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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810664/bacterial-phosphoglycosyl-transferases-initiators-of-glycan-biosynthesis-at-the-membrane-interface
#1
Vinita Lukose, Marthe T C Walvoort, Barbara Imperiali
Phosphoglycosyl transferases (PGTs) initiate the biosynthesis of both essential and virulence-associated bacterial glycoconjugates including lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan and glycoproteins. PGTs catalyze the transfer of a phosphosugar moiety from a nucleoside diphosphate sugar to a polyprenol phosphate, to form a membrane-bound polyprenol diphosphosugar product. PGTs are integral membrane proteins, which include between 1 and 11 predicted transmembrane domains. Despite this variation, common motifs have been identified in PGT families through bioinformatics and mutagenesis studies...
September 1, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797454/impact-of-early-prophylactic-feeding-on-long-term-tube-dependency-outcomes-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer
#2
Teresa Brown, Merrilyn Banks, Brett G M Hughes, Charles Lin, Lizbeth M Kenny, Judith D Bauer
OBJECTIVES: Prophylactic gastrostomy tube (PGT) is frequently used in patients with head and neck cancer (HNSCC). There are concerns this leads to tube dependency but this phenomena is not well defined. This study aimed to determine whether early feeding via PGT impacted on longer term tube feeding outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with HNSCC with PGT were observed monthly post-treatment regarding tube use and time to removal up to twelve months. Patients were from a randomised controlled trial comparing an early feeding intervention via the PGT (n=57) versus usual care which commenced feeding when clinically indicated (n=67)...
September 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761141/effects-of-pulpotomy-using-mineral-trioxide-aggregate-on-prostaglandin-transporter-and-receptors-in-rat-molars
#3
Naoto Ohkura, Naoki Edanami, Ryosuke Takeuchi, Aiko Tohma, Mariko Ohkura, Nagako Yoshiba, Kunihiko Yoshiba, Hiroko Ida-Yonemochi, Hayato Ohshima, Takashi Okiji, Yuichiro Noiri
Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is a commonly used dental pulp-capping material with known effects in promoting reparative dentinogenesis. However, the mechanism by which MTA induces dentine repair remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in dentine repair by examining the localisation and mRNA expression levels of its transporter (Pgt) and two of its receptors (Ep2 and Ep4) in a rat model of pulpotomy with MTA capping. Ep2 expression was detected in odontoblasts, endothelial cells, and nerve fibres in normal and pulpotomised tissues, whereas Pgt and Ep4 were immunolocalised only in the odontoblasts...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749078/vitamin-d-insufficiency-correlates-with-peripheral-b10-cells-in-patients-with-pituitary-tumours
#4
Weimin Wang, Li Fu, Shengli Li, Zhiming Xu, Peng Qiu, Tong-Jiang Xu, Wei Yang, Yu-Bao Zhang, Guang-Ming Xu, Xiang-Dong Lu, Xinggang Li
The mechanism of pituitary gland tumour (PGT) is unclear. Aberrant immune tolerance is associated with the pathogenesis of tumour. Vitamin D and vitamin D receptor (VDR) are involved in the immune regulation. Interleukin (IL)-10 is one of the important immune regulatory molecules. This study aims to elucidate the role of VDR in the regulation of IL-10 in peripheral B cells of PGT patients. In this study, the peripheral blood samples were collected from PGT patients and healthy subjects. B cells were purified from the blood samples and analysed by RT-qPCR and Western blotting...
July 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745102/inheritance-and-bulked-segregant-analysis-of-leaf-rust-and-stem-rust-resistance-in-durum-wheat-genotypes
#5
Meriem Aoun, James Kolmer, Matthew N Rouse, Shiaoman Chao, Worku Denbel Bulbula, Elias M Elias, Maricelis Acevedo
Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina (Pt) and stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) are important diseases of durum wheat. This study determined the inheritance and genomic locations of leaf rust resistance (Lr) genes to Pt-race BBBQJ and stem rust resistance (Sr genes to Pgt-race TTKSK in durum accessions. Eight leaf rust resistant genotypes were used to develop bi-parental populations. Accessions, PI 192051 and PI 534304 were also resistant to Pgt-race TTKSK. The resulting progenies were phenotyped for leaf rust and stem rust response at seedling stage...
