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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809470/chelation-controlled-additions-to-chiral-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-silyloxy-%C3%AE-halo-and-%C3%AE-vinyl-carbonyl-compounds
#1
Xinyuan Fan, Patrick J Walsh
The science and art of preventing and managing disease and prolonging life is dependent on advances in medicine, biology, and biochemistry. Many of these advances will involve interactions of small molecules with biological entities. As such, they will rely on the efficient synthesis of active compounds with very high stereochemical purity. Although enantioselective reactions are important in this regard, most stereocenters in complex molecule synthesis are installed in diastereoselective reactions. Perhaps the most well-known diastereoselective C-C bond-forming reaction is the addition of nucleophiles to carbonyl groups with α- or β-stereogenic centers...
August 15, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806759/peculiar-genes-selection-a-new-features-selection-method-to-improve-classification-performances-in-imbalanced-data-sets
#2
Federica Martina, Marco Beccuti, Gianfranco Balbo, Francesca Cordero
High-Throughput technologies provide genomic and trascriptomic data that are suitable for biomarker detection for classification purposes. However, the high dimension of the output of such technologies and the characteristics of the data sets analysed represent an issue for the classification task. Here we present a new feature selection method based on three steps to detect class-specific biomarkers in case of high-dimensional data sets. The first step detects the differentially expressed genes according to the experimental conditions tested in the experimental design, the second step filters out the features with low discriminative power and the third step detects the class-specific features and defines the final biomarker as the union of the class-specific features...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806623/retroperitoneal-paraganglioma-is-pre-operative-embolization-useful
#3
Natalia Apentchenko Eriutina, Camilo J Castellón Pavón, Carlos García Vásquez, Irene Gonzalo Montesinos, Santos Jiménez de Los Galanes, Pedro A Pacheco Martínez, Juan Gómez Patiño
INTRODUCTION: Paragangliomas (PG) are rare tumors derived from chromaffin cells that are located outside the adrenal gland and are capable of producing catecholamines. The treatment is based on a surgical resection, and there is controversy regarding the usefulness of previously carrying out an embolization and what is the most adequate surgical approach. CLINICAL CASE: We will present a 17-year-old woman with a retroperitoneal tumour in contact with the aorta and the inferior vena cava, treated with embolization prior to the surgical resection via laparotomy...
August 5, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805610/validation-of-a-high-throughput-and-robust-technique-bacs-on-beads-assay-karyolite-bobs-for-pre-implantation-aneuploidy-screening
#4
Grace Wing Shan Kong, Yanlin Ma, Jian Ou, Yvonne Ka Yin Kwok, Wei Wang, Queenie Sum Yee Yeung, Cherry Kit Man Wong, Qi Li, Wen Xu, Weiying Lu, Hong Li, Tin Chiu Li, Kwong Wai Choy
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to validate the BACs-on-Beads (BoB) technology as a robust and high throughput method for pre-implantation genetic screening (PGS) for aneuploidy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The performances with respect to the sensitivity, specificity, success rate and detection rate of this technique from new BoBs technology and traditional array chromosomal genomic hybridization (aCGH) were compared. And the use of BoBs as a screening tool for euploid embryos in PGS was evaluated...
August 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800710/synergistic-effect-of-different-plant-cell-wall-degrading-enzymes-is-important-for-virulence-of-fusarium-graminearum
#5
Maria Chiara Paccanaro, Luca Sella, Carla Castiglioni, Francesca Giacomello, Ana Lilia Martinez-Rocha, Renato D'Ovidio, Wilhelm Schäfer, Francesco Favaron
Endo-polygalacturonases (PGs) and xylanases have been shown to play an important role during pathogenesis of some fungal pathogens of dicot plants, whilst their role in monocot pathogens is less defined. Pg1 and xyr1 genes of the wheat pathogen Fusarium graminearum encode the main PG and the major regulator of xylanase production, respectively. Single and double disrupted mutants for these genes were obtained to assess their contribution to fungal infection. Compared to wild-type strain, the ∆pg mutant showed a nearly abolished PG activity, slight reduced virulence on soybean seedlings but no significant difference in disease symptoms on wheat spikes; the ∆xyr mutant was strongly reduced in xylanase activity and moderately reduced in cellulase activity but was as virulent as wild-type on both soybean and wheat plants...
August 11, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797034/unsupervised-learning-of-temporal-features-for-word-categorization-in-a-spiking-neural-network-model-of-the-auditory-brain
#6
Irina Higgins, Simon Stringer, Jan Schnupp
The nature of the code used in the auditory cortex to represent complex auditory stimuli, such as naturally spoken words, remains a matter of debate. Here we argue that such representations are encoded by stable spatio-temporal patterns of firing within cell assemblies known as polychronous groups, or PGs. We develop a physiologically grounded, unsupervised spiking neural network model of the auditory brain with local, biologically realistic, spike-time dependent plasticity (STDP) learning, and show that the plastic cortical layers of the network develop PGs which convey substantially more information about the speaker independent identity of two naturally spoken word stimuli than does rate encoding that ignores the precise spike timings...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794429/sexual-dimorphism-in-the-genetic-influence-on-human-childlessness
#7
Renske M Verweij, Melinda C Mills, Felix C Tropf, René Veenstra, Anastasia Nyman, Harold Snieder
Previous research has found a genetic component of human reproduction and childlessness. Others have argued that the heritability of reproduction is counterintuitive due to a frequent misinterpretation that additive genetic variance in reproductive fitness should be close to zero. Yet it is plausible that different genetic loci operate in male and female fertility in the form of sexual dimorphism and that these genes are passed on to the next generation. This study examines the extent to which genetic factors influence childlessness and provides an empirical test of genetic sexual dimorphism...
