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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534654/functions-and-substrates-of-plastoglobule-localized-metallopeptidase-pgm48
#1
Nazmul H Bhuiyan, Klaas J van Wijk
Plastoglobules (PGs) in chloroplasts are monolayer lipid-protein particles attached to thylakoids. The size and number of PGs per chloroplast respond dynamically to abiotic environmental stresses and developmental transitions. During senescence, the thylakoid membranes and its constituents are dismantled in controlled fashion. Leaf senescence coincides with a dramatic increase in the size of PGs, which is consistent with a functional role of PG in remobilization of thylakoid membrane components. In a recent publication (1) , we showed that PG-localized metallopeptidase PGM48 promotes natural senescence...
May 23, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521643/a-magnetic-nanoparticle-labeled-immunoassay-with-europium-and-samarium-for-simultaneous-quantification-of-serum-pepsinogen-i-and-ii
#2
J Fan, H Xiao, J Zhang, B Zhou, L Deng, Y Zhang, B Huang
OBJECTIVE: To develop a novel immunoassay for the simultaneous determination of serum pepsinogen I (PG I) and pepsinogen II (PG II) by combining established methods of time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TRFIA) and magnetic nanoparticles separation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This new immunoassay method was characterised by immobilising primary antibodies on the surface of magnetic particles and labelled with stable fluorescent chelates of europium and samarium. RESULTS: Using magnetic nanoparticles, the TRFIA immunoassay exhibited broad dynamic assay ranges for PG I with detection limit of 0...
May 19, 2017: British Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510506/signaling-at-the-crossroads-matrix-derived-proteoglycan-and-reactive-oxygen-species-signaling
#3
Madalina-Viviana Nastase, Andrea Janicova, Malgorzata Wygrecka, Liliana Schaefer
SIGNIFICANCE: Proteoglycans (PGs), besides their structural contribution, have emerged as dynamic components that mediate a multitude of cellular events. The various roles of PGs are attributed to their structure, spatial localization, and ability to act as ligands and receptors. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are small mediators, which are generated in physiological and pathological conditions. Besides their reactivity and ability to induce oxidative stress, a growing body of data suggests that ROS signaling is more relevant than direct radical damage in development of human pathologies...
May 16, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503476/differential-diagnosis-of-periapical-cyst-using-collagen-birefringence-pattern-of-the-cyst-wall
#4
Hyo Jin Ji, Se-Hee Park, Kyung-Mo Cho, Suk Keun Lee, Jin Woo Kim
OBJECTIVES: Periapical lesions, including periapical cyst (PC), periapical granuloma (PG), and periapical abscess (PA), are frequently affected by chemical/physical damage during root canal treatment or severe bacterial infection, and thus, the differential diagnosis of periapical lesions may be difficult due to the presence of severe inflammatory reaction. The aim of this study was to make differential diagnosis among PC, PG, and PA under polarizing microscope. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The collagen birefringence patterns of 319 cases of PC (n = 122), PG (n = 158), and PA (n = 39) obtained using a polarizing microscope were compared...
May 2017: Restorative Dentistry & Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497410/could-monopronucleated-icsi-zygotes-be-considered-for-transfer-analysis-through-time-lapse-monitoring-and-pgs
#5
S Mateo, F Vidal, M Parriego, I Rodríguez, V Montalvo, A Veiga, M Boada
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the chromosomal constitution and the developmental potential of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) deriving embryos displaying a single pronucleus at the zygote stage. METHODS: Eighty-eight embryos from single pronucleus (1PN) two polar bodies (2PB) ICSI zygotes from 64 preimplantational genetic screening (PGS) cycles (October 2012-December 2014), were retrospectively analyzed. Zygotes were cultured in a time-lapse incubator...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483688/specific-roles-of-phosphatidylglycerols-in-hosts-and-microbes
#6
REVIEW
Isabelle Dugail, Brandon D Kayser, Marie Lhomme
Phosphatidylglycerols (PGs) are specific phospholipids bearing negatively charged polar headgroups. Although recognized for long as a major lipid component of membranes in bacteria, it is considered a minor lipid in higher eukaryotes, due to its low abundance in biological fluids or tissues. However, new sensitive lipidomic approaches now provide tools for accurate quantification of PGs in biological samples, and this is likely to uncover new roles for these phospholipids in the near future. This paper reviews our present knowledge in PG function, from studies in microbes and eukaryotic cells, and gathers in one place a diverse range of information spread across many fields...
