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Lars Chittka
Maeterlinck did not mean to suggest that honeybees rival humans in intelligence - rather he saw in the bee a qualitatively different form of intelligence, tailored to the challenges of a profoundly different kind of society and lifestyle. Insects are strange "aliens from inner space", with sensory and cognitive worlds wholly different from our own. The 19(th) century discovery that ants can detect ultraviolet light triggered a golden age in the exploration of the diversity of sensory systems of insects (and indeed other animals), identifying such abilities as magnetic compasses, electrosensitivity, polarization vision, and peculiar locations for sense organs such as the infrared sensors on the abdomens of some beetles or photoreceptors on the genitalia of some butterflies...
October 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Sarah D Jensen, Vera A Khorokhorina, Claudia Muratori, Andrei G Pakhomov, Olga N Pakhomova
We demonstrate that conditioning of mammalian cells by electroporation with nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) facilitates their response to the next nsPEF treatment. The experiments were designed to unambiguously separate the electroporation-induced sensitization and desensitization effects. Electroporation was achieved by bursts of 300-ns, 9 kV/cm pulses (50 Hz, n = 3-100) and quantified by propidium dye uptake within 11 min after the nsPEF exposure. We observed either sensitization to nsPEF or no change (when the conditioning was either too weak or too intense, or when the wait time after conditioning was too short)...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Zsuzsanna Dömötör, Renáta Szemerszky, Ferenc Köteles
Although nature relatedness is considered a positive characteristic, its relationship to constructs involving worries about the negative effects of artificial environmental factors is also feasible. A questionnaire assessing modern health worries, electrosensitivity, somatosensory amplification, spirituality, and nature relatedness was completed by 510 individuals. Nature relatedness was related to electrosensitivity, modern health worries, and spirituality. In a binary logistic regression analysis, somatosensory amplification, modern health worries, and nature relatedness were associated with electrosensitivity, and nature relatedness moderated the connection between modern health worries and electrosensitivity...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
Claudia Muratori, Andrei G Pakhomov, Loree Heller, Maura Casciola, Elena Gianulis, Sergey Grigoryev, Shu Xiao, O N Pakhomova
Nanosecond pulsed electric fields are emerging as a new modality for tissue and tumor ablation. We previously reported that cells exposed to pulsed electric fields develop hypersensitivity to subsequent pulsed electric field applications. This phenomenon, named electrosensitization, is evoked by splitting the pulsed electric field treatment in fractions (split-dose treatments) and causes in vitro a 2- to 3-fold increase in cytotoxicity. The aim of this study was to show the benefit of split-dose treatments for in vivo tumor ablation by nanosecond pulsed electric field...
January 1, 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Kumaran Thiruppathy, John Mason, Khalid Akbari, Amanda Raeburn, Anton Emmanuel
OBJECTIVE: Fecal incontinence (FI) and constipation can arise from a variety of alterations of anorectal function. This study aimed to investigate the components of the anorecal reflex in patients with these symptoms and to determine the functional significance of various physiological parameters. METHODS: Altogether 21 healthy volunteers (controls) and 78 FI-predominant and 74 constipation-predominant patients were recruited and administered Wexner incontinence and constipation questionnaires...
April 2017: Journal of Digestive Diseases
Janja Dermol, Olga N Pakhomova, Andrei G Pakhomov, Damijan Miklavčič
Electroporation-induced cell sensitization was described as the occurrence of a delayed hypersensitivity to electric pulses caused by pretreating cells with electric pulses. It was achieved by increasing the duration of the electroporation treatment at the same cumulative energy input. It could be exploited in electroporation-based treatments such as electrochemotherapy and tissue ablation with irreversible electroporation. The mechanisms responsible for cell sensitization, however, have not yet been identified...
2016: PloS One
Ajda Prevc, Apolonija Bedina Zavec, Maja Cemazar, Veronika Kloboves-Prevodnik, Monika Stimac, Vesna Todorovic, Primoz Strojan, Gregor Sersa
Bystander effect, a known phenomenon in radiation biology, where irradiated cells release signals which cause damage to nearby, unirradiated cells, has not been explored in electroporated cells yet. Therefore, our aim was to determine whether bystander effect is present in electroporated melanoma cells in vitro, by determining viability of non-electroporated cells exposed to medium from electroporated cells and by the release of microvesicles as potential indicators of the bystander effect. Here, we demonstrated that electroporation of cells induces bystander effect: Cells exposed to electric pulses mediated their damage to the non-electroporated cells, thus decreasing cell viability...