July 26, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720918/perceived-motivating-factors-and-barriers-for-the-completion-of-postgraduate-training-among-american-pharmacy-students-prior-to-beginning-advanced-pharmacy-practice-experiences
#6
Drayton A Hammond, Douglas R Oyler, John W Devlin, Jacob T Painter, Scott Bolesta, Joseph M Swanson, Brett J Bailey, Trisha Branan, Jeffrey F Barletta, Brianne Dunn, Jason S Haney, Paul Juang, Sandra L Kane-Gill, Tyree H Kiser, Hira Shafeeq, Debra Skaar, Pamela Smithburger, Jodi Taylor
Objective. To examine perceived motivating factors and barriers (MFB) to postgraduate training (PGT) pursuit among pharmacy students. Methods. Third-year pharmacy students at 13 schools of pharmacy provided demographics and their plan and perceived MFBs for pursuing PGT. Responses were characterized using descriptive statistics. Kruskal-Wallis equality-of-proportions rank tests determined if differences in perceived MFBs existed between students based on plan to pursue PGT. Results. Among 1218 (69.5%) respondents, 37...
June 2017: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667570/molecular-cloning-expression-and-characterization-of-oenococcus-oeni-priming-glycosyltransferases
#7
Maria Dimopoulou, Olivier Claisse, Lucie Dutilh, Cécile Miot-Sertier, Patricia Ballestra, Patrick M Lucas, Marguerite Dols-Lafargue
Oenococcus oeni is the main bacterial species that drives malolactic fermentation in wine. Most O. oeni strains produce capsular exopolysaccharides (EPS) that may contribute to protect them in the wine hostile environment. In O. oeni genome sequences, several genes are predicted to encode priming glycosyltransferases (pGTs). These enzymes are essential for EPS formation as they catalyze the first biosynthetic step through the formation of a phosphoanhydride bond between a hexose-1-phosphate and a lipid carrier undecaprenyl phosphate...
August 2017: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664315/the-wound-healing-effect-of-7-3-4-trimethoxyflavone-through-increased-levels-of-prostaglandin-e2-by-15-hydroxyprostaglandin-dehydrogenase-inhibition
#8
Kyung Hoon Sun, Sandeep Karna, Young-Sook Moon, Hoon Cho, Cheol-Hee Choi
OBJECTIVE: To find an inhibitor of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) that rapidly metabolises Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) as a mediator of wound healing, we examined seven flavonoids for this role. RESULTS: 7,3',4'-Trimethoxyflavone (TMF) had the lowest IC50 value of 0.34 µM for 15-PGDH inhibition but >400 µM for cytotoxicity, indicating a high therapeutic index. TMF elevated PGE2 levels in a concentration-dependent manner in both A549 lung cancer and HaCaT cells...
June 29, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630348/analysis-of-a-dual-domain-phosphoglycosyl-transferase-reveals-a-ping-pong-mechanism-with-a-covalent-enzyme-intermediate
#9
Debasis Das, Petr Kuzmic, Barbara Imperiali
Phosphoglycosyl transferases (PGTs) are integral membrane proteins with diverse architectures that catalyze the formation of polyprenol diphosphate-linked glycans via phosphosugar transfer from a nucleotide diphosphate-sugar to a polyprenol phosphate. There are two PGT superfamilies that differ significantly in overall structure and topology. The polytopic PGT superfamily, represented by MraY and WecA, has been the subject of many studies because of its roles in peptidoglycan and O-antigen biosynthesis. In contrast, less is known about a second, extensive superfamily of PGTs that reveals a core structure with dual domain architecture featuring a C-terminal soluble globular domain and a predicted N-terminal membrane-associated domain...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513283/molecular-characterization-of-australian-isolates-of-puccinia-graminis-f-sp-tritici-supports-long-term-clonality-but-also-reveals-cryptic-genetic-variation
#10
Jianping Zhang, Peng Zhang, Haydar Karaoglu, Robert F Park
Long-term surveys of pathogenicity in Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici in Australia have implicated mutation as a major source of virulence, at times leading to the demise of stem-rust-resistant wheat cultivars and substantial yield losses. Since 1925, these surveys have identified at least four occasions on which exotic isolates of P. graminis f. sp. tritici appeared in Australia, with each acting as a founding isolate that gave rise sequentially to derivative pathotypes via presumed single-step mutation. The current study examined the relationship between virulence and molecular patterns using simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers on selected isolates of P...