May 5, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480976/polygenic-scores-via-penalized-regression-on-summary-statistics
#7
Timothy Shin Heng Mak, Robert Milan Porsch, Shing Wan Choi, Xueya Zhou, Pak Chung Sham
Polygenic scores (PGS) summarize the genetic contribution of a person's genotype to a disease or phenotype. They can be used to group participants into different risk categories for diseases, and are also used as covariates in epidemiological analyses. A number of possible ways of calculating PGS have been proposed, and recently there is much interest in methods that incorporate information available in published summary statistics. As there is no inherent information on linkage disequilibrium (LD) in summary statistics, a pertinent question is how we can use LD information available elsewhere to supplement such analyses...
May 8, 2017: Genetic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479736/in-vitro-wound-healing-effect-of-15-hydroxyprostaglandin-dehydrogenase-inhibitor-from-plant
#8
Sandeep Karna
BACKGROUND: Prostaglandins (PGs) have short existence in vivo because they are rapidly metabolized by NAD(+)-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) to 15-ketoprostaglandins. Inhibition of 15-PGDH causes elevated level of PGE2 in cellular system. It will be valuable for the therapeutic management of diseases requiring elevated PGE2 levels, like wound healing. OBJECTIVE: Ninety-eight plant samples were screened for the discovery of potent 15-PGDH inhibitor...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472733/in-vitro-inhibition-of-leishmania-attachment-to-sandfly-midguts-and-ll-5-cells-by-divalent-metal-chelators-anti-gp63-and-phosphoglycans
#9
Rodrigo Pedro Soares, Ellen Cristina Félix Altoé, Vítor Ennes-Vidal, Simone M da Costa, Elizabeth Ferreira Rangel, Nataly Araújo de Souza, Vanderlei Campos da Silva, Petr Volf, Claudia Masini d'Avila-Levy
Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania infantum are the causative agents of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, respectively. Several aspects of the vector-parasite interaction involving gp63 and phosphoglycans have been individually assayed in different studies. However, their role under the same experimental conditions was not studied yet. Here, the roles of divalent metal chelators, anti-gp63 antibodies and purified type I phosphoglycans (PGs) were evaluated during in vitro parasite attachment to the midgut of the vector...
March 29, 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471533/murine-articular-cartilage-morphology-and-compositional-quantification-with-high-resolution-cationic-contrast-enhanced-%C3%AE-ct
#10
Maleeha Mashiatulla, Meghan M Moran, Deva Chan, Jun Li, Jonathan D Freedman, Brian D Snyder, Mark W Grinstaff, Anna Plaas, D Rick Sumner
Articular cartilage lines the load-bearing surfaces of long bones and undergoes compositional and structural degeneration during osteoarthritis progression. Contrast enhanced microcomputed tomography (μCT) is being applied to a variety of preclinical models, including the mouse, to map structural and compositional properties in 3-D. The thinness (˜30-50 μm) and high cellularity of mouse articular cartilage presents a significant imaging challenge. Our group previously showed that mouse articular cartilage and proteoglycan (PG) content can be assessed by μCT with the ioxagalate-based contrast agent Hexabrix, but the voxel size used (6 μm) was deemed to be barely adequate...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471491/solution-blow-spinning-of-food-grade-gelatin-nanofibers
#11
Fei Liu, Roberto J Avena-Bustillos, Cristina Bilbao-Sainz, Rachelle Woods, Bor-Sen Chiou, Delilah Wood, Tina Williams, Wallace Yokoyama, Gregory M Glenn, Tara H McHugh, Fang Zhong
