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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439929/the-roles-of-autophagy-and-hypoxia-in-human-inflammatory-periapical-lesions
#1
H Y Huang, W C Wang, P Y Lin, C P Huang, C Y Chen, Y K Chen
AIM: To determine the expressions of hypoxia-related [hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIF)-1α, BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3), and phospho-adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (pAMPK)] and autophagy-related [microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), beclin-1 (BECN-1), autophagy-related gene (Atg)5-12, and p62] proteins in human inflammatory periapical lesions. METHODOLOGY: Fifteen samples of radicular cysts (RCs) and 21 periapical granulomas (PGs), combined with 17 healthy dental pulp tissues were examined...
April 25, 2017: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433368/chromosomal-mosaicism-detected-during-preimplantation-genetic-screening-results-of-a-worldwide-web-based-survey
#2
REVIEW
Ariel Weissman, Gon Shoham, Zeev Shoham, Simon Fishel, Milton Leong, Yuval Yaron
Embryonic mosaicism, the presence of more than one distinct cell line within an embryo, has recently become the focus of growing attention and controversy in the context of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS). To evaluate the extent of mosaic aneuploidy in clinical practice and to gain insight on the practices and views regarding this issue, we conducted a survey using a prospective, 20-item Web-based questionnaire with questions related to practices and views regarding mosaicism in PGS. A total of 102 in vitro fertilization (IVF) units from 32 countries that performed 108,900 IVF cycles annually responded to the survey...
April 19, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431828/clinical-use-of-monopronucleated-zygotes-following-blastocyst-culture-and-preimplantation-genetic-screening-including-verification-of-biparental-chromosome-inheritance
#3
Cara K Bradley, Maria Traversa, Natalie Hobson, Alison J Gee, Steven J McArthur
In assisted reproduction, embryos derived from monopronucleated (1PN) zygotes are considered abnormal and unsuitable for clinical use. Outcomes of 1PN-derived embryos designated for preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) were analysed. These embryos, especially from intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), were found to have a low developmental potential; 1PN and 2PN day 5 blastocyst development for IVF was 14.8% versus 36.4% (P < 0.0001), and for ICSI, 6.6% versus 34.0% (P < 0.0001), respectively. With the use of comparative genomic hybridization or next-generation sequencing, PGS was successfully carried out for 74 IVF and 32 ICSI 1PN-derived blastocysts, revealing adjusted abnormality rates of 39...
March 27, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423018/comprehensive-analysis-of-phospholipids-and-glycolipids-in-the-opportunistic-pathogen-enterococcus-faecalis
#4
Rafi Rashid, Amaury Cazenave-Gassiot, Iris H Gao, Zeus J Nair, Jaspal K Kumar, Liang Gao, Kimberly A Kline, Markus R Wenk
Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive, opportunistic, pathogenic bacterium that causes a significant number of antibiotic-resistant infections in hospitalized patients. The development of antibiotic resistance in hospital-associated pathogens is a formidable public health threat. In E. faecalis and other Gram-positive pathogens, correlations exist between lipid composition and antibiotic resistance. Resistance to the last-resort antibiotic daptomycin is accompanied by a decrease in phosphatidylglycerol (PG) levels, whereas multiple peptide resistance factor (MprF) converts anionic PG into cationic lysyl-PG via a trans-esterification reaction, providing resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416168/non-invasive-preimplantation-genetic-screening-using-array-comparative-genomic-hybridization-on-spent-culture-media-a-proof-of-concept-pilot-study
#5
Michael Feichtinger, Enrico Vaccari, Luca Carli, Elisabeth Wallner, Ulrike Mädel, Katharina Figl, Simone Palini, Wilfried Feichtinger
The aim of this pilot study was to assess if array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), non-invasive preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) on blastocyst culture media is feasible. Therefore, aCGH analysis was carried out on 22 spent blastocyst culture media samples after polar body PGS because of advanced maternal age. All oocytes were fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection and all embryos underwent assisted hatching. Concordance of polar body analysis and culture media genetic results was assessed...
