or "e-liquid." Nicotine has been culpable for severe poisoning and deaths in the past. However, sources of nicotine have traditionally been from cigarettes, cigars, or pesticides. Fatalities due to liquid nicotine are rare, and fatalities following ingestion of e-liquid are even scarcer. CASE: We present a case of a 24-year-old woman who intentionally ingested up to 3000 mg of liquid nicotine intended for e-cigarette use...
November 2015: Clinical Toxicology
W Virgil Brown, Harold E Bays, Ralph La Forge, Geeta Sikand
The first efforts to uncover the causes of cardiovascular disease focused on the behavioral, now called lifestyle habits of populations. Diet, exercise, and smoking were recognized as important issues with strong relationships in community-based observational studies such as the Seven Countries study, the Framingham Heart Study, and the Western Electric Study in Chicago. The first meaningful intervention in the United States was the dietary recommendations made by the American Heart Association in 1963 and the Surgeon General's Report on Smoking and Health in 1964...
July 2015: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Shikha Prasad, Ravi K Sajja, Jee Hyun Park, Pooja Naik, Mohammad Abul Kaisar, Luca Cucullo
BACKGROUND: Diabetes and tobacco smoking are significant public health concerns which have been shown to independently impact the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Since smoking is a risk factor for diabetes and shares some of the common pathological pathways leading to metabolic abnormalities, it is hypothesized that their combination would produce additive or synergistic BBB dysfunction. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess this hypothesis and evaluate the magnitude of these effects in vitro using hCMEC/D3 cells; a well-established human BBB endothelial cell line...
2015: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
Caroline O Cobb, Peter S Hendricks, Thomas Eissenberg
Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) use an electric heater to aerosolize a liquid that usually contains propylene glycol, vegetable glycerin, flavorants, and the dependence-producing drug nicotine. ECIG-induced nicotine dependence has become an important concern, as some ECIGs deliver very little nicotine while some may exceed the nicotine delivery profile of a tobacco cigarette. This variability is relevant to tobacco cigarette smokers who try to switch to ECIGs. Products with very low nicotine delivery may not substitute for tobacco cigarettes, so that ECIG use is accompanied by little reduced risk of cigarette-caused disease...
2015: BMC Medicine
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