September 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792603/peer-supervision-international-problems-and-prospects
#8
EDITORIAL
Priya Martin, Derek L Milne, Robert P Reiser
Clinical supervision is the least investigated, discussed and developed aspect of clinical education (Kilminster & Jolly 2000) despite being essential within initial professional training and mandated by governments. Even the basic concepts lack precision (Milne 2007; Martin et al. 2017; White 2017). A popular form of supervision is peer supervision, especially peer group supervision (PGS). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
August 9, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791673/comprehensive-analyses-of-hox-gene-expression-in-xenopus-laevis-embryos-and-adult-tissues
#9
Mariko Kondo, Takayoshi Yamamoto, Shuji Takahashi, Masanori Taira
From whole genome sequencing of an allotetraploid frog, Xenopus laevis, two homeologous sets (L and S) of four Hox clusters A through D (HoxA.L/S, HoxB.L/S, HoxC.L/S, and HoxD.L/S) and 13 paralogous groups (PGs) with 76 genes were identified, allowing us to carry out the first comprehensive analyses of hox gene expression in vertebrates. Expression of all hox genes during development and in adult tissues was analyzed by RNA-sequencing. The expression levels of most hox genes were similar between homeologs, but in some pairs, large differences were observed and several of these were confirmed by RT-PCR and whole mount in situ hybridization experiments...
August 9, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772442/bioactive-glass-fiber-reinforced-pgs-matrix-composites-for-cartilage-regeneration
#10
Marina Trevelin Souza, Samira Tansaz, Edgar Dutra Zanotto, Aldo R Boccaccini
Poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) is an elastomeric polymer which is attracting increasing interest for biomedical applications, including cartilage regeneration. However, its limited mechanical properties and possible negative effects of its degradation byproducts restrict PGS for in vivo application. In this study, a novel PGS-bioactive glass fiber (F18)-reinforced composite was developed and characterized. PGS-based reinforced scaffolds were fabricated via salt leaching and characterized regarding their mechanical properties, degradation, and bioactivity in contact with simulated body fluid...
January 20, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763752/chemical-characterization-toxicology-and-mechanism-of-gastric-antiulcer-action-of-essential-oil-from-gallesia-integrifolia-spreng-harms-in-the-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-experimental-models
#11
Karuppusamy Arunachalam, Sikiru Olaitan Balogun, Eduarda Pavan, Guilherme Vieira Botelho de Almeida, Ruberlei Godinho de Oliveira, Theodoro Wagner, Valdir Cechinel Filho, Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira Martins
Gallesia integrifolia is a Brazilian Amazon tree whose bark decoction is popularly used to treat peptic ulcer. The essential oil from the inner stem bark of G. integrifolia (EOGi) was chemically characterized by GC/MS. The in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were evaluated in CHO-K1 cells, while the in vivo oral acute toxicity was performed in mice. The gastroprotective effect of EOGi was assessed in acidified ethanol and piroxicam and ulcer healing on acetic acid -induced ulcer models in rodents. Anti-secretory, mucus, K(+)-ATP channels, prostaglandins (PGs), nitric oxide (NO), TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, catalase (CAT) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities and in vitro Helicobacter pylori action by EOGi were evaluated...
July 29, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759313/glycosylation-of-dmp1-is-essential-for-chondrogenesis-of-condylar-cartilage
#12
Y Weng, Y Liu, H Du, L Li, B Jing, Q Zhang, X Wang, Z Wang, Y Sun
The mandibular condylar cartilage (MCC) shoulders force for the subchondral bone during mastication. The cartilage matrix contains various large molecules, such as type I, II, and X collagens and proteoglycans (PGs), which jointly play essential roles in maintaining cartilage characteristics. PGs play key roles in maintaining the elasticity of cartilage and providing a cushion against mastication forces. In addition to the well-known PGs, DMP1-PG, which is the PG form of dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), is a newly identified PG...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751202/r1%C3%AF-dispersion-and-sodium-imaging-in-human-calf-muscle
#13
Ping Wang, He Zhu, Hakmook Kang, John C Gore
PURPOSE: To evaluate the magnitude of chemical exchange effects and R1ρ dispersion in muscle and their relationship to tissue sodium levels with aging. METHODS: Seven healthy volunteers (aged 24 to 87years, median age 47) underwent MRI to assess tissue sodium levels and water T1ρ values at different spin-locking frequencies in calf muscles. T1ρ values at each locking field were computed based on a three-parameter mono-exponential model to fit signals obtained at different locking times, and R1ρ (=1/T1ρ) rates were compared at different locking fields...