March 28, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407559/positive-feedback-effect-of-pge2-on-cyclooxygenase-2-expression-is-mediated-by-inhibition-of-akt-phosphorylation-in-human-follicular-dendritic-cell-like-cells
#6
Jongseon Choe, Yongdae Yoon, Jini Kim, Yu-Jin Jung
Prostaglandins (PGs) are bioactive lipid mediators generated from the phospholipids of cell membrane in response to various inflammatory signals. To understand the potential role of PGs in PG production itself during immune inflammatory responses, we examined the effect of PGE2, PGF2α, and beraprost on COX-2 expression using follicular dendritic cell (FDC)-like HK cells isolated from human tonsils. Those three PGs specifically augmented COX-2 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner after 4 or 8h of treatment...
April 10, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392405/prostaglandin-synthases-molecular-characterization-and-involvement-in-prostaglandin-biosynthesis
#7
REVIEW
Min-Ju Seo, Deok-Kun Oh
Prostaglandins (PGs) belong to a subclass of eicosanoids and are classified based on the structures of the cyclopentane ring and their number of double bonds in their hydrocarbon structures. PGs are important lipid mediators that are involved in inflammatory response. The biosynthesis of diverse PGs from unsaturated C20 fatty acids containing at least three double bonds such as dihomo-γ-linoleic acid (20:3(Δ8Z,11Z,14Z)), arachidonic acid (20:4(Δ5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)), and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5(Δ5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z)) is enables by various PG synthases, including prostaglandin H synthase (PGHS), 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-HPGD), PGES, PGDS, PGFS, PGIS, and thromboxane A synthase (TXAS)...
April 6, 2017: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385509/effect-of-central-and-peripheral-injection-of-prostaglandin-e2-and-f2%C3%AE-on-feeding-and-the-crop-emptying-rate-in-chicks
#8
Tetsuya Tachibana, Yasua Nakai, Ryosuke Makino, Md Sakirul Islam Khan, Mark A Cline
Prostaglandins (PGs) have been shown to cause several physiological changes in mammals including anorexia, awakening and sleeping, change in digestive function, and activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal gland (HPA) axis. However, there is a paucity of information about the effect of PGs on physiological parameters in birds. The purpose of the present study was to clarify whether intracerebroventricular (ICV) and intraperitoneal (IP) injections of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) affect feeding, voluntary movement, crop-emptying rate, and corticosterone release in chicks (Gallus gallus)...
April 3, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370316/functional-analysis-of-two-polygalacturonase-genes-in-apolygus-lucorum-associated-with-eliciting-plant-injury-using-rna-interference
#9
Wanna Zhang, Bing Liu, Yanhui Lu, Gemei Liang
Salivary enzymes of many piercing-sucking insects lead to host plant injury. The salivary enzymes, polygalacturonase (PGs), act in insect feeding. PG family genes have been cloned from the mirid bug Apolygus lucorum, a pest of cotton and other host crops in China. We investigated the function of two PG genes that are highly expressed in A. lucorum nymphs (PG3-4) and adults (PG3-5), using siRNA injection-based RNA interference (RNAi). Accumulation of mRNA encoding both genes and their cognate proteins was significantly reduced (>60%) in experimental compared control green fluorescent protein (GFP) siRNA-treated mirids at 48 h post injection...
April 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364157/increased-identification-of-parathyroid-glands-using-near-infrared-light-during-thyroid-and-parathyroid-surgery
#10
Jorge Falco, Fernando Dip, Pablo Quadri, Martin de la Fuente, Marcos Prunello, Raúl J Rosenthal
BACKGROUND: Parathyroid gland (PG) identification during thyroid and parathyroid surgery is challenging. Accidental parathyroidectomy increases the rate of postoperative hypocalcaemia. Recently, autofluorescence with near infrared light (NIRL) has been described for PG visualization. The aim of this study is to analyze the increased rate of visualization of PGs with the use of NIRL compared to white light (WL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients undergoing thyroid and parathyroid surgery were included in this study...