September 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512697/utilization-of-genetic-counseling-after-direct-to-consumer-genetic-testing-findings-from-the-impact-of-personal-genomics-pgen-study
#11
Diane R Koeller, Wendy R Uhlmann, Deanna Alexis Carere, Robert C Green, J Scott Roberts
Direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing (DTC-PGT) results lead some individuals to seek genetic counseling (GC), but little is known about these consumers and why they seek GC services. We analyzed survey data pre- and post-PGT from 1026 23andMe and Pathway Genomics customers. Participants were mostly white (91%), female (60%), and of high socioeconomic status (80% college educated, 43% household income of ≥$100,000). After receiving PGT results, 43 participants (4%) made or planned to schedule an appointment with a genetic counselor; 390 (38%) would have used in-person GC had it been available...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479736/in-vitro-wound-healing-effect-of-15-hydroxyprostaglandin-dehydrogenase-inhibitor-from-plant
#12
Sandeep Karna
BACKGROUND: Prostaglandins (PGs) have short existence in vivo because they are rapidly metabolized by NAD(+)-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) to 15-ketoprostaglandins. Inhibition of 15-PGDH causes elevated level of PGE2 in cellular system. It will be valuable for the therapeutic management of diseases requiring elevated PGE2 levels, like wound healing. OBJECTIVE: Ninety-eight plant samples were screened for the discovery of potent 15-PGDH inhibitor...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464943/diet-and-exercise-changes-following-direct-to-consumer-personal-genomic-testing
#13
Daiva Elena Nielsen, Deanna Alexis Carere, Catharine Wang, J Scott Roberts, Robert C Green
BACKGROUND: The impacts of direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing (PGT) on health behaviors such as diet and exercise are poorly understood. Our investigation aimed to evaluate diet and exercise changes following PGT and to determine if changes were associated with genetic test results obtained from PGT. METHODS: Customers of 23andMe and Pathway Genomics completed a web-based survey prior to receiving PGT results (baseline) and 6 months post-results. Fruit and vegetable intake (servings/day), and light, vigorous and strength exercise frequency (days/week) were assessed...
May 2, 2017: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412042/targeting-the-prostacyclin-pathway-beyond-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#14
REVIEW
Hélène Pluchart, Charles Khouri, Sophie Blaise, Matthieu Roustit, Jean-Luc Cracowski
Pioneering work demonstrated that an unstable substance isolated from rabbit and pig aortas could relax arterial smooth muscle and inhibit platelet aggregation. Since then, prostacyclin (prostaglandin I2, PGI2) and its analogs have raised much pharmacological interest. In this review we detail how the PGI2 signaling pathway is much more complex than was initially anticipated, involving peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), prostaglandin transporters (PGTs), and PGI2-thromboxane A2 (TXA2) receptor (IP TP) heterodimerization...
June 2017: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403814/divergent-and-convergent-modes-of-interaction-between-wheat-and-puccinia-graminis-f-sp-tritici-isolates-revealed-by-the-comparative-gene-co-expression-network-and-genome-analyses
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
William B Rutter, Andres Salcedo, Alina Akhunova, Fei He, Shichen Wang, Hanquan Liang, Robert L Bowden, Eduard Akhunov
BACKGROUND: Two opposing evolutionary constraints exert pressure on plant pathogens: one to diversify virulence factors in order to evade plant defenses, and the other to retain virulence factors critical for maintaining a compatible interaction with the plant host. To better understand how the diversified arsenals of fungal genes promote interaction with the same compatible wheat line, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of two North American isolates of Puccinia graminis f. sp...