The primary advantage of nanofibers over larger diameter fibers is the larger surface area to volume ratio. This study evaluated solution blow spinning (SBS) processing conditions for obtaining food-grade gelatin nanofibers from mammalian and fishery byproducts, such as pork skin gelatins (PGs) and high molecular weight fish skin gelatin (HMWFG). HMWFG had a highest intact collagen structure compared to PGs. PGs with different Bloom values, solution viscosities, and surface tensions were compared with HMWFG for their ability to produce nanofibers through SBS...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463979/gastric-mucosal-status-in-populations-with-a-low-prevalence-of-helicobacter-pylori-in-indonesia
#12
Muhammad Miftahussurur, Iswan Abbas Nusi, Fardah Akil, Ari Fahrial Syam, I Dewa Nyoman Wibawa, Yudith Annisa Ayu Rezkitha, Ummi Maimunah, Phawinee Subsomwong, Muhammad Luthfi Parewangi, I Ketut Mariadi, Pangestu Adi, Tomohisa Uchida, Herry Purbayu, Titong Sugihartono, Langgeng Agung Waskito, Hanik Badriyah Hidayati, Maria Inge Lusida, Yoshio Yamaoka
In Indonesia, endoscopy services are limited and studies about gastric mucosal status by using pepsinogens (PGs) are rare. We measured PG levels, and calculated the best cutoff and predictive values for discriminating gastric mucosal status among ethnic groups in Indonesia. We collected gastric biopsy specimens and sera from 233 patients with dyspepsia living in three Indonesian islands. When ≥5.5 U/mL was used as the best cutoff value of Helicobacter pylori antibody titer, 8.6% (20 of 233) were positive for H...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462474/brain-heparan-sulphate-proteoglycans-are-altered-in-developing-foetus-when-exposed-to-in-utero-hyperglycaemia
#13
M S Sandeep, C D Nandini
In-utero exposure of foetus to hyperglycaemic condition affects the growth and development of the organism. The brain is one of the first organs that start to develop during embryonic period and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and proteoglycans (PGs) are one of the key molecules involved in its development. But studies on the effect of hyperglycaemic conditions on brain GAGs/PGs are few and far between. We, therefore, looked into the changes in brain GAGs and PGs at various developmental stages of pre- and post-natal rats from non-diabetic and diabetic mothers as well as in adult rats induced with diabetes using a diabetogenic agent, Streptozotocin...
May 2, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462418/multiscale-mechanical-evaluation-of-human-supraspinatus-tendon-under-shear-loading-after-glycosaminoglycan-reduction
#14
Fei Fang, Spencer P Lake
Proteoglycans (PGs) have been reported to be broadly distributed within many soft tissues and, among other roles, often contribute to mechanical properties. Although PGs were once assumed to help support load in tendon, numerous studies have found no changes to tensile mechanics after PG depletion. Since PGs are known to help sustain non-tensile loading in other tissues (e.g., compressive forces in cartilage), we hypothesized that PGs might help support non-tensile loading in the human supraspinatus tendon (SST), a commonly injured tendon which functions in a complex multiaxial loading environment...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459185/karyomapping-and-how-is-it-improving-preimplantation-genetics
#15
Rebecca L Gould, Darren K Griffin
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis and screening (PGD/PGS) has been applied clinically for >25 years however inherent drawbacks include the necessity to tailor each case to the trait in question, and that technology to detect monogenic and chromosomal disorders respectively is fundamentally different. Areas covered: The area of preimplantation genetics has evolved over the last 25 years, adapting to changes in technology and the need for more efficient, streamlined diagnoses. Karyomapping allows the determination of inheritance from the (grand)parental haplobocks through assembly of inherited chromosomal segments...