March 31, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359220/the-effect-of-initial-treatment-on-hearing-prognosis-in-idiopathic-sudden-sensorineural-hearing-loss-a-nationwide-survey-in-japan
#11
Masahiro Okada, Naohito Hato, Shin-Ya Nishio, Ryosuke Kitoh, Kaoru Ogawa, Sho Kanzaki, Michihiko Sone, Satoshi Fukuda, Akira Hara, Tetsuo Ikezono, Kotaro Ishikawa, Satoshi Iwasaki, Kimitaka Kaga, Seiji Kakehata, Atsushi Matsubara, Tatsuo Matsunaga, Takaaki Murata, Yasushi Naito, Takashi Nakagawa, Kazunori Nishizaki, Yoshihiro Noguchi, Hajime Sano, Hiroaki Sato, Mikio Suzuki, Hideo Shojaku, Haruo Takahashi, Hidehiko Takeda, Tetsuya Tono, Hiroshi Yamashita, Tatsuya Yamasoba, Shin-Ichi Usami
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the hearing prognosis of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) treated with different initial therapies. METHODS: Subjects consisted of patients diagnosed with idiopathic SSNHL within 7 days from onset and showing severe hearing loss (≥60 dB), who were registered in a Japanese multicenter database between April 2014 and March 2016. Subjects were divided into four groups according to initial therapy: (1) steroids, (2) steroids + Prostaglandins (PGs), (3) intratympanic steroids (ITS), and (4) no steroids...
March 31, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357616/prenatal-screening-for-chromosomal-abnormalities-in-ivf-patients-that-opted-for-preimplantation-genetic-screening-diagnosis-pgs-d-a-need-for-revised-algorithms-in-the-era-of-personalized-medicine
#12
Afua Takyi, Joaquin Santolaya-Forgas
Obstetricians offer prenatal screening for most common chromosomal abnormalities to all pregnant women including those that had in vitro fertilization (IVF) and preimplantation genetic screening/diagnosis (PGS/D). We propose that free fetal DNA in maternal circulation together with the second trimester maternal serum alfa feto protein (MSAFP) and ultrasound imaging is the best prenatal screening test for chromosomal abnormalities and congenital anomalies in IVF-PGD/S patients because risk estimations from all other prenatal screening algorithms for chromosomal abnormalities depend heavily on maternal age which is irrelevant in PGS/D patients...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352892/unique-perforated-graphene-derived-from-bougainvillea-flowers-for-high-power-supercapacitors-a-green-approach
#13
Rajendra P Panmand, Purnima Patil, Yogesh Sethi, Sunil R Kadam, Milind V Kulkarni, Suresh W Gosavi, N R Munirathnam, Bharat B Kale
Herein, we demonstrated a green approach for the synthesis of high surface area (850 m(2) g(-1)) mesoporous perforated graphene (PG) from Bougainvillea flower for the first time using a template free single-step method. The existence of PG was confirmed by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, FESEM, and FETEM. Surprisingly, FETEM clearly showed 5-10 nm perforation on the graphene sheets. More significantly, these mesoporous perforated graphene sheets can be produced in large scale using the present green approach. Considering high surface area and unique perforated graphene architecture, these PGs were studied for supercapacitor applications in detail without any chemical or physical activation...
March 29, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349297/molecular-identification-of-differential-expression-genes-associated-with-sex-pheromone-biosynthesis-in-spodoptera-exigua
#14
Ya-Nan Zhang, Long-Wa Zhang, Da-Song Chen, Liang Sun, Zhao-Qun Li, Zhan-Feng Ye, Mei-Yan Zheng, Jin-Bu Li, Xiu-Yun Zhu
Species-specific sex pheromone is biosynthesized and released in most female moths as a chemical cue in mating communication. However, information on genes involved in this pathway is limited. The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, is a cosmopolitan agricultural pest that causes severe economic losses to many crops. In China, the female sex pheromones in sex pheromone glands (PGs) of S. exigua have been measured which comprises (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate, (Z)-9-tetradecen-l-ol, (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate, and (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadien-1-ol in a ratio of 47:18:18:17...