October 2016: Journal of Membrane Biology
V Passananti, A Wilton, G Preziosi, J B Storrie, A Emmanuel
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the commonest disabling neurological disease in young adults. A majority of patients experience bowel dysfunction, reporting a wide spectrum of bowel symptoms that significantly negatively impact social activities and emotional state. Transanal irrigation (TAI) is a method of managing such bowel symptoms. We aimed to investigate long-term efficacy of TAI, to measure health status-related quality of life and identify factors predictive of TAI outcome...
September 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Claudia Muratori, Andrei G Pakhomov, Shu Xiao, Olga N Pakhomova
Previous studies reported a delayed increase of sensitivity to electroporation (termed "electrosensitization") in mammalian cells that had been subjected to electroporation. Electrosensitization facilitated membrane permeabilization and reduced survival in cell suspensions when the electric pulse treatments were split in fractions. The present study was aimed to visualize the effect of sensitization and establish its utility for cell ablation. We used KLN 205 squamous carcinoma cells embedded in an agarose gel and cell spheroids in Matrigel...
March 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Luisa Nascimento Medeiros, Tanit Ganz Sanchez
INTRODUCTION: Tinnitus is a multifactorial condition and its prevalence has increased on the past decades. The worldwide progressive increase of the use of cell phones has exposed the peripheral auditory pathways to a higher dose of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation (EMRFR). Some tinnitus patients report that the abusive use of mobiles, especially when repeated in the same ear, might worsen ipsilateral tinnitus. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the available evidence about the possible causal association between tinnitus and exposure to electromagnetic waves...
January 2016: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
Maxime M van Meegdenburg, Erik Heineman, Paul M A Broens
BACKGROUND: Conscious external anal sphincter contraction is mediated by the pudendal nerve. Pudendal neuropathy is, therefore, believed to result in fecal incontinence. Until urge sensation is experienced, fecal continence is maintained by unconscious external anal sphincter contraction, which is regulated by the anal-external sphincter continence reflex. The innervation of unconscious contraction is yet unknown. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether unconscious contraction is mediated by the pudendal nerve and whether age influences unconscious contraction...
December 2015: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Cindy Sage
The 'informational content' of Earth's electromagnetic signaling is like a set of operating instructions for human life. These environmental cues are dynamic and involve exquisitely low inputs (intensities) of critical frequencies with which all life on Earth evolved. Circadian and other temporal biological rhythms depend on these fluctuating electromagnetic inputs to direct gene expression, cell communication and metabolism, neural development, brainwave activity, neural synchrony, a diversity of immune functions, sleep and wake cycles, behavior and cognition...
2015: Reviews on Environmental Health
Reuben S Son, Thiruvallur R Gowrishankar, Kyle C Smith, James C Weaver
Pulse trains are widely used in electroporation (EP) for both general biomedical research and clinical applications such as nonthermal tumor ablation. Here we use a computational method based on a meshed transport network to investigate a cell system model's response to a train of identical, evenly spaced electric field pulses. We obtain an unexpected result: the number of membrane pores decreases during the application of twenty 1.0 kV/cm, 100 μs pulses, delivered at 1 Hz. This pulse train initially creates 13,000 membrane pores, but pore number decreases by a factor of 15 to about 830 pores throughout subsequent pulses...
March 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Renáta Szemerszky, Mónika Gubányi, Dorottya Árvai, Zsuzsanna Dömötör, Ferenc Köteles
BACKGROUND: Among people with idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF), a better than random detection ability for a 50-Hz 0.5-mT magnetic field (MF) and a propensity to experience more symptoms than controls was reported in a previous study. PURPOSE: The current study aimed to replicate and clarify these results using a modified experimental design. METHOD: Participants of the provocation experiment were 49 individuals with self-reported IEI-EMF and 57 controls...