May 15, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459052/development-of-a-piglet-grimace-scale-to-evaluate-piglet-pain-using-facial-expressions-following-castration-and-tail-docking-a-pilot-study
#16
Abbie V Viscardi, Michelle Hunniford, Penny Lawlis, Matthew Leach, Patricia V Turner
Facial expressions are increasingly being used to assess pain in non-human species, including rodents, horses, and lambs. The development of these species-specific grimace scales has allowed for more rapid pain detection, which can lead to better animal welfare if intervention promptly occurs. For grimace scales to ever be used as a stand-alone measure of pain, it is important they correlate with established pain assessment tools, such as behavioral analysis. This preliminary study aimed to determine whether piglets exhibit pain grimacing and if these facial expressions correlate with their behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455813/prostaglandin-actions-in-established-insect-cell-lines
#17
Yao-Fa Li, Hongwei Zhang, Joseph A Ringbauer, Cynthia L Goodman, Tamra Reall Lincoln, Kaile Zhou, David Stanley
Prostaglandins (PGs) are oxygenated metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) and two other C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids that serve as biochemical signals mediating physiological functions. We reported that PGs influence protein expression in insect cell lines, which prompted the question: do PGs influence cell proliferation or viability in insect cell lines? Here, we report on the outcomes of experiments designed to address the question in cell lines from three insect orders: Hemiptera (squash bug, Anasa tristis, BCIRL-AtE-CLG15A), Coleoptera (red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, BCIRL-TcA-CLG1), and Lepidoptera (tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens, BCIRL-HvAM1)...
April 28, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451639/microglial-tnf%C3%AE-induces-cox2-and-pgi2-synthase-expression-in-spinal-endothelial-cells-during-neuropathic-pain
#18
Hirosato Kanda, Kimiko Kobayashi, Hiroki Yamanaka, Masamichi Okubo, Koichi Noguchi
Prostaglandins (PGs) are typical lipid mediators that play a role in homeostasis and disease. They are synthesized from arachidonic acid by cyclooxygenase 1 (COX1) and COX2. Although COX2 has been reported to be upregulated in the spinal cord after nerve injury, its expression and functional roles in neuropathic pain remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression of Cox2, PGI2 synthase (Pgis), and prostaglandin I2 receptor (IP receptor) mRNA in the rat spinal cord after spared nerve injury (SNI)...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450889/identification-of-mosaic-and-segmental-aneuploidies-by-next-generation-sequencing-in-preimplantation-genetic-screening-can-improve-clinical-outcomes-compared-to-array-comparative-genomic-hybridization
#19
Hsing-Hua Lai, Tzu-Hsuan Chuang, Lin-Kin Wong, Meng-Ju Lee, Chia-Lin Hsieh, Huai-Lin Wang, Shee-Uan Chen
BACKGROUND: Chromosomal mosaicism is observed as the presence of both euploid and aneuploid cells in a particular blastocyst. Recent studies have reported that the implantation rate of mosaic embryo transfer is remarkably lower than the euploid embryos. The superior capability of next-generation sequencing (NGS) to detect chromosomal mosaicism in preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) remains controversial, and several data displayed similar implantation and pregnancy rates using NGS or array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH)...
2017: Molecular Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449669/a-single-trophectoderm-biopsy-at-blastocyst-stage-is-mathematically-unable-to-determine-embryo-ploidy-accurately-enough-for-clinical-use
#20
Norbert Gleicher, Jacob Metzger, Gist Croft, Vitaly A Kushnir, David F Albertini, David H Barad
BACKGROUND: It has become increasingly apparent that the trophectoderm (TE) at blastocyst stage is much more mosaic than has been appreciated. Whether preimplantation genetic screening (PGS), utilizing a single TE biopsy (TEB), can reliably determine embryo ploidy has, therefore, increasingly been questioned in parallel. METHODS: We for that reason here established 2 mathematical models to assess probabilities of false-negative and false-positive results of an on average 6-cell biopsy from an approximately 300-cell TE...
April 27, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
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