March 27, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347334/is-the-hypothesis-of-preimplantation-genetic-screening-pgs-still-supportable-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Norbert Gleicher, Raoul Orvieto
The hypothesis of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGS) was first proposed 20 years ago, suggesting that elimination of aneuploid embryos prior to transfer will improve implantation rates of remaining embryos during in vitro fertilization (IVF), increase pregnancy and live birth rates and reduce miscarriages. The aforementioned improved outcome was based on 5 essential assumptions: (i) Most IVF cycles fail because of aneuploid embryos. (ii) Their elimination prior to embryo transfer will improve IVF outcomes...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346743/fabrication-of-a-mechanically-anisotropic-poly-glycerol-sebacate-membrane-for-tissue-engineering
#16
Chi-Nung Hsu, Pei-Yuan Lee, Ho-Yi Tuan-Mu, Chen-Yu Li, Jin-Jia Hu
Poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) has been used successfully as a scaffolding material for soft tissue engineering. PGS scaffolds, however, are usually mechanically isotropic, which may restrict their use in tissue repairs as many soft tissues in the body have anisotropic mechanical behaviors. Although various methods have been used to fabricate anisotropic scaffolds, it remains challenging to make anisotropic scaffolds from thermoset PGS. Here a new, simple method to fabricate an anisotropic PGS membrane which can then be used to construct thicker three-dimensional anisotropic scaffolds was developed...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346368/pathophysiological-significance-of-dermatan-sulfate-proteoglycans-revealed-by-human-genetic-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Shuji Mizumoto, Tomoki Kosho, Shuhei Yamada, Kazuyuki Sugahara
The indispensable roles of dermatan sulfate-proteoglycans (DS-PGs) have been demonstrated in various biological events including construction of the extracellular matrix and cell signaling through interactions with collagen and transforming growth factor-β, respectively. Defects in the core proteins of DS-PGs such as decorin and biglycan cause congenital stromal dystrophy of the cornea, spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, and Meester-Loeys syndrome. Furthermore, mutations in human genes encoding the glycosyltransferases, epimerases, and sulfotransferases responsible for the biosynthesis of DS chains cause connective tissue disorders including Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity characterized by skin hyperextensibility, joint hypermobility, and tissue fragility, and by severe skeletal disorders such as kyphoscoliosis, short trunk, dislocation, and joint laxity...
March 27, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338792/a-polygalacturonase-localized-in-the-golgi-apparatus-in-pisum-sativum
#18
Takao Ohashi, Jun Jinno, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Shoko Ito, Kazuhito Fujiyama, Takeshi Ishimizu
Pectin is a plant cell wall constituent that is mainly composed of polygalacturonic acid (PGA), a linear α1,4-D-galacturonic acid (GalUA) backbone. Polygalacturonase (PG) hydrolyzes the α1,4-linkages in PGA. Nearly all plant PGs identified thus far are secreted as soluble proteins. Here we describe the microsomal PG activity in pea (Pisum sativum) epicotyls and present biochemical evidence that it was localized to the Golgi apparatus, where pectins are biosynthesized. The microsomal PG was purified, and it was enzymatically characterized...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336896/nanofibrous-silver-coated-polymeric-scaffolds-with-tunable-electrical-properties
#19
Adnan Memic, Musab Aldhahri, Ali Tamayol, Pooria Mostafalu, Mohamed Shaaban Abdel-Wahab, Mohamadmahdi Samandari, Kamyar Mollazadeh Moghaddam, Nasim Annabi, Sidi A Bencherif, Ali Khademhosseini
Electrospun micro- and nanofibrous poly(glycerol sebacate)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PGS-PCL) substrates have been extensively used as scaffolds for engineered tissues due to their desirable mechanical properties and their tunable degradability. In this study, we fabricated micro/nanofibrous scaffolds from a PGS-PCL composite using a standard electrospinning approach and then coated them with silver (Ag) using a custom radio frequency (RF) sputtering method. The Ag coating formed an electrically conductive layer around the fibers and decreased the pore size...
March 13, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333245/euploidy-rates-in-donor-egg-cycles-significantly-differ-between-fertility-centers
#20
S Munné, M Alikani, L Ribustello, P Colls, Pedro A Martínez-Ortiz, D H McCulloh
STUDY QUESTION: Do external factors affect euploidy in egg donor cycles? SUMMARY ANSWER: The study demonstrates that during human assisted reproduction, embryonic chromosome abnormalities may be partly iatrogenic. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Chromosome abnormalities have been linked in the past to culture conditions such as temperature and Ph variations, as well as hormonal stimulation. Those reports were performed with older screening techniques (FISH), or ART methods no longer in use, and the subjects studied were not a homogeneous group...
April 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
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