April 12, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393271/analysis-of-implantation-and-ongoing-pregnancy-rates-following-the-transfer-of-mosaic-diploid-aneuploid-blastocysts
#16
Elpida Fragouli, Samer Alfarawati, Katharina Spath, Dhruti Babariya, Nicoletta Tarozzi, Andrea Borini, Dagan Wells
Preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A) is widely used in IVF and aims to improve outcomes by avoiding aneuploid embryo transfers. Chromosomal mosaicism is extremely common in early development and could affect the efficacy of PGT-A by causing incorrect embryo classification. Recent innovations have allowed accurate mosaicism detection in trophectoderm samples taken from blastocysts. However, there is little data concerning the impact of mosaicism on viability, and the optimal clinical pathway for such embryos is unclear...
July 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374280/does-personal-genome-testing-drive-service-utilization-in-an-adult-preventive-medicine-clinic
#17
Ny Hoang, Robin Hayeems, Jill Davies, Shuye Pu, Syed Wasim, Lea Velsher, James Aw, Sébastien Chénier, Dimitri J Stavropoulos, Riyana Babul-Hirji, Rosanna Weksberg, Cheryl Shuman
Personal genome testing (PGT) that assesses risk for common diseases may influence the use of preventive health services, but outcome data are limited. We aimed to assess health service utilization following PGT. We conducted a retrospective matched cohort study at an adult health clinic. Medical records of clients who pursued PGT at their comprehensive health assessment (CHA) over a 1-year period (N = 388) were reviewed and compared to age- and sex-matched clients who underwent CHA but not PGT (N = 388)...
July 2017: Journal of Community Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160379/spearmint-r2r3-myb-transcription-factor-msmyb-negatively-regulates-monoterpene-production-and-suppresses-the-expression-of-geranyl-diphosphate-synthase-large-subunit-msgpps-lsu
#18
Vaishnavi Amarr Reddy, Qian Wang, Niha Dhar, Nadimuthu Kumar, Prasanna Nori Venkatesh, Chakravarthy Rajan, Deepa Panicker, Vishweshwaran Sridhar, Hui-Zhu Mao, Rajani Sarojam
Many aromatic plants, such as spearmint, produce valuable essential oils in specialized structures called peltate glandular trichomes (PGTs). Understanding the regulatory mechanisms behind the production of these important secondary metabolites will help design new approaches to engineer them. Here, we identified a PGT-specific R2R3-MYB gene, MsMYB, from comparative RNA-Seq data of spearmint and functionally characterized it. Analysis of MsMYB-RNAi transgenic lines showed increased levels of monoterpenes, and MsMYB-overexpressing lines exhibited decreased levels of monoterpenes...
September 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117899/benefits-of-a-psychodynamic-group-therapy-pgt-model-for-treating-veterans-with-ptsd
#19
Ofir Levi, Yael Shoval-Zuckerman, Eyal Fruchter, Arie Bibi, Yair Bar-Haim, Ilan Wald
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness of a treatment model of psychodynamic group therapy (PGT) for combat Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHOD: A total of 158 male Veterans with PTSD (mean age = 30.09 years) were assigned to 15 treatment groups of 7-13 patients each. PGT was a 1-year therapy, 1.5 hour, once-a-week sessions administered in the following stages: group building activities, differentiation of group members, intimacy building, and termination...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068660/direct-to-consumer-genetic-testing-user-motivations-decision-making-and-perceived-utility-of-results
#20
J Scott Roberts, Michele C Gornick, Deanna Alexis Carere, Wendy R Uhlmann, Mack T Ruffin, Robert C Green
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To describe the interests, decision making, and responses of consumers of direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing (DTC-PGT) services. METHODS: Prior to 2013 regulatory restrictions on DTC-PGT services, 1,648 consumers from 2 leading companies completed Web surveys before and after receiving test results. RESULTS: Prior to testing, DTC-PGT consumers were as interested in ancestry (74% very interested) and trait information (72%) as they were in disease risks (72%)...
2017: Public Health Genomics
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