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Jue Hu, Dan Kai, Hongye Ye, Lingling Tian, Xin Ding, Seeram Ramakrishna, Xian Jun Loh
Nerve tissue engineering (TE) requires biomimetic scaffolds providing essential chemical and topographical cues for nerve regeneration. Poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) is a biodegradable and elastic polymer that has gained great interest as a TE scaffolding biomaterial. However, uncured PGS is difficult to be electrospun into nanofibers. PGS would, therefore, require the addition of electrospinning agents. In this study, we modified PGS by using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) to synthesize PGS-based copolymers with methyl methacrylate (MMA)...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Zhigang Sui, Yejing Weng, Qun Zhao, Nan Deng, Fei Fang, Xudong Zhu, Yichu Shan, Lihua Zhang, Yukui Zhang
The cartilage zone of the velvet antler is richly vascularized, this being a major difference to the classical cartilage, in which there are no blood vessels. Angiogenesis and rapid growth of vasculature in velvet antler cartilage (VAC) make it an ideal model for discovering the novel angiogenic regulatory factors. However, the proteomic analysis of VAC is challenging due to the serious interference of proteoglycans (PGs) and collagens. To achieve a comprehensive proteome characterization of VAC, herein, we developed an ionic liquid-based method using 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C12-mim]Cl) for selective extraction of cellular proteins from VAC...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Wenzel M Hackeng, Elizabeth A Montgomery, Francis M Giardiello, Aatur D Singhi, Marija Debeljak, James R Eshleman, Michael Vieth, G Johan A Offerhaus, Laura D Wood, Lodewijk A A Brosens
BACKGROUND: Gastric pyloric gland adenomas (PGAs) are rare epithelial polyps that are more commonly found in autoimmune atrophic gastritis and familial adenomatous polyposis. Little is known about the morphology and genetics of PGAs in familial adenomatous polyposis. AIMS: PGAs in familial adenomatous polyposis are studied morphologically and genetically. Findings in FAP associated PGAs are compared to sporadic PGAs and related lesions such as oxyntic gland adenoma (OGA) to increase our understanding of these rare polyps...
October 21, 2016: Histopathology
Xue Jiang, Lichun Feng, Baoqiang Dai, Liping Li, Weiwei Lu
INTRODUCTION: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is the most common cancer originating from the nasopharynx. OBJECTIVE: To study the mechanisms of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, we analyzed GSE12452 microarray data. METHODS: GSE12452 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database and included 31 nasopharyngeal carcinoma samples and 10 normal nasopharyngeal tissue samples. The differentially expressed genes were screened by ANOVA in the PGS package...
September 26, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
Hwanhee Jang, Yohan Choi, Inkyu Yoo, Jisoo Han, Minjeong Kim, Hakhyun Ka
Objective: Prostaglandins (PGs) function in various reproductive processes, including luteolysis, maternal pregnancy recognition, conceptus development, and parturition. Our earlier study has shown that PG transporters ABCC4 and SLCO2A1 are expressed in the uterine endometrium in pigs. Since several other PG transporters such as ABCC1, ABCC9, SLCO4C1, and SLCO5A1 are known to be present in the uterine endometrium, this study investigated the expression of these PG transporters in the porcine uterine endometrium and placenta...
October 19, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Michael A Woodley Of Menie, Joseph A Schwartz, Kevin M Beaver
Utilizing a newly released cognitive Polygenic Score (PGS) from Wave IV of Add Health (n = 1,886), structural equation models (SEMs) examining the relationship between PGS and fertility (which is approximately 50% complete in the present sample), employing measures of verbal IQ and educational attainment as potential mediators, were estimated. The results of indirect pathway models revealed that verbal IQ mediates the positive relationship between PGS and educational attainment, and educational attainment in turn mediates the negative relationship between verbal IQ and a latent fertility measure...