July 24, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748493/cost-effectiveness-of-preimplantation-genetic-screening-for-women-older-than-37-undergoing-in-vitro-fertilization
#14
Stephen C Collins, Xiao Xu, Winifred Mak
PURPOSE: Adding preimplantation genetic screening to in vitro fertilization has been shown to increase live birth rate in women older than 37. However, preimplantation genetic screening is an expensive procedure. Information on the cost-effectiveness of preimplantation genetic screening can help inform clinical decision making. METHODS: We constructed a decision analytic model for a hypothetical fresh, autologous in vitro fertilization cycle (with versus without preimplantation genetic screening) for women older than age 37 who had a successful oocyte retrieval and development of at least one blastocyst...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747931/is-the-national-guideline-clearinghouse-a-trustworthy-source-of-practice-guidelines-for-child-and-youth-anxiety-and-depression
#15
Stephanie Duda, Christine Fahim, Peter Szatmari, Kathryn Bennett
OBJECTIVE: Innovative strategies that facilitate the use of high quality practice guidelines (PG) are needed. Accordingly, repositories designed to simplify access to PGs have been proposed as a critical component of the network of linked interventions needed to drive increased PG implementation. The National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) is a free, international online repository. We investigated whether it is a trustworthy source of child and youth anxiety and depression PGs. METHOD: English language PGs published between January 2009 and February 2016 relevant to anxiety or depression in children and adolescents (≤ 18 years of age) were eligible...
July 2017: Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743171/a-quantified-risk-scoring-system-and-rating-model-for-postsurgical-gastroparesis-syndrome-in-gastric-cancer-patients
#16
Xiao-Dong Chen, Chen-Chen Mao, Wei-Teng Zhang, Ji Lin, Rui-Sen Wu, Feng-Min Zhang, Xiang-Wei Sun, Chu-Huai Chi, Xian Shen, Peng-Fei Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to investigate the relationship between obesity and postsurgical gastroparesis syndrome (PGS), and to construct a scoring system and a risk model to identify patients at high risk. METHODS: A total of 634 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical characteristics were evaluated via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Logistic analysis was performed to determine the independent predictive indicators of PGS...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741402/bipolar-dissection-technique-in-parotid-gland-surgery
#17
Andreas Knopf, Clemens Heiser, Özlem Karasoy, Benedikt Hofauer, Henning Bier, Naglaa Mansour
BACKGROUND: Parotid gland surgery (PGS) has to manage the balancing act between sufficient radicality and preservation of functional structures. While many studies evaluate post-therapeutic complication due to different extent of surgery, the current study introduces bipolar dissection (BP) being a fast and safe preparation technique. METHODS: Analysis of clinical parameters (age, sex, tumour entity, treatment modalities, facial nerve palsy, bleeding, saliva fistula and Frey's syndrome) of 319 consecutively included patients who underwent extracapsular dissection and superficial/total/radical parotidectomy...
July 25, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737187/recent-advances-in-asymmetric-total-synthesis-of-prostaglandins
#18
REVIEW
Haihui Peng, Fen-Er Chen
Prostaglandins (PGs) are a series of hormone-like chemical messengers and play a critical role in regulating physiological activity. The diversified therapeutic activities and complex molecular architectures of PGs have attracted special attention, and huge progress has been made in asymmetric total synthesis and discovery of pharmaceutically useful drug candidates. In the last 10 years, several powerful syntheses have emerged as new solutions to the problem of building PGs and represent major breakthroughs in this area...
August 2, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735627/inhibition-of-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-activity-by-fatty-acids-and-prostaglandins-a-structure-function-analysis
#19
M Costabile, N K Bassal, J P Gerber, B P Hughes
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1) catalyses the first and rate-limiting step in the metabolism of L-tryptophan. Degradation of L-Trp leads to the production of several immunosuppressive metabolites, including N-formyl kynurenine and kynurenine (Kyn). Apart from a normal physiological role, IDO-1 has also been identified to play a crucial role in immune suppression and tumour induced tolerance. Indeed, many primary tumours express high levels of IDO-1 compared to normal cells of the same stroma. IDO-1 is accepted as being an inducible negative regulator of T cell viability, proliferation and activation...
July 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731540/participation-of-osteoclastogenic-factors-in-immunopathogenesis-of-human-chronic-periapical-lesions
#20
S C L T Santos, L A Couto, J M Fonseca, F C A Xavier, A C L Figueiredo, V S Freitas, R A Freitas, J N Santos, A C G Henriques
BACKGROUND: Chronic periapical lesions (CPLs) are common lesions of the oral cavity and are the result of caries, tooth fracture, iatrogenic causes, or factors causing contamination and pulp necrosis. Inflammatory cells participate in the expansion of CPLs by releasing factors that stimulate or inhibit osteolytic activity. The objective of this study was to investigate the participation of RANKL, TNF-α, cathepsin K, IL-33, and OPG in the development of radicular cysts (RCs) and periapical granulomas (PGs)...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
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