December 2015: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Rachel M Berquist, Vitaly L Galinsky, Stephen M Kajiura, Lawrence R Frank
The cartilaginous and non-neopterygian bony fishes have an electric sense typically comprised of hundreds or thousands of sensory canals distributed in broad clusters over the head. This morphology facilitates neural encoding of local electric field intensity, orientation, and polarity, used for determining the position of nearby prey. The coelacanth rostral organ electric sense, however, is unique in having only three paired sensory canals with distribution restricted to the dorsal snout, raising questions about its function...
2015: Scientific Reports
Francesco Sannicolò, Patrizia R Mussini, Tiziana Benincori, Roberto Cirilli, Sergio Abbate, Serena Arnaboldi, Simone Casolo, Ettore Castiglioni, Giovanna Longhi, Rocco Martinazzo, Monica Panigati, Marco Pappini, Elsa Quartapelle Procopio, Simona Rizzo
Invited for the cover of this issue is Francesco Sannicolò and co-workers at different Italian institutions, who all contributed to the different specific areas of this multidisciplinary work. The image depicts inherently chiral elliptical and triangular oligothiophene macrocycles and their symmetrical resemblance to mysterious crop circles. Read the full text of the article at 10.1002/chem.201404331.
November 17, 2014: Chemistry: a European Journal
Francesco Sannicolò, Patrizia R Mussini, Tiziana Benincori, Roberto Cirilli, Sergio Abbate, Serena Arnaboldi, Simone Casolo, Ettore Castiglioni, Giovanna Longhi, Rocco Martinazzo, Monica Panigati, Marco Pappini, Elsa Quartapelle Procopio, Simona Rizzo
Linear conjugated oligothiophenes of variable length and different substitution pattern are ubiquitous in technologically advanced optoelectronic devices, though limitations in application derive from insolubility, scarce processability and chain-end effects. This study describes an easy access to chiral cyclic oligothiophenes constituted by 12 and 18 fully conjugated thiophene units. Chemical oxidation of an "inherently chiral" sexithiophene monomer, synthesized in two steps from commercially available materials, induces the formation of an elliptical dimer and a triangular trimer endowed with electrosensitive cavities of different tunable sizes...
November 17, 2014: Chemistry: a European Journal
Paul M A Broens, Freddy M Penninckx, José Boix Ochoa
BACKGROUND: None of the current theories on fecal incontinence can explain fecal continence adequately. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the mechanism controlling fecal continence. DESIGN: Anal electrosensitivity, anorectal pressures, and rectal pressure volumetry tests were performed in 17 controls before and after superficial local anal anesthesia and in 6 controls before and after spinal anesthesia. The same tests were performed in 1 patient before and after injected local anal anesthesia and in 3 patients with spinal cord lesions at levels Th3 to L3...
November 2013: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Olga N Pakhomova, Betsy W Gregory, Andrei G Pakhomov
Cell permeabilization by electric pulses (EP), or electroporation, is widely used for intracellular delivery of drugs and plasmids, as well as for tumour and tissue ablation. We found that cells pre-treated with 100-μs EP develop delayed hypersensitivity to subsequent EP applications. Sensitizing B16 and CHO cells by splitting a single train of eight 100-μs EP into two trains of four EP each (with 5-min. interval) decreased the LD(50) 1.5-2 times. Sensitization profoundly enhanced the electroporation-assisted uptake of bleomycin, a cell-impermeable cytotoxic agent accepted for killing tumours by electrochemotherapy...
January 2013: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
I Boyd, Gj Rubin, S Wessely
Idiopathic environmental intolerances, such as 'multiple chemical sensitivity' and 'electrosensitivity,' can drastically affect the quality of life of those affected. A proportion of severely affected patients remove themselves from modern society, to live in isolation away from the purported causal agent of their ill health. This is not a new phenomenon; reports of hermits extend back to the 3(rd) century AD. We conducted a literature review of case reports relating to ancient hermits and modern day reclusion resulting from idiopathic environmental intolerance, in order to explore whether there are similarities between these two groups and whether the symptoms of these 'illnesses of modernity' are simply a present-day way of reaching the end-point of reclusion...
December 2012: Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine
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