October 20, 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
Wenbin Yu, Lijun Zhu, Guohui Xu, Yuntao Song, Guojun Li, Naisong Zhang
As a novel type of lymphatic tracer, carbon nanoparticles (CNs) were reported not to stain parathyroid glands (PGs) into black, so it may have a clinical potential in protection of PGs during thyroidectomy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical application and significance of CN in protection of PGs from surrounding tissues.A total of 82 consecutive patients were enrolled into this study and were divided into CN group and control group. Parathyroid function (hypoparathyroidism and hypocalcemia) was evaluated...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
N Aleksandrova, E Shubina, A Ekimov, T Kodyleva, I Mukosey, N Makarova, E Kulakova, L Levkov, D Trofimov, G Sukhikh
Chromosomal aneuploidies are known for being the main cause of abnormal development of embryos with normal morphology, their implantation failure and early reproductive losses in IVF treatments. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) allows selecting embryos with normal chromosomal content and increases IVF treatment efficiency due to higher implantation rates and less frequent early pregnancy losses. New technologies used for PGS allow making genome-wide analysis of the presence of all chromosomes in embryos...
October 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
Shi-Hong Gu, Yun-Chih Hsieh, Pei-Ling Lin
Our previous studies showed that adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/the target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling is involved in prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH)-stimulated ecdysteroidogenesis in Bombyx mori prothoracic glands (PGs). In the present study, we further investigated the signaling involved in PTTH-stimulated phosphorylation of 4E-BP. We found that 4E-BP phosphorylation stimulated by PTTH was partially reduced in Ca(2+)-free medium, indicating the involvement of Ca(2+). In addition, we found that a potent and specific inhibitor of phospholipase C (PLC), U73122, greatly inhibited 4E-BP phosphorylation...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Stefan Abrahamczyk, Michael Kessler, Daniel Hanley, Dirk N Karger, Matthias P J Müller, Anina C Knauer, Felix Keller, Michael Schwerdtfeger, Aelys M Humphreys
A longstanding debate concerns whether nectar sugar composition evolves as an adaptation to pollinator dietary requirements or whether it is 'phylogenetically constrained'. Here we use a modeling approach to evaluate the hypothesis that nectar sucrose proportion (NSP) is an adaptation to pollinators. We analyze ~2,100 species of asterids, spanning several plant families and pollinator groups (PGs), and show that the hypothesis of adaptation cannot be rejected: NSP evolves toward two optimal values, high NSP for specialist-pollinated and low NSP for generalist-pollinated plants...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Sukhithasri Vijayrajratnam, Anju Choorakottayil Pushkaran, Aathira Balakrishnan, Anilkumar Vasudevan, Raja Biswas, Chethampadi Gopi Mohan
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1) is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor that recognizes bacterial peptidoglycan (PG) containing meso -diaminopimelic acid ( meso DAP) and activates the innate immune system. Interestingly, few pathogenic and commensal bacteria modify their PG stem peptide by amidation of meso DAP ( meso DAPNH2). In this study, NOD1 stimulation assays were performed using bacterial PG containing meso DAP (PGDAP) and meso DAPNH2 (PGDAPNH2) to understand the differences in their biomolecular recognition mechanism...
October 14, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Brent F B Huisman, J M Létang, É Testa, D Sarrut
There is interest in the particle therapy community in using prompt gammas (PGs), a natural byproduct of particle treatment, for range verification and eventually dose control. However, PG production is a rare process and therefore estimation of PGs exiting a patient during a proton treatment plan executed by a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation converges slowly. Recently, different approaches to accelerating the estimation of PG yield have been presented. Sterpin et al (2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 4915-46) described a fast analytic method, which is still sensitive to heterogeneities...
October 14, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Suhee Song, Joonhee Lee, Songa Kweon, Jaeeun Song, Kyuseok Kim, Byeong-Su Kim
Functional hyperbranched polyglycerols (PGs) have recently garnered considerable interest due to their potential in biomedical applications. Here, we present a one-pot synthesis of hyperbranched PGs possessing amine functionality using a novel amino glycidyl ether monomer. A Boc-protected butanolamine glycidyl ether (BBAG) monomer was designed and polymerized with glycidol (G) through anionic ring-opening multibranching polymerization to yield a series of hyperbranched P(G-co-BBAG) with controlled molecular weights (4800-16700 g/mol) and relatively low molecular weight distributions (1...
October 14, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Evan M Kerek, Elmar J Prenner
Following intake and absorption of Cd into the bloodstream, one possible target is the lipid membrane surrounding erythrocytes as well as kidney and liver cells where Cd accumulates. We investigated the interactions of Cd with model membranes from a biophysical perspective by using fluorescence spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering to monitor changes in liposome size, membrane fluidity and lipid phase transition. The fluorescent probe Laurdan was incorporated into liposomes and used to quantitate cadmium induced fluidity changes in model systems hydrated in 20mM HEPES, 100mM NaCl pH7...
October 11, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Chang-Cai Liu, Gui-Lan Huang, Hai-Ling Xi, Shi-Lei Liu, Jing-Quan Liu, Hui-Lan Yu, Shi-Kun Zhou, Long-Hui Liang, Ling Yuan
This work describes a novel and sensitive non-isotope dilution method for simultaneous quantification of organophosphorus nerve agents (OPNAs) soman (GD) and VX adducts to butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), their aged methylphosphonic acid (MeP) adduct and unadducted BChE in plasma exposed to OPNA. OPNA-BChE adducts were isolated with an off-column procainamide-gel separation (PGS) from plasma, and then digested with pepsin into specific adducted FGES(*)AGAAS nonapeptide (NP) biomarkers. The resulting NPs were detected by UHPLC-MS/MS MRM...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Yi-Cheun Yeh, Christopher B Highley, Liliang Ouyang, Jason A Burdick
Three-dimensional (3D) printed scaffolds have great potential in biomedicine; however, it is important that we are able to design such scaffolds with a range of diverse properties towards specific applications. Here, we report the extrusion-based 3D printing of biodegradable and photocurable acrylated polyglycerol sebacate (Acr-PGS) to fabricate scaffolds with elastic properties. Two Acr-PGS macromers were synthesized with varied molecular weights and viscosity, which were then blended to obtain photocurable macromer inks with a range of viscosities...
October 7, 2016: Biofabrication
Tadahisa Mikami, Hiroshi Kitagawa
Sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains are a class of long linear polysaccharides that are covalently attached to multiple core proteins to form proteoglycans (PGs). PGs are major pericellular and extracellular matrix components that surround virtually all mammalian cell surfaces, and create conducive microenvironments for a number of essential cellular events, such as cell adhesion, cell proliferation, differentiation, and cell fate decisions. The multifunctional properties of PGs are mostly mediated by their respective GAG moieties, including chondroitin sulfate (CS), heparan sulfate (HS), and keratan sulfate (KS) chains...
October 6, 2016: Glycoconjugate Journal
R C C Vasconcellos, T F C Lima, C N Fernandes-Brum, A Chalfun-Junior, J B Santos
The interaction between polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs), produced by plants, and endopolygalacturonases (PGs), produced by fungi, limits the destructive potential of PGs and can trigger plant defense responses. This study aimed to i) investigate variation in the expression of different common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes and its relationship with resistance to white mold (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum); ii) determine the expression levels of PvPGIP genes at different time points after inoculation with white mold; and iii) investigate differences in PvPGIP gene expression between two white mold isolates with different levels of aggressiveness...
August 19, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Juanjuan Xu, Rui Fang, Li Chen, Daozhen Chen, Jian-Ping Xiao, Weimin Yang, Honghua Wang, Xiaoqing Song, Ting Ma, Shiping Bo, Chong Shi, Jun Ren, Lei Huang, Li-Yi Cai, Bing Yao, X Sunney Xie, Sijia Lu
Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) is widely used to select in vitro-fertilized embryos free of chromosomal abnormalities and to improve the clinical outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF). A disadvantage of PGS is that it requires biopsy of the preimplantation human embryo, which can limit the clinical applicability of PGS due to the invasiveness and complexity of the process. Here, we present and validate a noninvasive chromosome screening (NICS) method based on sequencing the genomic DNA secreted into the culture medium from the human blastocyst...
September 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Stefan C Kane, Elissa Willats, Sammya Bezerra Maia E Holanda Moura, Jonathan Hyett, Fabrício da Silva Costa
Chromosomal aneuploidy is responsible for a significant proportion of pregnancy failures, whether conceived naturally or through in vitro fertilization (IVF). In an effort to improve the success rate of IVF, screening embryos for aneuploidy - or pre-implantation genetic screening (PGS) - has been proposed as a means of ensuring only euploid embryos are selected for transfer. Early PGS approaches were based on fluorescence in situ hybridization testing, and have been shown not to improve live birth rates. Recent developments in genetic testing technologies - such as next-generation sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, coupled with embryo biopsy at the blastocyst stage - have shown promise in improving IVF outcomes, but they remain to be validated in adequately powered, prospective randomized trials...
September 29, 2016: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
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